The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the upper house being the Senate. Its composition and powers are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia; the term of members of the House of Representatives is a maximum of three years from the date of the first sitting of the House, but on only one occasion since Federation has the maximum term been reached. The House is always dissolved earlier alone but sometimes in a double dissolution of both Houses. Elections for members of the House of Representatives are held in conjunction with those for the Senate. A member of the House may be referred to as a "Member of Parliament", while a member of the Senate is referred to as a "Senator"; the government of the day and by extension the Prime Minister must achieve and maintain the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power. The House of Representatives consists of 151 members, elected by and representing single member districts known as electoral divisions.
The number of members is not fixed but can vary with boundary changes resulting from electoral redistributions, which are required on a regular basis. The most recent overall increase in the size of the House, which came into effect at the 1984 election, increased the number of members from 125 to 148, it reduced to 147 at the 1993 election, returned to 148 at the 1996 election, has been 150 since the 2001 election, has increased to 151 at the 2019 Australian federal election. Each division elects one member using full-preference Instant-runoff voting; this was put in place after the 1918 Swan by-election, which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote and the help of vote splitting in the conservative parties. The Nationalist government of the time changed the lower house voting system from first-past-the-post to full-preference preferential voting, effective from the 1919 general election; the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act of 1900 established the House of Representatives as part of the new system of dominion government in newly federated Australia.
The House is presided over by the Speaker. Members of the House are elected from single member electorates. One vote, one value legislation requires all electorates to have the same number of voters with a maximum 10% variation. However, the baseline quota for the number of voters in an electorate is determined by the number of voters in the state in which that electorate is found; the electorates of the smallest states and territories have more variation in the number of voters in their electorates, with larger seats like Fenner containing more than double the electors of smaller seats like Lingiari. Meanwhile, all the states except Tasmania have electorates within the same 10% tolerance, with most electorates holding 85,000 to 105,000 voters. Federal electorates have their boundaries redrawn or redistributed whenever a state or territory has its number of seats adjusted, if electorates are not matched by population size or if seven years have passed since the most recent redistribution. Voting is by the'preferential system' known as instant-runoff voting.
A full allocation of preferences is required for a vote to be considered formal. This allows for a calculation of the two-party-preferred vote. Under Section 24 of the Constitution, each state is entitled to members based on a population quota determined from the "latest statistics of the Commonwealth." These statistics arise from the census conducted under the auspices of section 51. Until its repeal by the 1967 referendum, section 127 prohibited the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations as including the Indigenous peoples could alter the distribution of seats between the states to the benefit of states with larger Aboriginal populations. Section 127, along with section 25 and the race power, have been described as racism built into Australia's constitutional DNA, modifications to prevent lawful race-based discrimination have been proposed; the parliamentary entitlement of a state or territory is established by the Electoral Commissioner dividing the number of the people of the Commonwealth by twice the number of Senators.
This is known as the "Nexus Provision". The reasons for this are twofold, to maintain a constant influence for the smaller states and to maintain a constant balance of the two Houses in case of a joint sitting after a double dissolution; the population of each state and territory is divided by this quota to determine the number of members to which each state and territory is entitled. Under the Australian Constitution all original states are guaranteed at least five members; the Federal Parliament itself has decided that the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory should have at least one member each. According to the Constitution, the powers of both Houses are nearly equal, with the consent of both Houses needed to pass legislation; the difference relates to taxation legislation. In practice, by convention, the person who can control a majority of votes in the lower house is invited by the Governor-General to form the Government. In practice that means that the leader of the party with a majority of members in the House becomes the Prime Minister, who can nominate other elected members of the government party in both the House and the Senate to become ministers responsible for various portfolios and administer government departments.
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Richard Baxell is a British historian and the author of three books on the Spanish Civil War. Between 2015 and 2018 he was the Chair of the International Brigade Memorial Trust. British Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War: The British Volunteers in the International Brigades, 1936–1939 was published by Routledge in 2004; the book engages with questions relating to the numbers and motivations of Britons in the International Brigades, utilises material from the Public Record Office and the Marx Memorial Library's International Brigade archives. Baxell argues that the British Battalion was not composed of poets, nor were its volunteers drawn from the unemployed and the lumpenproletariat. George Esenwein, writing in European History Quarterly questioned "Baxell's pointed efforts to shift attention away from the complex web of political and ideological circumstances that shaped the experiences of the British battalion", including their connections to the Soviet Union and Stalinism. Esenwein concluded by noting that "Even if Baxell's own advocacy of the brigadiers' cause tends to colour his historical judgements, we have him to thank for correcting misconceptions that have unfairly tarnished the reputation of this distinguished group of committed citizens."
In the journal Saothar, published by the Irish Labour History Society, Manus O'Riordan questioned Baxell's treatment of alleged "friction between some British and Irish volunteers" but praised his demonstration of "how other writers have got it wrong in maintaining that some Irish volunteers were wantonly executed by their own side". In Laurie Lee in the International Brigades: Writer or Fighter?, delivered as a Len Crome Memorial Lecture and published by the International Brigade Memorial Trust in 2004, Baxell argues that, though the English writer was a member of the International Brigades, Laurie Lee's memoir - his claim to have fought in Spain - is to have been fictitious. Baxell is the co-author, with Angela Jackson and Jim Jump, of Antifascistas: British & Irish Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, a book of short texts and pictures. Antifascistas accompanied an exhibition of the same name which opened in May 2010 and included photographs, posters and personal accounts, many of which were taken from the Marx Memorial Library.
Unlikely Warriors: The British in the Spanish Civil War and the Struggle Against Fascism was published by Aurum Press in 2012. Baxell described the book as "the first to place the Spanish Civil War within the context of the volunteers' lives, rather than the other way round". Official website Articles by Richard Baxell in The Guardian Richard Baxell at Academia.edu
The Book of Disquiet is a work by the Portuguese author Fernando Pessoa. Published posthumously, The Book of Disquiet is a fragmentary lifetime project, left unedited by the author, who introduced it as a "factless autobiography." The publication was credited to Bernardo Soares, one of the author's alternate writing names, which he called semi-heteronyms, had a preface attributed to Fernando Pessoa, another alternate writing name or orthonym. In Lisbon there are a few restaurants or eating houses located above decent-looking taverns, places with the heavy, domestic look of restaurants in towns far from any rail line; these second-story eateries empty except on Sundays contain curious types whose faces are not interesting but who constitute a series of digressions from life. Much studied by "Pessoan" critics, who have different interpretations regarding the book's proper organization, The Book of Disquiet was first published in Portuguese in 1982, 47 years after Pessoa's death; the book has seen publication in Spanish, Italian, French and Dutch.
The Book in 1991 had four English editions by different translators: Richard Zenith, Iain Watson, Alfred MacAdam and Margaret Jull Costa. The Book is a bestseller in German; the book was listed on the Norwegian Book Clubs list of the 100 best works of fiction of all time, based on the responses of 100 authors from 54 countries. Teresa Sobral Cunha considers there to be two versions of The Book of Disquiet. According to Cunha, who edited the first version with Jacinto do Prado Coelho and Maria Aliete Galhoz in 1982, there are two authors of the book: Vicente Guedes in a first phase, the aforementioned Bernardo Soares. However, António Quadros considers the first phase of the book to belongs to Pessoa himself; the second phase, more personal and diary-like, is the one credited to Bernardo Soares. Richard Zenith, editor of a new Portuguese edition in 1998, took the option of presenting a single volume, as in his English translation of 1991. In his introduction, he writes that "if Bernardo Soares does not measure up to the full Pessoa, neither are his diary writings the sum total of Disquietude, to which he was after all a johnny-come-lately.
The Book of Disquietude was various books, with various authors, the word disquietude changes meaning as time passes." George Steiner on The Book Of Disquiet: "The fragmentary, the incomplete is of the essence of Pessoa's spirit. The kaleidoscope of voices within him, the breadth of his culture, the catholicity of his ironic sympathies – wonderfully echoed in Saramago's great novel about Ricardo Reis – inhibited the monumentalities, the self-satisfaction of completion. Hence the vast torso of Pessoa's Faust. Hence the fragmentary condition of The Book of Disquiet, which contains material that predates 1913 and which Pessoa left open-ended at his death; as Adorno famously said, the finished work is, in climate of anguish, a lie. "It was to Bernardo Soares that Pessoa ascribed his Book of Disquiet, first made available in English in a briefer version by Richard Zenith in 1991. The translation is at once delicately observant of Pessoa's astute melancholy. What is this Livro do Desassossego? Neither'commonplace book', nor'sketchbook', nor'florilegium' will do.
Imagine a fusion of Coleridge's notebooks and marginalia, of Valéry's philosophic diary and of Robert Musil's voluminous journal. Yet such a hybrid does not correspond to the singularity of Pessoa's chronicle. Nor do we know what parts thereof, if any, he intended for publication in some revised format." The Book of Disquietude, tr. Richard Zenith, Carcanet Press, 1991, 323 p. ISBN 0-14-118304-7 The Book of Disquiet, tr. Iain Watson, Quartet Books, 1991. ISBN 0-7043-0153-9 The Book of Disquiet, tr. Alfred Mac Adam, New York NY: Pantheon Books, 1991. ISBN 0-679-40234-9 The Book of Disquiet, tr. Margaret Jull Costa, New York: Serpent's Tail, 1991, ISBN 1-85242-204-1 The Book of Disquiet, tr. Richard Zenith, Penguin Classics, 2002. ISBN 978-0-14-118304-6 Le Livre de l'Intranquillité de Bernardo Soares. Adapté par Antonio Tabucchi, sous la direction de Robert Bréchon e Eduardo Prado Coelho, introduction de Eduardo Louranço, traduction de Françoise Laye. Paris: Christian Bourgois Editeur, 1988. ISBN 2-267-00544-1 Das Buch der Unruhe des Hilfsbuchhalters Bernardo Soares, aus dem Portugiesischen übersetzt und mit einem Nachwort versehen von Georg Rudolf Lind.
Zürich: Ammann, 1985. ISBN 3-250-10025-0 Livro do Desassossego por Bernardo Soares, 2 vol. prefácio e organização de Jacinto do Prado Coelho, recolha e transcrição dos textos de Maria Aliete Galhoz e Teresa Sobral Cunha, Lisboa: Ática, 1982. ISBN 972-617-069-9 Livro do Desassossego: Composto por Bernardo Soares, ajudante de guarda-livros na cidade de Lisboa, edição e introdução de Richard Zenith, Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim, 1998, 534 p. ISBN 972-37-0476-5 Article: Portugal Holds on to Words Few Can Grasp, New York Times, July 15, 2008 Saudade Site of Disquietude