Karnali Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces of Nepal formed by the new constitution, adopted on 20 September 2015. The total area of the province is 24,453 square kilometres. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population of the province was 1,570,418, making it the least populous province in Nepal, it borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Gandaki Pradesh to the east, Sudurpashchim Pradesh to the west, Province No. 5 to the south. Birendranagar with a population of 100,458 is both largest city; the province's name is derived from the Karnali River. Karnali is an old civilization of Nepal and it is connected with Karnali River The archaeological sites found in Jumla and Dailekh refers that this area was part of Khasa kingdom, established during 11th century; the capital of the Khas Kingdom was Sinja. The kingdom was expanded to a great extent in 14th century; this kingdom was expanded to Garhwal in the west and Guge regions of Tibet in the north, Gorkha-Nuwakot regions in the east and with Kapilvastu with large areas Terai in the South.
After late 14th century the Khas empire collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya in Karnali-Bheri region. Before unification of modern Nepal, the part of Karnali was an Sanghiya Baise Rajya; the Baise were sovereign, but intermittently allied among themselves until they were annexed during the unification of modern Nepal from 1744 to 1810. Karnali is the largest province of Nepal with an area of 24,453 km2; the province is surrounded by Gandaki Pradesh in east, Province No. 5 in south-east and south, Sudurpaschim Pradesh in the west and Tibet Autonomous Region of China in north. The province has occupied higher mountains land of north and mid-hills of Nepal, it contains Kubi Gangri and Kanjiroba mountains in north. The Shey Phoksundo National Park with Phoksundo lake is the largest national park of Nepal and Rara lake is the largest lake of Nepal which are located in Karnali Pradesh. Karnali River is the biggest river of the province, thought to be longest river of Nepal. Seti River and Bheri River are tributaries of Karnali.
The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Surkhet High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Durga Keshar Khanal, Mahendra Bahadur Shahi and Hari Kumar Pokharel respectively. The province has 40 provincial assembly constituencies,12 House of Representative constituencies and eight National Assembly seats. Karnali has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal; the term length of provincial assembly is five years. The Provincial Assembly of Karnali is temporarily housed at the Irrigation Division Office in Birendranagar. Karnali is divided into ten districts. Dailekh District Dolpa District Humla District Jajarkot District Jumla District Kalikot District Mugu District Salyan District Surkhet District Western Rukum DistrictA district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer.
The districts are further dived to municipalities or rural municipalities which are further divided into wards. There are 54 rural municipalities in the province; the capital and largest city of the province is Birendranagar. It is only city in the province with a population of over 50,000. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Gyanendra of Nepal
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev reigned as the last King of Nepal from 2001 to 2008 and is known as World's last Hindu king. As a child, he was briefly king from 1950 to 1951, when his grandfather, went into exile in India with the rest of his family, his second reign had begun due to the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre. Gyanendra's second reign was marked by constitutional turmoil, his predecessor King Birendra had established a constitutional monarchy in which he delegated policy to a representative government. The growing insurgency of the Nepalese Civil War during King Gyanendra's reign interfered with elections of representatives. After several delays in elections, King Gyanendra suspended the constitution and assumed direct authority in February 2005, assuring that it would be a temporary situation to suppress the Maoist insurgency. In the face of broad opposition, he restored the previous parliament in April 2006, his reign ended two years when the Nepalese Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a republic and abolished the monarchy.
Gyanendra was born in the old Narayanhity Royal Palace, Kathmandu, as the second son of Crown Prince Mahendra and his first wife, Crown Princess Indra. After his birth, his father was told by a court astrologer not to look at his newborn son because it would bring him bad luck, so Gyanendra was sent to live with his grandmother. In November 1950, during a political plot, both his father and his grandfather King Tribhuvan, along with other royals, fled to India, leaving the young Prince Gyanendra as the only male member of the royal family in Nepal, he was brought back to the capital Kathmandu by the Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher, who had him declared King on 7 November 1950. Not only was Gyanendra crowned, but coins were issued in his name; the Rana Prime Minister provided a 300,000 rupee annual budget as expenditure for the King. After opposition to the hereditary rule of the Rana Prime Ministers from India, a deal was reached in January 1951, Gyanendra's grandfather King Tribhuvan returned to Nepal and resumed the throne.
The actions of the Rana regime to depose his grandfather and place Gyanendra on the throne were internationally recognized. Gyanendra studied with his elder brother King Birendra at St. Joseph's School, India. Gyanendra served as the chairman of the Advisory Committee for the Coronation of his brother King Birendra in 1975, he is a keen conservationist and served as Chairman of the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation from 1982 until his reaccession to the throne in 2001. Gyanendra married his second cousin Komal Rajya Lakhsmi Devi on 1 May 1970 in Kathmandu, they have two children: Prince Paras Bir Bikram Shah Dev. Princess Prerana Rajya Lakshmi Devi Singh; the events surrounding the Massacre on 1 June 2001 proved controversial in the country. A two-man investigation team appointed by Gyanendra, made up of Keshav Prasad Upadhaya Supreme Court Chief Justice, Taranath Ranabhat Speaker of the House of Representatives, carried out a week-long investigation. After interviewing more than 100 people—including eyewitnesses, palace officials and staff—they concluded that Crown Prince Dipendra had indeed carried out the massacre, but they drew no further conclusions.
As his nephew lay in a coma, Prince Gyanendra was named regent. During his early years on the throne, Gyanendra sought to exercise full control over the government, citing the failure of all the political parties to hold an election after the parliament was dissolved. In May 2002, he supported the popularly elected Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba when he dismissed the parliament elected in 1999. In October 2002, he consolidated his power for the first time. During the years 2002 to 2005 he chose and subsequently dismissed three prime ministers for failure to hold elections and bring the rebels to a round table negotiation, his elder brother King Birendra had negotiated a constitutional monarchy during his rule in a delicate manner in which he, as King, played a minor role in government. Thus, King Gyanendra's confrontational approach with the established political parties met with widespread censure; when Gyanendra took complete control for the second time, on 1 February 2005, he dismissed Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba's government for failing to make arrangements for parliamentary elections and being unable to restore peace in the country, in the midst of a civil war led by Maoist insurgents.
Gyanendra promised that "effective democracy" would be restored within three years. But the period of direct rule was accompanied by repression of dissent. International organizations expressed grave concerns about the safety of journalists, following the king's decision to restrict civil liberties, including freedom of the press, the constitutional protection against censorship and the right against preventive detention. In April 2006, the seven-party alliance and the banned CPN Maoist party in an underground manner staged protests and strikes in Kathmandu against Gyanendra's direct rule; the royal government exercised minimum restraint but declared a curfew to control the deteriorating situation, enforced with live firearms and tear gas. After 23 protesters were killed, on 21 April 2006, Gyanendra announced that he would yield executive authority to a new prime minist
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. The house formally designated as the upper house is smaller and has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the Australian Senate, Brazil's Senado Federal, the Canadian Senate, France's Sénat, Germany's Bundesrat, India's Rajya Sabha, Ireland's Seanad, Malaysia's Dewan Negara, the Netherlands' Eerste Kamer, Pakistan's Senate of Pakistan, Russia's Federation Council, Switzerland's Council of States, United Kingdom's House of Lords and the United States Senate. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. An upper house is different from the lower house in at least one of the following respects: Powers: In a parliamentary system, it has much less power than the lower house. Therefore, in certain countries the Upper House votes on only limited legislative matters, such as constitutional amendments, cannot initiate most kinds of legislation those pertaining to supply/money, cannot vote a motion of no confidence against the government, while the lower house always can.
In a presidential system: It may have nearly equal power with the lower house. It may have specific powers not granted to the lower house. For example: It may give consent to some executive decisions, it may have the sole power to try impeachment cases against officials of the executive or judicial branch, following enabling resolutions passed by the lower house. It may have the sole power to ratify treaties. In a semi-presidential system, like France It may have less power than the lower house: in France, the Government can decide to legislate a normal law without the Sénat's agreement, but It may have equal power to the lower house regarding the constitution or the territorial collectivities, it may not vote a motion of no confidence against the government, but it may investigate State cases. It may make proposals of laws to the lower house. Status: In some countries, its members are not popularly elected, its members may be elected with a different voting system than that used to elect the lower house.
Less populated states, provinces, or administrative divisions may be better represented in the upper house than in the lower house. Members' terms may be for life. Members may be elected in portions, for staggered terms, rather than all at one time. In some countries, the upper house cannot be dissolved at all, or can be dissolved only in more limited circumstances than the lower house, it has fewer members or seats than the lower house. It has a higher age of candidacy than the lower house. In parliamentary systems the upper house is seen as an advisory or "revising" chamber; some or all of the following restrictions are placed on upper houses: Lack of control over the executive branch. No absolute veto of proposed legislation, though suspensive vetoes are permitted in some states. In countries where it can veto legislation, it may not be able to amend the proposals. A reduced or absent role in initiating legislation. No power to block supply, or budget measures In parliamentary democracies and among European upper houses the Italian Senate is a notable exception to these general rules, in that it has the same powers as its lower counterpart: any law can be initiated in either house and must be approved in the same form by both houses.
Additionally, a Government must have the consent of both to remain in office, a position, known as "perfect bicameralism" or "equal bicameralism". The role of a revising chamber is to scrutinise legislation that may have been drafted over-hastily in the lower house and to suggest amendments that the lower house may reject if it wishes to. An example is the British House of Lords. Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, the House of Lords can no longer prevent the passage of most bills, but it must be given an opportunity to debate them and propose amendments, can thereby delay the passage of a bill with which it disagrees. Bills can only be delayed for up to one year before the Commons can use the Parliament Act, although economic bills can only be delayed for one month, it is sometimes seen as having a special role of safeguarding the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom and important civil liberties against ill-considered change. The British House of Lords has a number of ways to block legislation and to reject it, the House of Commons can use the Parliament Act to force something through.
The Commons will bargain and negotiate with the Lords such as wh
Province No. 3
Province No. 3 is one of the seven provinces of Nepal established by the country's new constitution of 20 September 2015. Home to the country's capital Kathmandu, it is hilly and mountainous, home to peaks including Gaurishankar, Langtang and Ganesh; the province covers an area of 20,300 km2, about 14% of the country's total area, has an altitude low enough to support deciduous and alpine forest and woodland. Temperature varies with altitude. Rainfall takes place during the summer; the Province borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Province No. 1 to the east, Gandaki Pradesh to the west, both Province No. 2 and the Indian state of Bihar to the south. As per a 17 January 2018 Federal cabinet meeting, Hetauda has been declared the interim state capital; the most populous province of Nepal, it possesses rich cultural diversity, with resident communities and castes including Newar, Sherpa, Chepang, Brahmin, Tharu, Chepang and more. It hosted the highest number of voters in the last election for the House of Representatives and Provincial Assembly, which took place in 2017.
The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Patan High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Anuradha Koirala, Dormani Poudel and Tek Bahadur Moktan respectively. The province has 110 provincial assembly constituencies and 35 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 3 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years; the Provincial Assembly of Province No. 3 is temporarily housed at the Regional Education Directorate in Hetauda. Province No. 3 is divided into 13 districts, which are listed below. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further divided into rural municipalities. The municipalities include three metropolitan cities, one sub-metropolitan city and 41 municipalities.
There are 74 rural municipalities in the province. Bhaktapur District Chitwan District Dhading District Dolakha District Kathmandu District Kavrepalanchok District Lalitpur District Makwanpur District Nuwakot District Ramechhap District Rasuwa District Sindhuli District Sindhupalchok District List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre)
The Communist Party of Nepal was a communist political party in Nepal. The party was founded in 1994 after breaking away from the Communist Party of Nepal; the party has led three governments, from 2008 to 2009 and from 2016 to 2017 under Pushpa Kamal Dahal and from 2013 to 2015 under Baburam Bhattarai. The party was known as the Communist Party of Nepal until 2009 and as the Unified Communist Party of Nepal until 2016. In 2008, The Unified Communist Party of Nepal, placed first in the election with 220 out of 575 elected seats, became the largest party in the Constituent Assembly. In the 2013 elections, the party won 80 out of 575 elected seats to become the third largest party in the Constituent Assembly of Nepal; the party dissolved on the 17th of May 2018, after merging with the Communist Party of Nepal to create the Nepal Communist Party. The party was formed in 1994 following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal into two factions, one led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal and the other led Nirmal Lama.
The electoral front of the party, the United People's Front of Nepal split and the faction led by Baburam Bhattarai allied with the Pushpa Kamal Dahal led Communist Party of Nepal. The two United People's Front of Nepal decided to register itself with the Election Commission, but the commission only recognized the Nirmal Lama backed party. Baburam Bhattarai responded by calling for a boycott of the 1994 mid-term elections; the Unity Centre led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal went underground after the split to begin preparations for its next phase of struggle. The party held its Third Plenum in March 1995, where the party renamed itself to the Communist Party of Nepal, it decided that the for "the true liberation of the people, all efforts must be concentrated for the development of a people's war that would usher in the new people's democratic form of government" and decided to give up its policy of taking part in parliamentary elections. The March meeting was followed by six months of preparations to recast the old organizational structure into a fighting machine, in September 1995, the'Plan for the Historic Initiation of the People's War' was adopted by the Central Committee of the party.
There began a series of public meetings all over the country under the aegis of the United People's Front of Nepal as part of the final politico-ideological preparation. The party launched the'Sija campaign' in Rolpa and Rukum, named after the Sisne and Jaljala mountains in the two districts, to propagate the ideology of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism. In October 1995, during the Sija campaign, a fight broke out between supporters of the United People's Front of Nepal and other parties the Nepali Congress and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party, at a village in the eastern part of Rukum; the newly formed government under Sher Bahadur Deuba moved swiftly to arrest the UPFN supporters, accusing them of creating public disorder. The police launched'Operation Romeo' in November 1995. Operation Romeo was labeled as an operation to control a rise in criminal activities in Rolpa. Operation Romeo resulted in gross violations of human rights, including the arbitrary arrest and detention of hundreds of members of left-of-center parties, executions and “disappearances.”
In the light of this action, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the party met in January 1996 and made the final decision on the historic initiation of the'People's War' for February 13, 1996. On February 4, 1996, Baburam Bhattarai led a three-member delegation of the United People's Front of Nepal to present a memorandum to Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba; the memorandum warned that unless the government took initiative to fulfill their 40-point demands by February 17, the UFPN would launch an armed revolution. On February 13, 1996, after Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba had left for a state visit to India two days before, the office of the Small Farmer's Development Programme run by the Agricultural Development Bank was overrun in Gorkha district and the loan papers were destroyed; this was followed in the evening by attacks on police posts in Aathbiskot-Rari in Rukum, Holeri in Rolpa and Sindhuligadhi in Sindhuli. The'People's War' was formally launched. After the Communist Party of Nepal came into government in 1997, violence between both sides stopped but the issue could not be resolved.
The government formed a taskforce to look into the'Maoist Activities and a Search for Solutions' in April 1997 under CPN MP Prem Singh Dhami but the commission report was shelved in August of the same year. A local election was called in May 1997, but polls could not be held in 87 village development committees due to intimidation by the Maoists; the government in response attempted to introduce the Terrorist and Destructive Activities Act in July 1997 at the initiative of deputy prime minister and home minister Bam Dev Gautam. The act would give the police wide-ranging powers against perceived'terrorists', but the government was forced to backtrack on the law before it was placed in front of the parliament owing to mass protests from the civil society, the media, international organizations. On 13 February 1998, the second anniversary of the'people's war', the Maoists announced the existence of a Central Military Commission under Prachanda. By May 1998, 51 village development committees in Rolpa district and western Nepal were under Maoist control and they were operating a parallel administration called the'People's Government'.
When the new Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala went on tour of the Maoist influenced area he r
Kathmandu is the capital city and largest city of Nepal with a population of around 1 million. Kathmandu is the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is understood; the City of Temples stands at an elevation of 1,400 metres above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal. The valley is termed as "Nepal Mandala" and has been the home of Newar culture, a cosmopolitan urban civilisation in the Himalayan foothills; the city was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces and gardens of the Nepalese aristocracy. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation since 1985. Today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic established in 2008. Kathmandu is and has been for many years the centre of Nepal's history, art and economy, it has a multiethnic population within a Buddhist majority. It is the home of the Newars. Religious and cultural festivities form a major part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu.
Tourism is an important part of the economy. The city is the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas, home to seven world heritage sites: the Durbar Squares of Hanuman Dhoka and Bhaktapur. There are seven casinos in the city. Historic areas of Kathmandu were damaged by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on 25 April 2015. Some of the buildings have been restored and some are in the process of reconstruction. NCP’s Bidya Sundar Shakya is the Mayor of Kathmandu Metropolitan city and Hari Prabha Khadgi of Nepali Congress is the deputy mayor. Indigenous Newari term for Kathmandu valley is Yei; the Pahari name Kathmandu comes from Kasthamandap temple. In Sanskrit, Kastha means "Wood" and Maṇḍapa means "Pavilion"; this public pavilion known as Maru Satta: in the Newar language, was rebuilt in 1596 by Biseth in the period of King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The three-story structure was made of wood and used no iron nails nor supports. According to legend, all the timber used to build the pagoda was obtained from a single tree.
The structure collapsed during a major earthquake on 25 April 2015. The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, refer to Kathmandu as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap Mahānagar in Nepal Mandala. Mahānagar means "great city"; the city is called "Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap" in a vow. Thus, Kathmandu is known as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap. During medieval times, the city was sometimes called Kāntipur; this name is derived from two Sanskrit words -- pur. "Kānti" is a word that stands for "beauty" and is associated with light and "pur" means place. Thus, giving it a meaning as "City of light". Among the indigenous Newar people, Kathmandu is known as Yeṃ Deśa, Patan and Bhaktapur are known as Yala Deśa and Khwopa Deśa. "Yen" is the shorter form of Yambu, which referred to the northern half of Kathmandu. Archaeological excavations in parts of Kathmandu have found evidence of ancient civilisations; the oldest of these findings is a statue, found in Maligaon, dated at 185 AD. The excavation of Dhando Chaitya uncovered a brick with an inscription in Brahmi script.
Archaeologists believe. Stone inscriptions are a ubiquitous element at heritage sites and are key sources for the history of Nepal; the earliest Western reference to Kathmandu appears in an account of Jesuit Fathers Johann Grueber and Albert d'Orville. In 1661, they passed through Nepal on their way from Tibet to India, reported that they reached "Cadmendu", the capital of Nepal kingdom; the ancient history of Kathmandu is described in its traditional legends. According to Swayambhu Purana, present-day Kathmandu was once a huge and deep lake named "Nagdaha", as it was full of snakes; the lake was cut drained by Bodhisatwa Manjusri with his sword, the water was evacuated out from there. He established a city called Manjupattan, made Dharmakar the ruler of the valley land. After some time, a demon named Banasur closed the outlet, the valley again turned into a lake. Lord Krishna came to Nepal, killed Banasur, again drained out the water, he made Bhuktaman the king of Nepal. Kotirudra Samhita of Shiva Purana, Chapter 11, shloka 18 refers to the place as Nayapala city, famous for its Pashupati Shivalinga.
The name Nepal originates from this city Nayapala. Few historical record exists of the period before medieval Licchavis rulers. According to Gopalraj Vansawali, a genealogy of Nepali monarchy, the rulers of Kathmandu Valley before the Licchavis were Gopalas, Aabhirs and Somavanshi; the Kirata dynasty was established by Yalamber. During the Kirata era, a settlement called. In some of the Sino-Tibetan languages, Kathmandu is still called Yambu. Another smaller settlement called Yengal was present in the southern half of old Kathmandu, near Manjupattan. During the reign of the seventh Kirata ruler, Buddhist monks entered Kathmandu valley and established a forest monastery at Sankhu; the Licchavis from the Indo-Gangetic plain migrated north and defeated the Kiratas, establis