Tommaso Mocenigo was doge of Venice from 1414 until his death. He commanded the crusading fleet in the expedition to Nicopolis in 1396 and won battles against the Genoese during the War of Chioggia of 1378–1381. While he was Venetian ambassador at Cremona, he was elected doge, he escaped in secret, fearing that he might be held a prisoner by Gabrino Fondolo, tyrant of that city, he made peace with the Turkish sultan, when hostilities broke out afresh, his fleet defeated that of the Turks at Gallipoli. During his reign, the patriarch of Aquileia Louis of Teck formed an anti-Venetian alliance with emperor Sigismund. Venice, under a double-sided attack, was however able to launch an offensive that, in 1419-1420, conquered Udine, Feltre and most of Friuli from the Aquileian patriarchate; the Cadore surrendered spontaneously. The ensuing treaty led to a peace with Hungary and the annexion of the patriarchate's lands to the Republic of Venice. Mocenigo encouraged commerce, reconstructed the ducal palace and commenced the library.
He died after a long illness in 1423. He was interred in a traditional burial place of the doges. Mocenigo family This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mocenigo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 637
Giordano Bruno was an Italian Dominican friar, mathematician, cosmological theorist, Hermetic occultist. He is known for his cosmological theories, which conceptually extended the then-novel Copernican model, he proposed that the stars were distant suns surrounded by their own planets, he raised the possibility that these planets might foster life of their own, a philosophical position known as cosmic pluralism. He insisted that the universe is infinite and could have no "center". Starting in 1593, Bruno was tried for heresy by the Roman Inquisition on charges of denial of several core Catholic doctrines, including eternal damnation, the Trinity, the divinity of Christ, the virginity of Mary, transubstantiation. Bruno's pantheism was a matter of grave concern, as was his teaching of the transmigration of the soul; the Inquisition found him guilty, he was burned at the stake in Rome's Campo de' Fiori in 1600. After his death, he gained considerable fame, being celebrated by 19th- and early 20th-century commentators who regarded him as a martyr for science, although historians agree that his heresy trial was not a response to his astronomical views but rather a response to his philosophy and religious views.
Bruno's case is still considered a landmark in the history of free thought and the emerging sciences. In addition to cosmology, Bruno wrote extensively on the art of memory, a loosely organized group of mnemonic techniques and principles. Historian Frances Yates argues that Bruno was influenced by Arab astrology, Renaissance Hermeticism, Genesis-like legends surrounding the Egyptian god Thoth. Other studies of Bruno have focused on his qualitative approach to mathematics and his application of the spatial concepts of geometry to language. Born Filippo Bruno in Nola in 1548, he was the son of Giovanni Bruno, a soldier, Fraulissa Savolino. In his youth he was sent to Naples to be educated, he was tutored at the Augustinian monastery there, attended public lectures at the Studium Generale. At the age of 17, he entered the Dominican Order at the monastery of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples, taking the name Giordano, after Giordano Crispo, his metaphysics tutor, he continued his studies there, completing his novitiate, became an ordained priest in 1572 at age 24.
During his time in Naples he became known for his skill with the art of memory and on one occasion traveled to Rome to demonstrate his mnemonic system before Pope Pius V and Cardinal Rebiba. In his years Bruno claimed that the Pope accepted his dedication to him of the lost work On The Ark of Noah at this time. While Bruno was distinguished for outstanding ability, his taste for free thinking and forbidden books soon caused him difficulties. Given the controversy he caused in life it is surprising that he was able to remain within the monastic system for eleven years. In his testimony to Venetian inquisitors during his trial, many years he says that proceedings were twice taken against him for having cast away images of the saints, retaining only a crucifix, for having recommended controversial texts to a novice; such behavior could be overlooked, but Bruno's situation became much more serious when he was reported to have defended the Arian heresy, when a copy of the banned writings of Erasmus, annotated by him, was discovered hidden in the convent privy.
When he learned that an indictment was being prepared against him in Naples he fled, shedding his religious habit, at least for a time. Bruno first went to the Genoese port of Noli to Savona, Turin and to Venice, where he published his lost work On the Signs of the Times with the permission of the Dominican Remigio Nannini Fiorentino. From Venice he went to Padua, where he met fellow Dominicans who convinced him to wear his religious habit again. From Padua he went to Bergamo and across the Alps to Chambéry and Lyon, his movements after this time are obscure. In 1579 he arrived in Geneva; as D. W. Singer, a Bruno biographer, notes, "The question has sometimes been raised as to whether Bruno became a Protestant, but it is intrinsically most unlikely that he accepted membership in Calvin's communion" During his Venetian trial he told inquisitors that while in Geneva he told the Marchese de Vico of Naples, notable for helping Italian refugees in Geneva, "I did not intend to adopt the religion of the city.
I desired to stay there only that I might live at liberty and in security." Bruno had a pair of breeches made for himself, the Marchese and others made Bruno a gift of a sword, hat and other necessities for dressing himself. Things went well for Bruno for a time, as he entered his name in the Rector's Book of the University of Geneva in May 1579, but in keeping with his personality he could not long remain silent. In August he published an attack on the work of a distinguished professor, he and the printer were promptly arrested. Rather than apologizing, Bruno insisted on continuing to defend his publication, he was refused the right to take sacrament. Though this right was restored, he left Geneva, he went to France, arriving first in Lyon, thereafter settling for a time in Toulouse, where he took his doctorate in theology and was elected by students to lecture in philosophy. It seems he attempted at this time to return to Catholicism, but was denied absolution by the Jesuit priest he approached.
Pietro Mocenigo was doge of Venice from 1474 to 1476. He was one of the greatest Venetian admirals and revived the fortunes of his country's navy, which had fallen low after the defeat at Negropont in 1470. In 1472, he destroyed Smyrna, he defeated the Turks who were besieging Scutari, but he there contracted an illness of which he died. He was interred in the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, a traditional burial place of the doges, with an elaborate tomb by Pietro Lombardo. Coriolano Cippico, one of Mocenigo's galley commanders, wrote a description of the campaign of 1474/75, providing an eye-witness account of Christian-Ottoman confrontations in the late fifteenth century. Mocenigo was married to Laura Zorzi. Mocenigo family This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mocenigo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Alvise I Mocenigo
There were three Doges, many other prominent Venetians, called Alvise Mocenigo. Alvise I Mocenigo was doge of Venice from 1570 to 1577. An admirer of antiquities, Mocenigo was a diplomat of the Republic of Venice at the court of emperor Charles V, to pope Paul IV and again at the imperial court. In 1567 he lost to Pietro Loredan, he participated again when the latter died, was elected as doge of Venice in 1570. His dogaressa was the scholar Loredana Marcello. At the time of his accession, the Ottoman Empire was preparing to wage war against Venice: the conflict broke out in 1570, Venice lost the fortresses of Nicosia and Famagusta in Cyprus. Despite the victory of the Christian coalition in the Battle of Lepanto, Venice was forced to sign an unfavorable treaty of peace with the Turks, by which it recognized the loss of Cyprus. During his reign Venice was visited by the new King of France, Henry III, in July 1574, it was believed that Mocenigo was depressed towards the end of his life. He would be seen talking to the children of Venice, however with adults.
Alvise I Mocenigo died on November 1577 of suicide by hanging. He was interred in a traditional burial place of the doges. Mocenigo family This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mocenigo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 637
An ambassador is an official envoy a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions and fields of endeavor such as sales. An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital; the host country allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory and vehicles are afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank. Countries may choose to maintain diplomatic relations at a lower level by appointing a chargé d'affaires in place of an ambassador; the equivalent to an ambassador exchanged among members of the Commonwealth of Nations are known as High Commissioners.
The "ambassadors" of the Holy See are known as Apostolic Nuncios. The term is derived from Middle English ambassadour, Anglo-French ambassateur of Latin origin from the word Ambaxus-Ambactus, meaning servant or minister; the first known usage of the term was recorded around the 14th century. The foreign government to which an ambassador is assigned must first approve the person. In some cases, the foreign government might reverse its approval by declaring the diplomat a persona non grata, i.e. an unacceptable person. This kind of declaration results in recalling the ambassador to their home nation. In accordance with the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the ambassador and embassy staff are granted diplomatic immunity and personal safety while living abroad. Due to the advent of modern technologies, today's world is a much smaller place in relative terms. With this in mind, it is considered important that the nations of the world have at least a small staff living in foreign capitals in order to aid travelers and visitors from their home nation.
As an officer of the foreign service, an ambassador is expected to protect the citizens of their home country in the host country. Another result of the increase in foreign travel is the growth of trade between nations. For most countries, the national economy is now part of the global economy; this means increased opportunities to trade with other nations. When two nations are conducting a trade, it is advantageous to both parties to have an ambassador and a small staff living in the other land, where they act as an intermediary between cooperative businesses. One of the cornerstones of foreign diplomatic missions is to work for peace; this task can grow into a fight against international terrorism, the drug trade, international bribery, human trafficking. Ambassadors help stop these acts; these activities are important and sensitive and are carried out in coordination with the Defense Ministry of the state and the head of the nation. The rise of the modern diplomatic system was a product of the Italian Renaissance.
The use of ambassadors became a political strategy in Italy during the 17th century. The political changes in Italy altered the role of ambassadors in diplomatic affairs; because many of the states in Italy were small in size, they were vulnerable to larger states. The ambassador system was used to protect the more vulnerable states; this practice spread to Europe during the Italian Wars. The use and creation of ambassadors during the 15th century in Italy has had long-term effects on Europe and, in turn, the world's diplomatic and political progression. Europe still uses the same terms of ambassador rights as they had established in the 16th century, concerning the rights of the ambassadors in host countries as well as the proper diplomatic procedures. An ambassador was used as a representative of the state in which they are from to negotiate and disseminate information in order to keep peace and establish relationships with other states; this attempt was employed in the effort to maintain peaceful relations with nations and make alliances during difficult times.
The use of ambassadors today is widespread. States and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to deal with any problems that occur within the international system. Ambassadors now live overseas or within the country in which it is assigned to for long periods of time so that they are acquainted with the culture and local people; this way they are more politically effective and trusted, enabling them to accomplish goals that their host country desires. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 formalized the system of diplomatic rank under international law: Ambassadors are diplomats of the highest rank, formally representing the head of state, with plenipotentiary powers. In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings as head of mission carry the full title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. "Ordinary" ambassadors and non-plenipotentiary status are used, although they may be encountered in certain circumstances. The only difference between an extraordinary ambassador and an ordinary ambassador is that while the former's mission is permanent, the latter serves only for a specific purpose.
Among European powers, the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary was regarded as the personal representative of the Sovereign. The custom of dispatching ambassadors to the h
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer; the word soldier derives from the Middle English word soudeour, from Old French soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is related to the Medieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier; these words derive from the Late Latin word solidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used in the Byzantine Empire. In most armies use of the word "soldier" has taken on a more general meaning due to the increasing specialization of military occupations that require different areas of knowledge and skill-sets; as a result, "soldiers" are referred to by names or ranks which reflect an individual's military occupation specialty arm, service, or branch of military employment, their type of unit, or operational employment or technical use such as: trooper, commando, infantryman, paratrooper, ranger, engineer, craftsman, medic, or a gunner.
In many countries soldiers serving in specific occupations are referred to by terms other than their occupational name. For example, military police personnel in the British Army are known as "red caps" because of the colour of their caps. Infantry are sometimes called "grunts" or "squaddies", while U. S. Army artillery crews, or "gunners," are sometimes referred to as "redlegs", from the service branch color for artillery. U. S. soldiers are called "G. I.s". French Marine Infantry are called marsouins because of their amphibious role. Military units in most armies have nicknames of this type, arising either from items of distinctive uniform, some historical connotation or rivalry between branches or regiments; some soldiers, such as conscripts or draftees, serve a single limited term. Others choose to serve until retirement. In the United States, military members can retire after 20 years. In other countries, the term of service is 30 years, hence the term "30-year man". According to the United Nations, 10-30% of all soldiers worldwide are women.
Airman Marine Sailor Media related to Soldier at Wikimedia Commons
Pope Clement XII
Pope Clement XII, born Lorenzo Corsini, was Pope from 12 July 1730 to his death in 1740. Clement presided over the growth of a surplus in the papal finances, he thus became known for building the new façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, beginning construction of the Trevi Fountain, the purchase of Cardinal Alessandro Albani's collection of antiquities for the papal gallery. In his 1738 bull In eminenti apostolatus, he provides the first public papal condemnation of Freemasonry, helping bring about the Catholic Church's longstanding opposition to the order. Lorenzo Corsini was born in Florence in 1652 as the son of Bartolomeo Corsini, Marquis of Casigliano and his wife Elisabetta Strozzi, the sister of the Duke of Bagnuolo. Both of his parents belonged to the old Florentine nobility, he was a distant relative of Saint Andrea Corsini. Corsini studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano in Rome and at the University of Pisa where he earned a doctorate in both civil law and canon law. Corsini practiced law under the able direction of Cardinal Neri Corsini.
After the death of his uncle and his father, in 1685, now thirty-three, would have become head of the Corsini. Instead he resigned his right of primogeniture and from Pope Innocent XI he purchased, according to the custom of the time, for 30,000 scudi, a position of prelatial rank and devoted his wealth and leisure to the enlargement of the library bequeathed to him by his uncle. Corsini's home on the Piazza Novona was the center of Rome's artistic life. In 1690 he was chosen nuncio to Vienna, he did not proceed to the imperial court, because Leopold I, the Holy Roman Emperor, maintained that he had the right to select the nuncio from a list of three names furnished by the pope. In 1696, Corsini was appointed governor of the Castel Sant ` Angelo, his good fortune increased during the pontificate of Pope Clement XI, who employed his talents as a courtier and named him Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna on 17 May 1706, retaining his services as papal treasurer. He advanced still further under Pope Benedict XIII, who made him Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, a judicial branch of the Roman Curia.
He was successively appointed as the Cardinal-Priest of San Pietro in Vincoli and Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati. Under Benedict XIII, the finances of the Papal States had been delivered into the hands of Cardinal Niccolò Coscia and other members of the curia, who had drained the financial resources of the see. Benedict died in 1730, in the conclave that followed his death, after deliberating for four months, the College of Cardinals selected Corsini, 78 years old and with failing eyesight, who had held all the important offices of the Roman Curia. Clement XII was one of the oldest men to be elected pope; as a Corsini, with his mother a Strozzi, the new pope represented a family in the highest level of Florentine society, with a cardinal in every generation for the previous hundred years. His first moves as Pope Clement XII were to restore the papal finances, he demanded restitution from the ministers. The chief culprit, Cardinal Niccolò Coscia, was fined and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment.
Papal finances were improved through reviving the public lottery, suppressed by the severe morality of Benedict XIII. Soon it poured into Clement XII's treasury an annual sum amounting to nearly a half million scudi, enabling him to undertake the extensive building programs for which he is chiefly remembered, but which he was never able to see. A competition for the majestic façade of the San Giovanni in Laterano was won by architect Alessandro Galilei; the façade he designed is more palatial than ecclesiastic, was finished by 1735. Clement XII erected in that ancient basilica a magnificent chapel dedicated to his 14th century kinsman, St. Andrew Corsini, he restored the Arch of Constantine and built the governmental palace of the Consulta on the Quirinal. He purchased from Cardinal Alessandro Albani for 60,000 scudi a famous collection of statues, etc. and added it to the gallery of the Capitol. He paved the streets of Rome and the roads leading from the city, widened the Corso, he began the triumphant one of the noted ornaments of Rome.
Under his reign a port was built with a highway that gave easy access to the interior. He drained the malarial marshes of the Chiana near Lake Trasimeno. Politically, this was not a successful papacy among the secular powers of Europe; when the attempt of papal forces to take over the ancient independent Republic of San Marino failed, Clement XII disavowed the arbitrary action of his legate, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, in seizing San Marino, restored its independence. He was rebuffed in Papal claims over the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. In August 1730 he gave permission for Victor Amadeus II of Savoy to carry out a morganatic marriage to Anna Canalis di Cumiana. Victor Amadeus II subsequently abdicated his throne causing great unrest in Savoy. In ecclesiastic affairs he issued In eminenti apostolatus, the first papal decree against the Freemasons on 28 April 1738, he proceeded with vigour against the French Jansenists. He campaigned for the reunion of the Roman and Orthodox churches, received the Patriarch of the Coptic Church and persuaded the Armenian Patriarch to remove the anathema against the Council of Chalcedon and Pope Leo I.
He dispatched Joseph Simeon Assemani to the East for the twofold purpose of continuing his search for manuscripts and presiding as legate over a national council of Maronites. He created the you