Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris or MAMVP, is a major municipal museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art of the 20th and 21st centuries. It is located at Avenue du Président Wilson in the 16th arrondissement of Paris; the museum is one of the 14 City of Paris' Museums that have been incorporated since 1 January 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées. Located in the eastern wing of the Palais de Tokyo and constructed for the International Exhibition of Arts and Technology of 1937, the museum was inaugurated in 1961; the museum collections include more than 10,000 works from art movements of the 20th century. Exhibitions highlight the European and international art scenes of the 20th century, as well as displaying monographic and thematic exhibitions of trends in today's art. Temporary exhibitions run every six weeks; the museum's permanent collection includes works by: Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Henri Matisse, Emile Othon Friesz, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Maurice de Vlaminck, Georges Rouault, Raoul Dufy, Marie Laurencin, Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard, Albert Marquet, Henri Laurens, Jacques Lipchitz, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, André Lhote, Juan Gris, Alexander Archipenko, Joseph Csaky, Ossip Zadkine, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, František Kupka and Sonia Delaunay, Fernand Léger, Jean Hélion, Auguste Herbin, Joaquín Torres García, Natalia Gontcharova, Luigi Russolo, Amedeo Modigliani, Giorgio de Chirico, Alberto Magnelli, Gino Severini, Kees van Dongen, Bart van der Leck, Jean Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Maurice Utrillo, Suzanne Valadon, André Derain, Moïse Kisling, Marcel Gromaire, Marc Chagall, Chaïm Soutine, Leonard Foujita, Alexander Calder, Alberto Giacometti, Jean Crotti, Man Ray, Max Ernst, André Masson, Victor Brauner, Hans Bellmer, Roberto Matta, Wifredo Lam, Jean Fautrier, Jean Dubuffet, Bernard Buffet, Pierre Soulages, Nicolas de Staël, Zao Wou Ki, Pierre Alechinsky, Henri Michaux, Étienne-Martin, Antoni Tàpies, Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein, Martial Raysse, Jean Tinguely, Victor Vasarely, François Morellet, Carlos Cruz-Diez, Bridget Riley, Daniel Buren, Nam June Paik, Mario Merz, Giuseppe Penone, Luciano Fabro, Simon Hantaï, Bertrand Lavier, Bernard Frize, Jean-Michel Othoniel, Robert Rauschenberg, Keith Haring, John Heartfield, James Lee Byars, Peter Doig, Otto Freundlich, Hannah Höch, Hans Hartung, Gerhard Richter, Georg Baselitz, Sigmar Polke, Jörg Immendorff, Wolf Vostell, Andreas Gursky, Markus Lüpertz, Thomas Schütte, Thomas Ruff, Gisèle Freund, Rosemarie Trockel, Albert Oehlen, Per Kirkeby, Marcel Broodthaers, Zeng Fanzhi, others.
Robert Rauschenberg: 1968, Oeuvre de 1949 à 1968 Andy Warhol: 1970, Rétrospective Wolf Vostell: 1974, Environments / Happenings 1958 - 1974, Rétrospective John Heartfield: 1974, Photomontages Hannah Höch: 1976, Rétrospective Nam June Paik: 1978 / 79, Rétrospective Joan Mitchell: 1982, Paintings 1970 - 1982, Rétrospective Gregor Schneider: 1998 Jean-Michel Basquiat: 2010/11 On 20 May 2010, Vjeran Tomic broke into the museum and stole several paintings after meticulous preparation. The museum reported the overnight theft of five paintings from its collection the following morning; the paintings taken were Le pigeon aux petits pois by Pablo Picasso, La Pastorale by Henri Matisse, L'Olivier Près de l'Estaque by Georges Braque, La Femme à l'Éventail by Amedeo Modigliani and Nature Morte aux Chandeliers by Fernand Léger and were valued at €100 million. A window had been smashed and CCTV footage showed a masked man taking the paintings. Authorities believe; the man removed the paintings from their frames, which he left behind.
The theft was investigated by the Brigade de Répression du Banditisme specialist unit of the French Police. It is unclear why the alarm systems in the museum failed to detect the robbery, staff only noticing when they arrived at the museum just before 7:00 am. For fear that investigators were closing in on the thief, accomplices destroyed the paintings. "I threw them into the trash," cried Yonathan Birn, one of three people on trial in the case, "I made the worst mistake of my existence." However, neither the judge or other defendants believe Birn's. The authorities believe. Birn's co-defendants testified; the French auctioneer and president of the Association du Palais de Tokyo, Pierre Cornette de Saint-Cyr, commented, "These five paintings are unsellable, so thieves, you are imbeciles, now return them." The theft follows the $162 million heist of masterpieces by Cézanne, Van Gogh and Monet from Foundation E. G. Bührle in Zurich in February 2008 and could be one of the biggest art thefts in history.
It has been described as the "heist of the century". Official website City of Paris portal Paris Musées official website
A solo performance, sometimes referred to as a one-man show or one-woman show, features a single person telling a story for an audience for the purpose of entertainment. This type of performance comes in many varieties, including autobiographical creations, comedy acts, novel adaptations, poetry and dance. In 1996, Rob Becker’s Defending The Caveman became the longest running solo play in the history of Broadway. Solo performance is used to encompass the broad term of a single person performing for an audience; some key traits of solo performance can include the lack of the fourth wall and audience participation or involvement. Solo performance does not need to be written and produced by a single person-- a solo performance production may utilize directors, writers and composers to bring the piece to life on a stage. An example of this collaboration is Eric Bogosian in the published version of his show Wake Up And Smell the Coffee, by Theatre Communications Group, New York City, it is assumed that individuals have told stories in front of other members of their tribe or society for thousands of years.
They would have orally passed down many of today's legends in this manner. So it is a style of performance, with us for generations developing through theatrical people such as Greek Monologists, the strolling Minstrels of Medieval England and the French Troubadors. Edgar Allan Poe both lectured and recited poetry as a platform performer between 1843 and 1849; the reading tours of Charles Dickens in Britain and America between 1858 and 1870 created a sensation. His American tour of 1867–68 was unparalleled until the arrival of the Beatles in the early 1960s. Solo performance enjoyed an unprecedented artistic and commercial vogue in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century. Literary historians associate the Victorian period with the highest development of the dramatic monologue as a poetic form. There were several discussions about the importance and distinction between the literary monologue and the performance monologue during the nineteenth century, this discussions confirms a continuous interchange between literature and performance, which may at times appear competitive but is more productive.
By the time the United States entered the 20th century, the number and variety of professional solo performances presented throughout the country had grown large. This renaissance of solo performance created ripples in the larger sense of American theatre. By the 1960s, the term performance art became popular and involved any number of performance acts or happenings, as they were known. Many performers, like Laurie Anderson, developed through these happenings and are still performing today; the backgrounds of solo performers over the decades range from vaudeville, poetry, the visual arts, cabaret and dance. Solo performers include Rob Becker, Lily Tomlin, Andy Kaufman, Rod Maxwell, Lord Buckley, Eric Bogosian, Whoopi Goldberg, Jade Esteban Estrada, Eddie Izzard, John Leguizamo, Marga Gomez, Anna Deavere Smith, Bill Hicks, Brother Blue and Lenny Bruce. Several performers have presented solo shows in tribute to famous personalities; the blueprint for this type of show may have been drafted by Hal Holbrook, who has performed as Mark Twain in his solo show, Mark Twain Tonight, more than 2,000 times since 1954.
Examples since that time include Julie Harris in the Emily Dickinson biography, The Belle of Amherst. A few actors adapted entire novels for the stage including Patrick Stewart who played all 43 parts in his version of A Christmas Carol, which played three times on Broadway and at The Old Vic in London. Solo performance may be autobiographical creations; this ranges from the intensely confessional but comedic work of Spalding Gray, the semi-autobiographical A Bronx Tale by Chaz Palminteri, or Holly Hughes' solo piece World without End, in which she attempts to make sense of her relationship with her mother who had died. Another example of this is In The Body of the World and performed by Eve Ensler in 2018. Still other shows may rally around a central theme, such as pop culture in Pat Hazel's The Wonderbread Years, relationships in Robert Dubac's The Male Intellect, the history of the New York City transit system in Mike Daisey's Invincible Summer, or fighting the system in Patrick Combs' Man 1, Bank 0.
These themes could be centered around a certain topic such as a political or social issue. Tim Miller explores the topic of gay culture and society surrounding the LGBTQ community in his production of My Queer Body. Karen Finley expressed her frustration with the standards women are held to and the issues surrounding them such as rape and abortion in her solo piece titled We Keep Our Victims Ready. Sometimes, solo shows are traditional plays written by playwr
Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler was a German-born art historian, art collector, one of the most notable French art dealers of the 20th century. He became prominent as an art gallery owner in Paris beginning in 1907 and was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubist movement in art. Kahnweiler's family moved from Rockenhausen, a small village in the Palatinate, to Mannheim, where Kahnweiler was born in 1884, his upbringing and education at a German Gymnasium prepared him well for his life as an art connoisseur and pragmatic businessman. Early employment in the family business of stock brokerage in Germany and Paris gave way to an interest in art collecting while Kahnweiler was still in his twenties, he opened his first small art gallery in Paris in 1907 at 28 rue Vignon. There was a family precedent for such an enterprise, since his uncle, who ran a famous stock brokerage house in London, was a major art collector of traditional English art works and furniture. Kahnweiler is considered to have been one of the greatest supporters of the Cubist art movement through his activities as an art dealer and spokesman for artists.
He was among the first people to recognize the importance and beauty of Picasso's Les Demoiselles D'Avignon and wanted to buy it along with all of Picasso's works. Picasso wrote of Kahnweiler, "What would have become of us if Kahnweiler hadn't had a business sense?" Kahnweiler's appreciation of Picasso's talents was gratifying to the artist, since he was unknown and destitute at the time when many of his most famous works were created. In his gallery, Kahnweiler supported many of the great artists of his time who found themselves without adequate recognition and little or no interest among collectors. Initial purchases included works by Kees van Dongen, André Derain, Fernand Léger, Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several other artists of the same generation. To use his own word, Kahnweiler wanted to "defend" great artists, but only those who had no dealers and whose talents he was convinced of. Rather than exhibiting appealing works by established artists from the past and present, Kahnweiler championed burgeoning artists who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse and Montmartre at the time.
Thus Paul Cézanne, although a great artist, was considered too old to be represented, his work was represented by the dealer Ambroise Vollard in any case. Along with such men as Alfred Flechtheim, Paul Cassirer, Daniel Wildenstein, Léonce Rosenberg and Paul Rosenberg, Kahnweiler was one of the influential art connoisseurs of the 20th century; as a businessman, Kahnweiler pioneered many new methods of working with artists and art dealing. In 1907, when there were only half a dozen viable galleries in Paris, he made contracts with artists to buy all of their work in order to free them from financial worries and permit them to concentrate on their creative work, he met with them daily to discuss their work, photographed each work they produced, held exhibitions of their work and promoted their work internationally. Since he considered himself friends with many of them, he co-owned little sailing boats with his artists; as part of his activities in promoting the work of emerging artists, Kahnweiler sponsored the first exhibition of the work of Georges Braque.
He encouraged the practice of publishing Beaux Livres, in which a contemporary artist would illustrate a work of a contemporary writer. He expanded his presentations by bringing together artists and poets to produce their works as a joint project in more than 40 books. Picasso, for example, illustrated the works of Max Jacob; as a publisher of art with literary works, he had no equal, was the first to sponsor publications by Max Jacob, Guillaume Apollinaire, André Masson, Gertrude Stein, Pablo Picasso, many others. In doing so, he launched many literary careers. Kahnweiler's entrepreneurial abilities were so acute that by the 1950s his art gallery was in the top 100 companies in France in terms of turnover from export. Although the financial support for artists was an important contribution to art history, he was a significant figure for his work as an art historian and eyewitness to the emergence of Cubism during the period 1907–1914; when working in Paris, his spare time was devoted to reading and understanding the history of art and aesthetics.
He spent his time visiting the city's museums and art galleries. Besides the museums in Paris, he took trips around the European continent to see what was being shown in museums and art galleries outside France, he gave his first interview on Cubism in 1912, it was actual historical events that led to his career as a historian. There is a view that Kahnweiler's sensibility was such that his gallery, the way he styled and developed it, was as much a Cubist gallery as were the paintings by Picasso and the other Cubist painters; the gallery had a clear aesthetic position, uncompromising integrity, financial stability and creative development. During the years 1907-1914 his gallery was a central cradle for Cubism, not only to see the works but where one met the artists, discussed art and where artists discussed each other's works. Concurrently, the primary means for avant-garde painters and sculptors to show their works to a wider audience remained the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d'Automne.
Kahnweiler forbade his'gallery Cubists' from exhibiting at these major Salons, by doing so removed them from the public view. For the general public, Cubism was more associated with the'Salon Cubists', such as Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger, Robert Dela
Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, inspired related movements in music and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century; the term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris during the 1910s and throughout the 1920s. The movement was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger. One primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. A retrospective of Cézanne's paintings had been held at the Salon d'Automne of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.
In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art and Purism. The impact of Cubism was wide-ranging. In other countries Futurism, Dada, Constructivism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity, while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso's technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Other common threads between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, the association of mechanization and modern life. Historians have divided the history of Cubism into phases. In one scheme, the first phase of Cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, a phrase coined by Juan Gris a posteriori, was both radical and influential as a short but significant art movement between 1910 and 1912 in France.
A second phase, Synthetic Cubism, remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. English art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was "Early Cubism", when the movement was developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque. Douglas Cooper's restrictive use of these terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Gris and Léger implied an intentional value judgement. Cubism burgeoned between 1907 and 1911. Pablo Picasso's 1907 painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon has been considered a proto-Cubist work. In 1908, in his review of Georges Braque's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery, the critic Louis Vauxcelles called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles recounted how Matisse told him at the time, "Braque has just sent in a painting made of little cubes"; the critic Charles Morice spoke of Braque's little cubes.
The motif of the viaduct at l'Estaque had inspired Braque to produce three paintings marked by the simplification of form and deconstruction of perspective. Georges Braque's 1908 Houses at L’Estaque prompted Vauxcelles, in Gil Blas, 25 March 1909, to refer to bizarreries cubiques. Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as Reservoir at Horta de Ebro, as the first Cubist paintings; the first organized group exhibition by Cubists took place at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris during the spring of 1911 in a room called'Salle 41'. By 1911 Picasso was recognized as the inventor of Cubism, while Braque's importance and precedence was argued with respect to his treatment of space and mass in the L’Estaque landscapes, but "this view of Cubism is associated with a distinctly restrictive definition of which artists are properly to be called Cubists," wrote the art historian Christopher Green: "Marginalizing the contribution of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1911 "The assertion that the Cubist depiction of space, mass and volume supports the flatness of the canvas was made by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler as early as 1920, but it was subject to criticism in the 1950s and 1960s by Clement Greenberg.
Contemporary views of Cubism are complex, formed to some extent in response to the "Salle 41" Cubists, whose methods were too distinct from those of Picasso and Braque to be considered secondary to them. Alternative interpretations of Cubism have therefore developed. Wider views of Cubism include artists who were associated with the "Salle 41" artists, e.g. Francis Picabia.
Proto-Cubism is an intermediary transition phase in the history of art chronologically extending from 1906 to 1910. Evidence suggests that the production of proto-Cubist paintings resulted from a wide-ranging series of experiments, circumstances and conditions, rather than from one isolated static event, artist or discourse. With its roots stemming from at least the late 19th century this period can be characterized by a move towards the radical geometrization of form and a reduction or limitation of the color palette, it is the first experimental and exploratory phase of an art movement that would become altogether more extreme, known from the spring of 1911 as Cubism. Proto-Cubist artworks depict objects in geometric schemas of cubic or conic shapes; the illusion of classical perspective is progressively stripped away from objective representation to reveal the constructive essence of the physical world. The term is applied not only to works of this period by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, but to a range of art produced in France during the early 1900s, by such artists as Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Le Fauconnier, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger, to variants developed elsewhere in Europe.
Proto-Cubist works embrace many disparate styles, would affect diverse individuals and movements forming a fundamental stage in the history of modern art of the 20th-century. The building blocks. Neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the progression of each individual artist was unique; the influences that characterize this transition period range from Post-Impressionism, to Symbolism, Les Nabis and Neo-Impressionism, the works of Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, Paul Gauguin to African, Greek, Native American, Iberian sculpture, Iberian schematic art. In anticipation of Proto-Cubism the idea of form inherent in art since the Renaissance had been questioned; the romanticist Eugène Delacroix, the realist Gustave Courbet, all the Impressionists had abandoned a significant portion of Classicism in favor of immediate sensation. The dynamic expression favored by these artists presented a challenge in contrast to the static means of expression promoted by the Academia; the representation of fixed objects occupying a space, was replaced by dynamic colors and form in constant evolution.
Yet other means would be necessary to jettison the long-standing foundation that surrounded them. While the freedom of Impressionism had jeopardized its integrity, it would take another generation of artists, not just to bring the edifice down piece by piece, but to rebuild an new configuration, cube by cube. Several predominant factors mobilized the shift from a more representational art form to one that would become abstract. Cézanne ambiguously writes: "Interpret nature in terms of the sphere, the cone, his rather classical color-modulating system consisted of changing colors from warm to cool as the object turns away from the source of light. Cézanne's departure from classicism, would be best summarized in the treatment and of application of the paint itself; the complexity of surface variations with overlapped shifting planes arbitrary contours and values combined to produce a strong patchwork effect. In his works, as Cézanne achieves a greater freedom, the patchwork becomes larger, more arbitrary, more dynamic and abstract.
As the color planes acquire greater formal independence, defined objects and structures begin to lose their identity. The art critic Louis Vauxcelles acknowledged the importance of Cézanne to the Cubists in his article titled From Cézanne to Cubism. For Vauxcelles the influence had a two-fold character, both'architectural' and'intellectual', he stressed the statement made by Émile Bernard that Cézanne's optics were "not in the eye, but in his brain". With both his courage and experience to draw from, Cézanne created a hybrid art-form, he combined on the one hand the imitative and the immobile, a system left over from the Renaissance, the mobile on the other. His own generation would see in his contradictory codes nothing more than impotence, unaware of his intentions. However, the next generation would see in Cézanne greatness because of this duality. Cézanne was seen as a classicist by those who chose to see in his work the imitation of nature and perspective, as a revolutionary by those who saw in him a revolt against imitation and classical perspective.
Timid, yet manifest, was the will to deconstruct. Artists at the forefront of the Parisian art scene at the outset of the 20th century would not fail to notice these tendencies inherent in the work of Cézanne, decided to venture still further. Avant-garde artists in Paris had begun ree
Georges Braque was a major 20th-century French painter, draughtsman and sculptor. His most important contributions to the history of art were in his alliance with Fauvism from 1906, the role he played in the development of Cubism. Braque’s work between 1908 and 1912 is associated with that of his colleague Pablo Picasso, their respective Cubist works were indistinguishable for many years, yet the quiet nature of Braque was eclipsed by the fame and notoriety of Picasso. Georges Braque was born on 13 May 1882 in Val-d'Oise, he grew up in Le Havre and trained to be a house painter and decorator like his father and grandfather. However, he studied artistic painting during evenings at the École des Beaux-Arts, in Le Havre, from about 1897 to 1899. In Paris, he apprenticed with a decorator and was awarded his certificate in 1902; the next year, he attended the Académie Humbert in Paris, painted there until 1904. It was here that he met Francis Picabia. Braque's earliest works were impressionistic, but after seeing the work exhibited by the artistic group known as the "Fauves" in 1905, he adopted a Fauvist style.
The Fauves, a group that included Henri Matisse and André Derain among others, used brilliant colors to represent emotional response. Braque worked most with the artists Raoul Dufy and Othon Friesz, who shared Braque's hometown of Le Havre, to develop a somewhat more subdued Fauvist style. In 1906, Braque traveled with Friesz to L'Estaque, to Antwerp, home to Le Havre to paint. In May 1907, he exhibited works of the Fauve style in the Salon des Indépendants; the same year, Braque's style began a slow evolution as he became influenced by Paul Cézanne who had died in 1906 and whose works were exhibited in Paris for the first time in a large-scale, museum-like retrospective in September 1907. The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne affected the avant-garde artists of Paris, resulting in the advent of Cubism. Braque's paintings of 1908–1912 reflected his new interest in geometry and simultaneous perspective, he conducted an intense study of the effects of light and perspective and the technical means that painters use to represent these effects, seeming to question the most standard of artistic conventions.
In his village scenes, for example, Braque reduced an architectural structure to a geometric form approximating a cube, yet rendered its shading so that it looked both flat and three-dimensional by fragmenting the image. He showed this in the painting Houses at l'Estaque. Beginning in 1909, Braque began to work with Pablo Picasso, developing a similar proto-Cubist style of painting. At the time, Pablo Picasso was influenced by Gauguin, Cézanne, African masks and Iberian sculpture while Braque was interested in developing Cézanne's ideas of multiple perspectives. “A comparison of the works of Picasso and Braque during 1908 reveals that the effect of his encounter with Picasso was more to accelerate and intensify Braque’s exploration of Cézanne’s ideas, rather than to divert his thinking in any essential way.” Braque’s essential subject is the ordinary objects he has known forever. Picasso celebrates animation. Thus, the invention of Cubism was a joint effort between Picasso and Braque residents of Montmartre, Paris.
These artists were the style's main innovators. After meeting in October or November 1907, Braque and Picasso, in particular, began working on the development of Cubism in 1908. Both artists produced paintings of monochromatic color and complex patterns of faceted form, now termed Analytic Cubism. A decisive time of its development occurred during the summer of 1911, when Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso painted side by side in Céret in the French Pyrenees, each artist producing paintings that are difficult—sometimes impossible—to distinguish from those of the other. In 1912, they began to experiment with collage and Braque invented the papier collé technique. On 14 November 1908, the French art critic Louis Vauxcelles, in his review of Georges Braque's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles, on 25 March 1909, used the terms "bizarreries cubiques" after seeing a painting by Braque at the Salon des Indépendants.
The term'Cubism', first pronounced in 1911 with reference to artists exhibiting at the Salon des Indépendants gained wide use but Picasso and Braque did not adopt it initially. Art historian Ernst Gombrich described Cubism as "the most radical attempt to stamp out ambiguity and to enforce one reading of the picture—that of a man-made construction, a colored canvas." The Cubist style spread throughout Paris and Europe. The two artists' productive collaboration continued and they worked together until the beginning of World War I in 1914, when Braque enlisted with the French Army. In May 1915, Braque received a severe head injury in battle at Carency and suffered temporary blindness, he was trepanned, required a long period of recuperation. The things that Picasso and I said to one another during those years will never be said again, if they were, no one would understand them anymore, it was like being roped together on a mountain. Braque resumed painting in late 1916. Working alone, he began to moderate the harsh abstraction of cubism.
He developed a more personal style characterized by brilliant color, textured surfaces, and—after his relocation to the Normandy seacoast—the reappearance of the human figure. He painted many still life subjects during this time, maintaining his e
Taschen is an art book publisher founded in 1980 by Benedikt Taschen in Cologne, Germany. As of January 2017, Taschen is co-managed by his eldest daughter, Marlene Taschen; the company began as Taschen Comics. Taschen has been a pioneer in making lesser-seen art available to mainstream bookstores, including some fetishistic imagery, queer art, historical erotica and adult magazines; the firm has brought controversial art into broader public view, publishing it alongside its more mainstream books of comics reprints, art photography, design, advertising history and architecture. Taschen publications are available in a variety of sizes, from oversized tomes to small pocket-sized books; the company has produced calendars, address books, postcards sets. In 1985, Taschen introduced the Basic Art series with an inaugural title on Salvador Dalí; the series today comprises over 100 titles available in up to thirty languages, each about a separate artist, from classical to contemporary. Further series followed, alongside an expansion into new themes like architecture, design and lifestyle.
As an example, the firm publishes a “Basic Architecture” series in the same style as “Basic Art” that covers some of the most prominent architects in history. In the spring of 2014, the firm’s Basic Art Series was criticised in Swedish public media for its focus on male artists; the series consisted of 95 books, only 5 of which were about female artists. Malmö Konsthall in Sweden was the first institution to report the disparity highlighted by the artists Ditte Ejlerskov and EvaMarie Lindahl. In 1999, Taschen expanded to the luxury market with the Helmut Newton SUMO. Signed and limited to 10,000 copies, the folio-sized publication sold out and became the most expensive book published in the 20th century, with SUMO copy number 1selling at auction for $304,000; this book paved the way for Taschen’s GOAT – Greatest Of All Time, an homage to Muhammad Ali, which Der Spiegel called “the biggest, most radiant thing printed in the history of civilization.”Further Collector’s Editions followed, including titles with Nobuyoshi Araki, Peter Beard, David Hockney, David LaChapelle, Sebastião Salgado, Annie Leibovitz and the Rolling Stones reaching ten times their original price within a few years.
Taschen Basic Architecture is a series of books on architects, published by Taschen. Each book looks at a different architect, with a biography, pictures of their work. Taschen’s Bibliotheca universalis is a series of popular art works in an affordable hardback format, they are trilingual, with texts and legends in English and French. Some books are published in Spanish and Portuguese. Through the mid- to late 1990s, the company’s sales structure was expanded through the opening of stores in other cities. Dedicated flagship Taschen bookstores, conceived in collaboration with artists and designers as Albert Oehlen, Beatriz Milhazes, Jonas Wood, Marc Newson, Mark Grotjahn, Philippe Starck, Toby Ziegler, are located in: Amsterdam Beverly Hills Berlin Brussels Cologne Dallas Hamburg Hong Kong Los Angeles London Miami Milan New York City ParisThe firm has publishing offices in Berlin, London, Los Angeles and Hong Kong. Between 2014 and 2018, Taschen owned and curated its own 6,000-square feet art gallery space in Los Angeles, featuring exhibitions on Michael Muller, Mick Rock, Ellen von Unwerth and Albert Watson.
The publishing house employs more than 250 staff members worldwide and many longtime freelance editors. Bernhard, Brendan. "Sex & Beauty, Art & Kitsch: The Exquisite Mayhem of Benedikt Taschen". LA Weekly. Retrieved 5 July 2014. Kirkpatrick, David D.. "Price Cutting and Oversupply Imperil Art Book Houses". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 May 2008. Official website