Bertinoro is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, Emilia-Romagna. It is located in Romagna, a few kilometers from the Via Emilia. There are remains of a settlement dating from the Iron Age, next to the frazione of Casticciano; as for Bertinoro itself, it was a strongpoint on the Roman road connecting Forlì to Rimini. During the barbaric invasions, it was moved to the current location. In 1177 the castle well developed and known as Castrum Cesubeum, housed the emperor Frederick Barbarossa; the named changed to Castrum Brittinori during the reign of Otto III, becoming seat of the countship. The Rocca, built around the year 1000, it is now home to a section of the University of Bologna. The Communal Palace, built in 1306 by Pino I Ordelaffi. Colonna delle Anelle, it is a column in white stone with 12 rings erected in 1300 by the noble families of the town to show their hospitality. Each one of the rings corresponded to one family, when the foreigners arrived in the town and tied the horse bridles to a ring they selected their host.
The Cathedral, built in the 16th century. The Pieve of San Donato, in the frazione of Polenta, it became famous as the object of a poem by Giosuè Carducci. It has maintained parts of the original late 9th century edifice. Bertinoro is home to a "Hospitality Festival". Held in the first weekend of September, it encompasses an entire night of music and events, some historic reenactments, the final hospitality rite. In this ceremony anyone can be hosted for meal by a family in the town taking one of the envelopes tied to the rings of the Hospitality column. Obadiah ben Abraham known as "The Bartenura" after the town, was a 15th-century rabbi and commentator of the Mishnah. Ale, Sweden Kaufungen, Germany Budești, Moldova Official website
Doge of Venice
The Doge of Venice, sometimes translated as Duke, was the chief magistrate and leader of the Republic of Venice between 726 and 1797. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy; the doge was neither the equivalent of a hereditary duke. The title "doge" was the title of the senior-most elected official of Genoa. A doge was referred to variously by the titles "My Lord the Doge", "Most Serene Prince", "His Serenity"; the first historical Venetian doge, led a revolt against the Byzantine Empire in 726, but was soon recognised as the dux and hypatos of Venice by imperial authorities. After Ursus, the Byzantine office of magister militum was restored for a time until Ursus' son Deusdedit was elected duke in 742. Byzantine administration in Italy collapsed in 751. In the latter half of the eighth century, Mauritius Galba was elected duke and took the title magister militum, consul et imperialis dux Veneciarum provinciae, master of the soldiers and imperial duke of the province of Venetiae.
Doge Justinian Partecipacius used the title imperialis hypatus et humilis dux Venetiae, imperial consul and humble duke of Venice. These early titles combined Byzantine honorifics and explicit reference to Venetia's subordinate status. Titles like hypatos, protospatharios and protoproedros were granted by the emperor to the recipient for life but were not inherent in the office, but the title doux belonged to the office. Thus, into the eleventh century the Venetian doges held titles typical of Byzantine rulers in outlying regions, such as Sardinia; as late as 1202, the Doge Enrico Dandolo was styled protosebastos, a title granted by Alexios III. As Byzantine power declined in the region in the late ninth century, reference to Venice as a province disappeared in the titulature of the doges; the simple titles dux dux Venetiarum predominate in the tenth century. The plural clans. After defeating Croatia and conquering some Dalmatian territory in 1000, Doge Pietro II Orseolo adopted the title dux Dalmatiae, Duke of Dalmatia, or in its fuller form, Veneticorum atque Dalmaticorum dux, Duke of the Venetians and Dalmatians.
This title was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II in 1002. After a Venetian request, it was confirmed by the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1082. In a chrysobull dated that year, Alexios granted the Venetian doge the imperial title of protosebastos and recognised him as imperial doux over the Dalmatian theme; the expression Dei gratia was adopted by the Venetian chancery only in the course of the eleventh century. An early example, can be found in 827–29, during the joint reign of Justinian and his brother John I: per divinam gratiam Veneticorum provinciae duces, by divine grace dukes of the Venetian provinces. Between 1091 and 1102, the Kingdom of Hungary conquered the Croatian kingdom. In these circumstances, the Venetians appealed to the Byzantine emperor for recognition of their title to Croatia; as early as the reign of Vital Falier by that of Vital Michiel, the title dux Croatiae had been added, giving the full dogal title four parts: dux Venetiae atque Dalmatiae sive Chroaciae et imperialis prothosevastos, Duke of Venice and Croatia and Imperial Protosebastos.
In the fourteenth century, the doges periodically objected to the use of Dalmatia and Croatia in the Hungarian king's titulature, regardless of their own territorial rights or claims. Medieval chronicles mistakenly attributed the acquisition of the Croatian title to Doge Ordelaf Falier. According to the Venetiarum Historia, written around 1350, Doge Domenico Morosini added atque Ystrie dominator to his title after forcing Pula on Istria to submit in 1150. Only one charter, however uses a title similar to this: et totius Ystrie inclito dominatori; the next major change in the dogal title came with the Fourth Crusade, which conquered the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine honorific protosebastos had by this time been dropped and was replaced by a reference to Venice's allotment in the partitioning of the Byzantine Empire; the new full title was Dei gratia gloriosus Venetiarum, Dalmatiae atque Chroatiae dux, ac dominus quartae partis et dimidie totius imperii Romaniae, by the grace of God glorious duke of Venice and Croatia and lord of a fourth part and a half of the whole empire of Romania.
The Greek chronicler George Akropolites uses, lord. Akropolites attributes the title to Enrico Dandolo, although no known document of his survives with this title; the earliest documents using the title attach it to Marino Zeno, leader of the Venetians in Constantinople. The title was only subsequently adopted by Doge Pietro Ziani in 1205. By the Treaty of Zadar of 1358, Venice renounced its claims to Dalmatia and removed Dalmatia and Croatia from the doge's title; the resulting title was Dei gratia dux Veneciarum et cetera, By the grace of God duke of Venetia and the rest. This was the title used in official documents until the end of the republic; when the body of such documents was written in Italian, th
Imola is a city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna, located on the river Santerno, in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. The city is traditionally considered the western entrance to the historical region Romagna; the city is most noted as the home of the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari which hosted the Formula One San Marino Grand Prix, the deaths of Formula One drivers Ayrton Senna and Roland Ratzenberger at the circuit during the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. The death of Senna was an event that shocked the sporting world and led to heightened Formula One safety standards; the city was anciently called Forum Cornelii, after the Roman dictator L. Cornelius Sulla, who founded it about 82 BC; the city was trading centre, famous for its ceramics. The name Imola was first used in the 7th century by the Lombards, who applied it to the fortress, whence the name passed to the city itself. According to Paul the Deacon, Imola was in 412 the scene of the marriage of Ataulf, King of the Visigoths, to Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius the Great.
In the Gothic War, after the Lombard invasion, it was held alternately by the Byzantines and barbarians. With the exarchate of Ravenna it passed under papal authority. In the ninth century it was bravely defended against the Hungarians by Fausto Alidosi. In the tenth century Troilo Nordiglio acquired great power; this and the following centuries witnessed incessant wars against the Ravennatese, the Faentines and the Bolognese, as well as the internecine struggles of the Castrimolesi and the Sancassianesi. Amid these conflicts was formed the republican constitution of the city. In the contest between pope and emperor, Imola was Ghibelline, though it returned to the popes. Several times, powerful lords attempted to obtain the mastery of the city. Pope Benedict XII turned the city and its territory over to Lippo II Alidosi with the title of pontifical vicar, the power remaining in the family Alidosi until 1424, when the condottiero Angelo della Pergola, "capitano" for Filippo Maria Visconti, gained the supremacy.
In 1426 the city was restored to the Holy See, the legate Capranica inaugurated a new regime in public affairs. It was ruled by various condottieri, such as the Visconti, from which era several landmark fortresses remain. In 1434, 1438 and 1470 Imola was conferred on the Sforza, it was again brought under papal authority when it was bestowed as dowry on Caterina Sforza, the bride of Girolamo Riario, nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. Riario was invested with the Principality of Imola; this proved advantageous to Imola, embellished with beautiful palaces and works of art. The rule of the Riarii, was brief, as Pope Alexander VI deprived the son of Girolamo, Ottaviano, of power, on 25 November 1499, the city surrendered to Cesare Borgia. After his death, two factions, that of Galeazzo Riario and that of the Church, competed for control of the city; the ecclesiastical party was victorious, in 1504 Imola submitted to Pope Julius II. The last trace of these contests was a bitter enmity between the Sassatelli families.
In 1797 the revolutionary French forces established a provisional government at Imola. After that it shared the fortunes of the Romagna region. Rocca Sforzesca, built under the reign of Girolamo Riario and Caterina Sforza. Now houses a Cinema d'Estate which shows films in July and August, it is the location of the world-famous International Piano Academy "Incontri col Maestro", founded in 1989 by Franco Scala. Palazzo Tozzoni, built between 1726 and 1738 by the architect Domenico Trifogli, civic art museum since 1981. Duomo, dedicated to San Cassiano. Erected from 1187 to 1271, it was restored in the following centuries, until a large renovation was held in 1765–1781; the façade dates to 1850. Convento dell'Osservanza, including the church of San Michele from 1472, to which a convent with two cloisters was added, it houses a sarcophagus of mother of Caterina Sforza. The interior has a nave and an aisles, finished in 1942. In the apse is a Byzantine-style crucifix from the 15th century; the first cloister, dating to 1590, had 35 frescoes of stories of St. Francis, 15 of which went lost.
In the garden annexed to the church is a precious Pietà in terracotta of late-15th century Bolognese or Faenza school. Other buildings include the Communal palaces. In the latter is a fresco representing Clement VII and Charles V passing through the city; the public library was established in 1747 by the Conventual Padre Setti. In the 16th century, the Accademia degli Industriosi flourished; the Acque Minerali Park, located next to Santerno river, on the hills of the city. The park was created in the beginning of the 20th century; the Tozzoni family bought the park in 1882 and used it as a hunti
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and of Constance, heiress to the Norman kings of Sicily. Frederick's reign saw the Holy Roman Empire achieve its greatest territorial extent, his political and cultural ambitions were enormous as he ruled a vast area beginning with Sicily and stretching through Italy all the way north to Germany. As the Crusades progressed, he styled himself its king. However, the Papacy became his enemy, it prevailed. Viewing himself as a direct successor to the Roman emperors of antiquity, he was Emperor of the Romans from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; as such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, of Burgundy. At the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily, his other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the Sixth Crusade.
At war with the papacy, hemmed in between Frederick's lands in northern Italy and his Kingdom of Sicily to the south, he was excommunicated four times and vilified in pro-papal chronicles of the time and after. Pope Gregory IX went so far as to call him an Antichrist. Speaking six languages, Frederick was an avid patron of the arts, he played a major role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, beginning around 1220, saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian; the poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language. He was the first king to formally outlaw trial by ordeal, which had come to be viewed as superstitious. After his death his line did not survive, the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end. Furthermore, the Holy Roman Empire entered a long period of decline from which it did not recover until the reign of Charles V, 250 years later.
Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Donald Detwiler, who wrote: A man of extraordinary culture and ability – called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi, by Nietzsche the first European, by many historians the first modern ruler – Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something much like a modern, centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy. Born in Iesi, near Ancona, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI, he was known as the puer Apuliae. Some chronicles say that his mother, the forty-year-old Constance, gave birth to him in a public square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin such as son of a butcher. Frederick was baptised in Assisi. In 1196 at Frankfurt am Main the infant Frederick was elected King of the Germans, his rights in Germany were disputed by Henry's brother Philip of Otto of Brunswick. At the death of his father in 1197, Frederick was in Italy, traveling towards Germany, when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto.
Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, where he was crowned king on 17 May 1198, at just three years of age. Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, she established herself as regent. In Frederick's name she dissolved Sicily's ties to Germany and the Empire, created by her marriage, sending home his German counsellors and renouncing his claims to the German throne and empire. Upon Constance's death in 1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded as Frederick's guardian. Frederick's tutor during this period was Cencio, who would become Pope Honorius III. Markward of Annweiler, with the support of Henry's brother, Philip of Swabia, reclaimed the regency for himself and soon after invaded the Kingdom of Sicily. In 1200, with the help of Genoese ships, he landed in Sicily and one year seized the young Frederick, he thus ruled Sicily until 1202, when he was succeeded by another German captain, William of Capparone, who kept Frederick under his control in the royal palace of Palermo until 1206.
Frederick was subsequently under tutor Walter of Palearia. His first task was to reassert his power over Sicily and southern Italy, where local barons and adventurers had usurped most of the authority. Otto of Brunswick had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in 1209. In southern Italy, Otto became the champion of those noblemen and barons who feared Frederick's strong measures to check their power, such as the dismissal of the pro-noble Walter of Palearia; the new emperor invaded Italy. In response, Innocent sided against Otto, in September 1211 at the Diet of Nuremberg Frederick was elected in absentia as German King by a rebellious faction backed by the pope. Innocent excommunicated Otto, forced to return to Germany. Frederick sailed to Gaeta with a small following, he agreed with the pope on a future separation between the Sicilian and Imperial titles, named his wife Constance as regent. Passing through Lombardy and Engadin, he reached Konstanz in September 1212, preceding Otto by a few hours.
Frederick was crowned as king on 9 December 1212 in Mainz. Frederick's authority in Germany rem
Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. It is the central city of Romagna; the city is situated along the Via Emilia, to the right of the Montone river, is an important agricultural centre. The city hosts many of Italy's artistically significant landmarks; the University Campus of Forlì is specialized in Economics, Political Sciences as well as the Advanced school of Modern Languages for Interpreters and Translators. The climate of the area is humid subtropical with Mediterranean features mitigated by the relative closeness of the city to the sea. Forlì is characterized by hot and sunny summers, with temperatures that can exceed 30 °C and reach 40 °C during the hottest weeks of the year. Winters are moist, with frequent fog; the warm Sirocco wind blows from the south, bringing warmer temperatures for brief periods. The surroundings of Forlì have been inhabited since the Paleolithic: a site, Ca' Belvedere of Monte Poggiolo, has revealed thousands of chipped flints in strata dated 800,000 years before the present era, which indicates a flint-knapping industry producing sharp-edged tools in a pre-Acheulean phase of the Paleolithic.
Forlì was founded after the Roman conquest of the remaining Gallic villages, about the time the Via Aemilia was built. With no clear evidence, the exact date this occurred is still under debate, though some historians believe that the first settlement of the ancient Roman Forum was built in 188 BC by consul Gaius Livius Salinator, who gave it the Latin name Forum Livii, meaning "the place of the gens Livia". Others argue the town may have been founded during the time of Julius Caesar. In 88 BC, the city was destroyed during the civil wars of Gaius Marius and Sulla, but rebuilt by the praetor Livius Clodius. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the city was incorporated into the realms of Odoacer and of the Ostrogothic Kingdom. From the end of the 6th century to 751, Forlì was an outlying part of the Byzantine power in Italy known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. During this time the Germanic Lombards took the city – in 665, 728, 742, it was incorporated with the Papal States in 757, as part of the Donation of Pepin.
By the 9th century the commune had taken control from its bishops, Forlì was established as an independent Italian city-state, alongside the other communes that signalled the first revival of urban life in Italy. Forlì became a republic for the first time in 889. At this time the city was allied with the Ghibelline factions in the medieval struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines as a means of preserving its independence – and the city supported all the Holy Roman Emperors in their campaigns in Italy. Local competition was involved in the loyalties: in 1241, during Frederick II's struggles with Pope Gregory IX the people of Forlì offered their support to Frederick II during the capture of the rival city, in gratitude, they were granted an addition to their coat-of-arms -the Hohenstaufen eagle. With the collapse of Hohenstaufen power in 1257, imperial lieutenant Guido I da Montefeltro was forced to take refuge in Forlì, the only remaining Ghibelline stronghold in Italy, he accepted the position of capitano del popolo and led Forlì to notable victories: against the Bolognesi at the Ponte di San Proculo, on 15 June 1275.
In 1282, Forlì's forces were led by Guido da Montefeltro. The astrologer Guido Bonatti was one of his advisors; the following year the city's exhausted Senate was forced to cede to papal power and asked Guido to take his leave. The commune soon submitted to a local condottiere rather than accept a representative of direct papal control, Simone Mestaguerra had himself proclaimed Lord of Forlì, he did not succeed in leaving the new signory peacefully to an heir and Forlì passed to Maghinardo Pagano to Uguccione della Faggiuola, to others, until in 1302 the Ordelaffi came into power. Local factions with papal support ousted the family in 1327–29 and again in 1359–75, at other turns of events the bishops were expelled by the Ordelaffi; until the Renaissance the Ordelaffi strived to maintain the possession of the city and its countryside against Papal attempts to assert back their authority. Civil wars between members of the family occurred, they fought as condottieri for other states to earn themselves money to protect or embellish Forlì.
The most renowned of the Ordelaffi was Pino III, who held the Signiory of Forlì from 1466 to 1480. Pino was a ruthless lord; when he died aged 40, under suspicion of poisoning, the situation of Forlì was weakened as factions of Ordelaffi fought one another, until Pope Sixtus IV claimed the signory for his nephew Girolamo Riario. Riario was married to C
Marino Faliero was the 55th Doge of Venice, appointed on 11 September 1354. He was sometimes referred to as Marin Falier or Falieri, he was executed for attempting a coup d'etat. Faliero was a naval and military commander and a diplomat before being elected doge in succession to Andrea Dandolo; the populace of Venice was at that time disenchanted with the ruling aristocrats who were blamed for a recent naval defeat by the fleet of the Republic of Genoa at the 1354 Battle of Portolungo during the Third Venetian–Genoese War. Faliero learned of his election. Within months of being elected, Faliero attempted a coup d'etat in April 1355, aiming to take effective power from the ruling aristocrats. According to tradition, this came about because the dogaressa, Faliero's second wife, Aluycia Gradenigo, had been insulted by Michele Steno, a member of an aristocratic family, but in a study of doges of Venice Antonella Grignola suggests that Faliero's move was consistent with a prevailing trend in Italian cities to move away from oligarchic government to absolute, dynastic rule.
The plot was badly organised, with poor communication between the conspirators, was discovered. Faliero pleaded guilty to all charges and was beheaded on 17 April and his body mutilated. Ten additional ringleaders were hanged on display from the Doge's Palace in St Mark's Square. Faliero was condemned to damnatio memoriae, accordingly his portrait displayed in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Doge's Palace was removed and the space painted over with a black shroud, which can still be seen in the hall today. A Latin language inscription on the painted shroud reads: Hic est locus Marini Faletro decapitati pro criminibus; the story of Faliero's failed plot was made into plays by Lord Byron and Casimir Delavigne. The latter's version was adapted into an eponymous opera scored by Gaetano Donizetti in 1835. All three present the traditional story. Prussian author E. T. A. Hoffmann Dogess. Ashbrook, William. "Marino Faliero". The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Brown, H.. Studies in the History of Venice.
London: John Murray. Grignola, Antonella; the Doges of Venice. Venice: Demetra. ISBN 9788844014131. Norwich, John Julius. A History of Venice. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-101383-1. Lazzerini, V. Genealogia d. M. Faliero. Archivio Veneto. — "M. Faliero avanti ii Dogado," ibid. — "M. Faliero, la Congiura," ibid. Romanin, S.. Storia documentata di Venezia. Lib. ix. Venice. Sanudo, M.. Le Vite dei Dogi. Citta di Castello
The Papal States the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna, portions of Emilia; these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily.
In 1929 the head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory; the Papal States were known as the Papal State. The territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States. To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed. For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized, unable to hold or transfer property. Early congregations met in rooms set aside for that purpose in the homes of well-to-do individuals, a number of early churches, known as titular churches and located on the outskirts of Ancient Rome, were held as property by individuals, rather than by the Church itself.
Nonetheless, the properties held nominally or by individual members of the Roman churches would be considered as a common patrimony handed over successively to the legitimate "heir" of that property its senior deacons, who were, in turn, assistants to the local bishop. This common patrimony attached to the churches at Rome, thus under its ruling bishop, became quite considerable, including as it did not only houses etc. in Rome or nearby but landed estates, such as latifundias, whole or in part, across Italy and beyond. This system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, restoring to it any properties, confiscated; the Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, most a gift from Constantine himself. Other donations followed in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire, but the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. When in the 5th century the Italian peninsula passed under the control of Odoacer and the Ostrogoths, the Church organization in Italy, with the pope at its head, submitted of necessity to their sovereign authority while asserting its spiritual primacy over the whole Church.
The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning in 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy's political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was limited to a diagonal band running from Ravenna, where the Emperor's representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples, plus coastal enclaves. With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the pope, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that Byzantines were unable to project to the area around the city of Rome. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the pope.
The Church's independence, combined with popular support for the papacy in Italy, enabled various popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor. The pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy; as Byzantine power weakened, the papacy took an ever-larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards through diplomacy. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on Ravenna. A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II; when the Exarchate of