Bydgoszcz /ˈbɪdɡɒʃtʃ/ is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 358,614, and an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants and it has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, and before that, Bydgoszcz is part of the metroplex Bydgoszcz-Toruń, which totals over 850,000 inhabitants. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz hosts the Pomeranian Philharmonic concert hall, the Opera Nova opera house, and the Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport. There are a number of other Polish place-names which make use of the goszcz suffix, the name Byd-gost contains archaic elements of the Proto-Slavonic root byd which existed as a variant of the verb to raise, and the common Slavic root Goszcz. Some people identify the name of the town as Budorgis, a name from the 2nd century which is listed next to the village Calisia on the amber route, during the early Slavic times a fishing settlement called Bydgozcya, became a stronghold on the Vistula trade routes.
In the 13th century it was the site of a castellany, the city was occupied by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, and incorporated into the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobrzyń, king Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights on 19 April 1346. The city increasingly saw an influx of Jews after that date, in 1555, due to pressure by the clergy, the Jews were expelled and came back only with the annexion to Prussia in 1772. In the 15th and 16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading, during 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally. During the events of war the town suffered demolitions, the town was conquered a second and third time by Sweden in 1656 and 1657 during the Second Northern War. On the latter occasion the castle was destroyed completely and has since remained a ruin.
After the war only 94 houses were inhabited,103 stood empty and 35 were burned down, the suburbs had been damaged considerably. In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, Bydgoszcz was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia, renamed Bromberg, at the time, the town was seriously depressed and semi-derelict. In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, with Napoleons defeat at the Battle of Nations in 1815, the town was returned to Prussia as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen. In 1871 the Province of Posen, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, in the mid-19th century, the arrival of the Prussian Eastern Railway contributed greatly to the development of Bromberg. The first stretch, from Schneidemühl to Bromberg, was opened in July 1851, the city grew from 12,900 in 1852 to 57,700 in 1910 – of whom 84 percent were Germans and 16 percent Poles. After World War I, despite Brombergs German majority, it was assigned to the recreated Polish state by the 1919 Versailles Treaty, now officially Bydgoszcz again, the city belonged to the Poznań Voivodeship
A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages and other hot beverages. Some coffeehouses serve cold beverages such as iced coffee and iced tea, many cafés serve some type of food, such as light snacks, muffins, or pastries. Coffeehouses range from owner-operated small businesses to multinational corporations. A coffeehouse may share some of the characteristics of a bar or restaurant. Many coffee houses in the Middle East and in West Asian immigrant districts in the Western world offer shisha, espresso bars are a type of coffeehouse that specializes in serving espresso and espresso-based drinks. Since the development of Wi-Fi, coffeehouses with this capability have become places for patrons to access the Internet on their laptops, a coffeehouse can serve as an informal club for its regular members. As early as the 1950s Beatnik era and the 1960s folk music scene, coffeehouses have hosted singer-songwriter performances, coffeehouses in Mecca became a concern as places for political gatherings to the imams, who banned them, as well as the drink, for Muslims between 1512 and 1524.
In 1530, the first coffeehouse was opened in Damascus and not long there were many coffeehouses in Cairo. About that year, a fellow called Hakam from Aleppo and a wag called Shams from Damascus came to the city, they opened a large shop in the district called Tahtakale. Various legends involving the introduction of coffee to Istanbul at a Kiva Han in the late 15th century circulate in culinary tradition, resembling checkers and chess, are played. In addition, mollas and poets take turns telling stories in verse or in prose, the narrations by the mollas and the dervishes are moral lessons, like our sermons, but it is not considered scandalous not to pay attention to them. No one is forced to give up his game or his conversation because of it. It often happens that two or three people talk at the time, one on one side, the other on the opposite, and sometimes one will be a preacher. The most common English spelling, café, is the French and Spanish spelling, thus the spelling cafe has become very common in English-language usage throughout the world, especially for the less formal, i. e. greasy spoon variety.
The Italian spelling, caffè, is sometimes used in English. In southern England, especially around London in the 1950s, the French pronunciation was often altered to /ˈkæf/. The English words coffee and café both descend from the Italian word for coffee, caffè—first attested as caveé in Venice in 1570— and in turn derived from the Arabic qahuwa. The Arabic term qahuwa originally referred to a type of wine but after the ban by Mohammed
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015. Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second largest city in the Baltic states, Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality. Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies and its Jewish influence until the 20th century has led to it being described as the Jerusalem of Lithuania and Napoleon named it the Jerusalem of the North as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz, the name of the city originates from the Vilnia River. The city has known by many derivate spellings in various languages throughout its history. The most notable names for the city include, Wilno, Belarusian, Вiльня, Wilna, Latvian, Viļņa, Russian, Вильнюс, Yiddish, ווילנע , Czech. A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Вильна/Вильно, the name Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese and Hebrew.
Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius, the neighborhoods of Vilnius have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area. Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the castles of Mindaugas, during the reign of Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built. These letters contain the first unambiguous reference to Vilnius as the capital, According to legend, Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a hilltop and consulted a pagan priest for its interpretation. He was told, What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus, the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, the location offered practical advantages, it lay within the Lithuanian heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by forests and wetlands that were difficult to penetrate.
The duchy had been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights, Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the residence of the Grand Duke. Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy through warfare along with strategic alliances and marriages, at its height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Ukraine and portions of modern-day Poland and Russia. His grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, fought civil wars, during the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from Jogaila. The two settled their differences, after a series of treaties culminating in the 1569 Union of Lublin, the rulers of this federation held either or both of two titles, Grand Duke of Lithuania or King of Poland. In 1387, Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, the city underwent a period of expansion. The Vilnius city walls were built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates and three towers, and Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544
National Museum of Lithuania
The National Museum of Lithuania, established in 1952, is a state-sponsored historical museum that encompasses several significant structures and a wide collection of written materials and artifacts. It organizes archeological digs in Lithuania, the Museum of Antiquities in Vilnius, founded by Eustachy Tyszkiewicz in 1855, was the forerunner of todays museum. At its inception, the focused on the culture and history of the Lithuanian Grand Duchy. Made up mostly of Polish private collections, it was quite popular, after the January Uprising of 1863, the Russian Empire moved much of the collection to Moscow, the remaining collections were re-organized and were incorporated into the Vilnius Public Libray. From 1866 to 1914, the museum and the library operated together, in 1915, when the Eastern Front of World War I approached Vilnius, more of the exhibits was taken to Russia. After Lithuanian independence was established in 1918, the Museum of History and Ethnography was founded, based on the collections in the Museum of Antiquities and its director was Jonas Basanavičius, one of the signatories to the Act of Independence of Lithuania.
After 1919, Vilnius became a part of Poland, and the organization was incorporated into Vilnius University, in 1941, the Academy of Sciences acquired the collections of all the museums in Vilnius. The museum again became an entity in 1952 under the direction of the historian Vincas Žilėnas. In 1967, the museum established itself at the Vilnius Castle Complexs New Arsenal, the museum hosted a major exposition in 1968. During the 1970s and 1980s historic materials from across the country were gathered, in 1992, after Lithuania re-established its independence, it was renamed the National Museum of Lithuania. It is now part of the Ministry of Culture, the museum has five main departments and Latest History, Ethnography and Iconography, containing a total of 800,000 items. Museum official website Museums of Lithuania
History of Lithuania
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD. Lithuanians, one of the Baltic peoples, conquered neighboring lands, the Grand Duchy was a successful and lasting warrior state. It remained fiercely independent and was one of the last areas of Europe to adopt Christianity, a formidable power, it became the largest state in Europe in the 15th century through the conquest of large groups of East Slavs who resided in Ruthenia. In 1385, the Grand Duchy formed a union with Poland through the Union of Krewo. Later, the Union of Lublin created the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that lasted until 1795, the Lithuanians lived under the rule of the Russian Empire until the 20th century. On February 16,1918, Lithuania was re-established as a democratic state and it remained independent until the outset of World War II, when it was occupied by the Soviet Union under the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
Following a brief occupation by Nazi Germany after the Nazis waged war on the Soviet Union, in 1990–91, Lithuania restored its sovereignty with the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania. Lithuania joined the NATO alliance in 2004 and the European Union as part of its enlargement in 2004, the first humans arrived on the territory of modern Lithuania in the 10th millennium BC after the glaciers receded at the end of the last glacial period. According to the historian Marija Gimbutas, these came from two directions, the Jutland Peninsula and from present-day Poland. They brought two different cultures, as evidenced by the tools they used and they were traveling hunters and did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate much warmer. The inhabitants of what is now Lithuania traveled less and engaged in hunting, gathering. During the 6th–5th millennium BC, various animals were domesticated and dwellings became more sophisticated in order to shelter larger families, Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land.
Crafts and trade started to form at this time, speakers of North-Western Indo-European might have arrived with the Corded Ware culture around 3200/3100 BC. The first Lithuanian people were a branch of an ancient group known as the Balts, the main tribal divisions of the Balts were the West Baltic Old Prussians and Yotvingians, and the East Baltic Lithuanians and Latvians. The Balts spoke forms of the Indo-European languages, the only remaining Baltic nationalities are the Lithuanians and Latvians, but there were more Baltic groups or tribes in the past. Some of these merged into Lithuanians and Latvians, while no longer existed after they were conquered and assimilated by the State of the Teutonic Order. The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire, tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were probably Balts, around the year 97 AD
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, known as the Casimir the Great University, is a state-funded university in Bydgoszcz, Poland. It was named after Casimir III the Great, the King of Poland who granted the city rights on 19 April 1346. Kazimierz Wielki University is a university founded in 1968. As the university expanded, its structure and name changed. It began as the Teachers Training College with three faculties, Mathematics & Natural Sciences, and Pedagogy and it became the Higher School of Pedagogy from 1974 to 2000 devoted to teacher training. Then it became the Kazimierz Wielki Academy of Bydgoszcz from 2000 to 2005, in 2010 on university studied 14000 students, of which about 33% were people from outside the region Kuyavian-Pomeranian. The university employed approximately 1,100 people, including 665 academic staff,150 professors
Act of Independence of Lithuania
The Act was signed by all twenty representatives of the Council, which was chaired by Jonas Basanavičius. The Act of February 16 was the result of a series of resolutions on the issue, including one issued by the Vilnius Conference, the path to the Act was long and complex because the German Empire exerted pressure on the Council to form an alliance. The Council had to maneuver between the Germans, whose troops were present in Lithuania, and the demands of the Lithuanian people. The immediate effects of the announcement of Lithuanias re-establishment of independence were limited, publication of the Act was prohibited by the German authorities, and the text was distributed and printed illegally. The work of the Council was hindered, and Germans remained in control over Lithuania, the situation changed only when Germany lost World War I in the fall of 1918. In November 1918 the first Cabinet of Lithuania was formed, independent Lithuania, although it would soon be battling the Wars of Independence, became a reality.
The laconic Act is the basis for the existence of modern Lithuania. The Act formulated the basic principles that were and still are followed by all Constitutions of Lithuania. The Act itself was a key element in the foundation of Lithuanias re-establishment of independence in 1990, breaking away from the Soviet Union, stressed that it was simply re-establishing the independent state that existed between the world wars and that the Act never lost its legal power. On March 29,2017 the original document was found at the Diplomatic archive in Berlin, Lithuania had a centuries long tradition of statehood following the coronation of Mindaugas the King of Lithuania. After the last Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Lithuania was annexed by the Russian Empire, during the 19th century, both the Lithuanians and the Poles attempted to restore their independence. Lithuanians rebelled during the 1830 November Uprising and the 1863 January Uprising, in 1915, Germany occupied western parts of the Russian Empire.
On September 21, the 214 attendees at the conference elected a 20-member Council of Lithuania to codify this resolution, the German authorities did not allow that resolution to be published, but they did permit the Council to proceed. The Vilnius Conference resolved that a constituent assembly be elected in conformity with democratic principles by all the inhabitants of Lithuania, the Act of December 11 was the second stage in the progression towards the final Act of Independence. The first draft, demanded by chancellor Georg von Hertling, was prepared by the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs on December 1, further changes were jointly prepared by the German chancellery and by a delegation of the Council of Lithuania. The delegations members were Antanas Smetona, Steponas Kairys, Vladas Mironas, Jurgis Šaulys, after discussion amongst the parties, a compromise was reached on the documents text. The German representative, Kurt von Lersner, insisted that not one word be changed in the agreed-upon text, after the delegation returned to Vilnius, a session of the Council was held on December 11 in order to discuss the Act.
It was adopted without any further changes, fifteen voted in favor of the Act, three voted against it, one member abstained, and one did not participate
Renaissance Revival architecture
The divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe, particularly in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. The movement grew from scientific observations of nature, in human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture, in England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House. Often these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture and this is particularly evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period and Baroque being two very opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by the Palazzo del Te and Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, as a consequence a self-consciously Neo-Renaissance manner first began to appear circa 1840.
By 1890 this movement was already in decline, the Hagues Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, the style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments, if a building were of several floors the uppermost floor usually had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture which was more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight fully formed but evolved slowly, one of the very first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Womens Prison, which was erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popular in the USA during the 1880s, richardsons style at the end or the revival era was a severe mix of both Romanesque and Renaissance features. This was exemplified by his Marshall Field Warehouse in Chicago, while the beginning of Neo-Renaissance period can be defined by its simplicity and severity, what came between was far more ornate in its design. This period can be defined by some of the opera houses of the Europe, such as Gottfried Sempers Burgtheater in Vienna. This ornate form of the Neo-Renaissance, originating from France, is known as the Second Empire style. By 1875 it had become the style in Europe for all public and bureaucratic buildings. In England, where Sir George Gilbert Scott designed the London Foreign Office in this style between 1860 and 1875, it incorporated certain Palladian features. In Austria, it was pioneered by such names as Rudolf Eitelberger
Pilies Street is one of the main streets in the Old Town of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. It is rather a street, running from Cathedral Square to the Town Hall Square. Out of several locations across Vilnius used by traders to sell the wares of folk artists. It has an advantage over the Town Hall Square as the street is generally busy. Many people visit the street to buy gifts at Christmas or before going abroad to visit friends, the market is popular with souvenir hunters. Souvenir shops offer amberware and amber jewelry as well as linen clothes, the street is known for the Kaziukas Fair, when folk artists from all four corners of Lithuania gather here to display and sell their latest merchandise. Festivals in Vilnius frequently take place on Pilies Street – most processions will make their way through here at some point. This is true whatever the festival – be it Christmas, the headquarters of Vilnius University are located between Pilies Street and University Street. The House of the Signatories where the Declaration of Independence was signed on February 16,1918 is located on this street
Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring music, dance, recitation, or drama. It is mainly distinguished by the venue, which might be a pub. The audience, often dining or drinking, does not typically dance, performances are usually introduced by a master of ceremonies or MC. The entertainment, as done by an ensemble of actors and according to its European origins, is oriented towards adult audiences. In the United States striptease, drag shows, or a solo vocalist with a pianist, the word cabaret was first used in 1655. It is derived from tavern probably from Middle Dutch cambret, the word cabaret came to mean a restaurant or night club by 1912. Cabaret can be divided in 10 different types. However, these are artificial dividing lines, cabaret shows are most of the time a compound of elements from the different types, the cabaret performer plays with language, sometimes poetic, but often is he or she rock hard and hateful. The cabaret performer analyses in his/her stubborn manner actual and political topics, the cabaret performer tells an often slightly absurd story with a moral packed in it.
The cabaret performer plays with music, for example by twisting or combining familiar melodies, the cabaret performer tells nonsensical and absurd stories and plays idiotic types. The emphasis is less on text in the show of cabaret performer. Here the cabaret performer eludes on his liberating through laughter role, an iteration of storytelling cabaret The cabaret performer quickly switches between the different styles/types of cabaret, types, or songs. In this the cabaret performer is a guest at a government, institution or a company, cabarets existed in Paris in the 16th century, they were ancestors of the modern restaurant. Unlike taverns they sold wine not by itself but only with a meal, customers might sing if they had drunk enough wine, but early cabarets did not have formal programs of entertainment. Cabarets were frequently used as meeting places for writers and artists, in 1773 French poets, painters and writers began to meet in a cabaret called Le Caveau on rue de Buci, where they composed and sang songs.
The Caveau continued until 1816, when it was forced to close because its clients wrote songs mocking the royal government, in the 18th century the café-concert or café-chantant appeared, which offered food along with music, singers, or magicians. The most famous was the Cafe des Aveugles in the cellars of the Palais-Royal, in the early 19th century many cafés-chantants appeared around the city, the most famous were the Café des Ambassadeurs on the Champs-Élysées and the Eldorado on boulevard Strasbourg. By 1900 there were more than 150 cafés-chantants in Paris, the first cabaret in the modern sense was Le Chat Noir in the Bohemian neighborhood of Montmartre, created in 1881 by Rodolphe Salis, a theatrical agent and entrepreneur