A sanitary sewer or foul sewer is an underground pipe or tunnel system for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment facilities or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of an overall system called sewerage. Sewage may be treated to control water pollution before discharge to surface waters. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas carry industrial wastewater. Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport sewage alone. In municipalities served by sanitary sewers, separate storm drains may convey surface runoff directly to surface waters. Sanitary sewers are distinguished from combined sewers, which combine sewage with stormwater runoff in one pipe. Sanitary sewer systems are beneficial. Sewage treatment is less effective when sanitary waste is diluted with stormwater, combined sewer overflows occur when runoff from heavy rainfall or snowmelt exceeds the hydraulic capacity of sewage treatment plants. To overcome these disadvantages, some cities built separate sanitary sewers to collect only municipal wastewater and exclude stormwater runoff collected in separate storm drains.
The decision between a combined sewer system or two separate systems is based on need for sewage treatment and cost of providing treatment during heavy rain events. Many cities with combined sewer systems built prior to installing sewage treatment have not replaced those sewer systems. In the developed world, sewers are pipes from buildings to one or more levels of larger underground trunk mains, which transport the sewage to sewage treatment facilities. Vertical pipes made of precast concrete, called manholes, connect the mains to the surface. Depending upon site application and use, these vertical pipes can be cylindrical, eccentric, or concentric; the manholes are used for access to the sewer pipes for inspection and maintenance, as a means to vent sewer gases. They facilitate vertical and horizontal angles in otherwise straight pipelines. Pipes conveying sewage from an individual building to a common gravity sewer line are called laterals. Branch sewers run under streets receiving laterals from buildings along that street and discharge by gravity into trunk sewers at manholes.
Larger cities may have sewers called interceptors. Design and sizing of sanitary sewers considers the population to be served over the anticipated life of the sewer, per capita wastewater production, flow peaking from timing of daily routines. Minimum sewer diameters are specified to prevent blockage by solid materials flushed down toilets. Commercial and industrial wastewater flows are considered, but diversion of surface runoff to storm drains eliminates wet weather flow peaks of inefficient combined sewers. Pumps may be necessary where gravity sewers serve areas at lower elevations than the sewage treatment plant, or distant areas at similar elevations. A lift station is a sewer sump; the pump may discharge to another gravity sewer at that location or may discharge through a pressurized force main to some distant location. Effluent sewer systems called septic tank effluent drainage or solids-free sewer systems, have septic tanks that collect sewage from residences and businesses, the effluent that comes out of the tank is sent to either a centralized sewage treatment plant or a distributed treatment system for further treatment.
Most of the solids are removed by the septic tanks, so the treatment plant can be much smaller than a typical plant. In addition, because of the vast reduction in solid waste, a pumping system can be used to move the wastewater rather than a gravity system; the pipes have small diameters 1.5 to 4 inches. Because the waste stream is pressurized, they can be laid just below the ground surface along the land's contour. Simplified sanitary sewers consist of small-diameter pipes around 100 millimetres laid at flat gradients. Although the investment cost for simplified sanitary sewers can be about half the cost of conventional sewers, the requirements for operation and maintenance are higher. Simplified sewers are most common in Brazil and are used in a number of other developing countries. In low-lying communities, wastewater is conveyed by vacuum sewer. Pipelines range in size from pipes of 6 inches in diameter to concrete-lined tunnels of up to 30 feet in diameter. A low pressure system uses a small grinder pump located at each point of connection a house or business.
Vacuum sewer systems use differential atmospheric pressure to move the liquid to a central vacuum station. Sanitary sewer overflow can occur due to blocked or broken sewer lines, infiltration of excessive stormwater or malfunction of pumps. In these cases untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities. To avoid this, maintenance is required; the maintenance requirements vary with the type of sanitary sewer. In general, all sewers deteriorate with age, but infiltration and inflow are problems unique to sanitary sewers, since both combined sewers and storm drains are sized to carry these contributions. Holding infiltration to acceptable levels requires a higher standard of maintenance than necessary for structural integrity considerations of combined sewers. A comprehensive construction inspection program is required to prevent inappropriate connection of cellar and roof drains to sanitary sewers; the probability of inappropriate connecti
Capture the flag
Capture the flag is a traditional outdoor game where two teams each have a flag and the objective is to capture the other team's flag, located at the team's "base," and bring it safely back to their own base. Enemy players can be "tagged" by players in their home territory and, depending on the rules, they may be out of the game, become members of the opposite team, sent back to their own territory, or frozen in place until freed by a member of their own team. Capture the Flag requires a playing field of some sort. In both indoor and outdoor versions, the field is divided into two designated halves, known as territories. Players form one for each territory; each side has a "flag", most a piece of fabric, but can be any object small enough to be carried by a person. Sometimes teams wear dark colors at night to make it more difficult for their opponents to see them. If one team has the opposing team's flag on their territory they may be tagged because they have the opposing team's flag; the objective of the game is for players to venture into the opposing team's territory, grab the flag and return with it to their territory without being tagged.
The flag is defended by tagging opposing players who attempt to take it. Within their territory players are "safe". Once they cross into the opposing team's territory they are vulnerable; the flag is placed in a visibly obvious location at the rear of a team's territory. In a more difficult version, the flag is hidden in a place, it might have some challenge involved. For example, the flag could be hidden in the leaves up in a tall tree, the players have to see the flag knock it out and bring it to their base. Different versions of Capture the Flag have different rules, both for handling the flag and for what happens to tagged players. A player, tagged may be eliminated from the game be forced to join the opposing team, sent back to their own territory, or be placed in "jail" with or without a guard; the jail is a predesignated area of the group's territory which exists for holding tagged players and is towards the back of the group's territory. While tagged players may be confined to jail for a limited, predetermined time, the most common form of the game involves the option for a "jailbreak".
In this version, players who are tagged remain in jail indefinitely. However, players from their own team may free them from jail by means of a jailbreak. Jailbreaks are accomplished by a player running from their own territory into the enemy's jail; such action may, depending on the rules, free all jailed players or those who are physically touched by the one performing the jailbreak. But in some variants team mates who got tagged can be jailed only 3 times or they are kicked from the game until the next round. In general freed players are obligated to return directly to their own territory before attempting offensive action. While they return to their own side, freed players acquire "free walk-backs", in which they are safe from tagging until they reach their home territory; the player performing the jail break, on the other hand, is neither safe, nor restricted from performing other actions such as attempting to grab the flag or moving about enemy territory. Sometimes, players in jail form chains, so that if a teammate tags one person in the chain, everyone is free.
Leaving jail without being freed is considered poor sportsmanship and is frowned upon leading to expulsion from the game. If all players on one team are jailed the other team will have all the time they want to find the other team's flag; the rules for the handling of the flag vary from game to game and deal with the disposition of the flag after a failed attempt at capturing it. In one variant, after a player is tagged while carrying the flag, it is returned to its original place. In another variant, the flag is left in the location; this latter variant makes offensive play easier, as the flag will tend, over the course of the game, to be moved closer to the dividing line between territories. In some games, it is possible for the players to throw the flag to teammates; as long as the flag stays in play without hitting the ground, it is allowed for the players to pass. When the flag is captured by one player, they're not safe from being tagged. Sometimes, the flag holder may not be safe at all in their home territory, until they obtain both flags, thus ending the game.
But they have the option to return to their own side or hand it off to a teammate who will carry it to the other side. In most versions, they may not throw the flag but only hand it off while running; the game is won when a player returns to their own territory with the enemy flag or both teams' flags. As a general rule, the flag carrier may not attempt to free any of their teammates from jail. Alterations may include "one flag" CTF in which there is a defensive team and an offensive team, or games with three or more flags. In the case of the latter, one can only win, not only one. Another variation is when the players put bandannas in their pockets with about six inches sticking out. Instead of tagging your opponents, you must pull your opponent's bandanna out of their pocket. No matter where a player is when their bandanna is pulled, they're captured and must, depending on the preferences of the players, go to jail, or return
Windows Error Reporting
Windows Error Reporting is a crash reporting technology introduced by Microsoft with Windows XP and included in Windows versions and Windows Mobile 5.0 and 6.0. Not to be confused with the Dr. Watson debugging tool which left the memory dump on the user's local machine, Windows Error Reporting collects and offers to send post-error debug information using the Internet to the Microsoft or stops responding on a user's desktop. No data is sent without the user's consent; when a dump reaches the Microsoft server, it is analyzed and a solution is sent back to the user when one is available. Solutions are served using Windows Error Reporting Responses. Windows Error Reporting runs as a Windows service and can optionally be disabled. If Windows Error Reporting itself crashes an error report that the original crashed process produced cannot be sent at all. Kinshuman is the original designer of Windows Error Reporting in Vista, the same design and implementation, present in current Windows versions. Microsoft first introduced Windows Error Reporting with Windows XP.
Windows Error Reporting was improved in Windows Vista. Most a new set of public APIs have been created for reporting failures other than application crashes and hangs. Developers can customize the reporting user interface; the new APIs are documented in MSDN. The architecture of Windows Error Reporting has been revamped with a focus on reliability and user experience. WER can now report errors when the process is in a bad state for example if the process has encountered stack exhaustions, PEB/TEB corruptions, heap corruptions, etc. In earlier OSs prior to Windows Vista, the process terminated silently without generating an error report in these conditions. A new Control Panel applet, "Problem Reports and Solutions" was introduced, keeping a record of system and application errors and issues, as well as presenting probable solutions to problems; the Problem Reports and Solutions Control Panel applet was replaced by the Maintenance section of the Windows Action Center on Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2.
A new app, Problem Steps Recorder, is available on all builds of Windows 7 and enables the collection of the actions performed by a user while encountering a crash so that testers and developers can reproduce the situation for analysis and debugging. WER is a distributed system. Client-side software detects an error condition, generates an error report, labels the bucket, reports the error to the WER service; the WER service records the error occurrence and depending on information known about the particular error, might request additional data from the client, or direct the client to a solution. Programmers access the WER service to retrieve data for specific error reports and for statistics-based debugging. Errors collected by WER clients are sent to the WER service; the WER service employs 60 servers connected to a 65TB storage area network that stores the error report database and a 120TB storage area network that stores up to 6 months of raw CAB files. The service is provisioned to receive and process well over 100 million error reports per day, sufficient to survive correlated global events such as Internet worms.
In the Microsoft Windows Error Reporting system, crash reports are organized according to "buckets". Buckets classify issues by: Application Name, Application Version, Application Build Date, Module Name, Module Version, Module Build Date, OS Exception Code/System Error Code, Module Code Offset. Ideally, each bucket contains crash reports. However, there are two forms of weakness in the WER bucketing: weaknesses in the condensing heuristics, which result in mapping reports from a bug into too many buckets. For example, if you compile your application one more time without any changes Module Build Date will changes however and same crash will be placed to another bucket, and weaknesses in the expanding heuristics, which result in mapping more than one bug into the same bucket. For example, if two different bugs crash inside strlen function because they call it with corrupted string there will be only one bucket for both; this occurs because the bucket is generated on the Windows OS client without performing any symbol analysis on the memory dump.
The module, picked by the Windows Error Reporting client is the module at the top of the stack. Investigations of many reports result in a faulting module, different from the original bucket determination. Software & hardware manufacturers may access their error reports using Microsoft's Windows Dev Center Hardware and Desktop Dashboard program. In order to ensure that error reporting data only goes to the engineers responsible for the product, Microsoft requires that interested vendors obtain a VeriSign Class 3 Digital ID or DigiCert certificate. Digital certificates provided by cheaper providers are not accepted. Software and hardware manufacturers can close the loop with their customers by linking error signatures to Windows Error Reporting Responses; this allows distributing solutions as well as collecting extra information from customers and providing them with support links. Microsoft has reported that data collected from Windows Error Reporting has made a huge difference in the way software is developed internally.
For instance, in 2002, Steve Ballmer noted that error reports enabled the Windows team to fix 29% of all Windows XP errors with Windows XP SP1. Over half of all Microsoft Office
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia can be recorded and played, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. In the early years of multimedia the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia, "hypermedia" was an application of multimedia; the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia".
On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob Goldstein, the'Lightworks' is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of Multimedia: Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video, delivered by computer; when you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia."The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German'Word of the Year' in 1995.
The institute summed up its rationale by stating " has become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition; some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video and audio data. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs; the term "video", if not used to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage", used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video.
Single forms of information content with single methods of information processing are called multimedia to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia streamed. Streaming multimedia may be on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images and title user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: Linea
Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. Its application to 3D graphics was pioneered by Edwin Catmull in 1974. Texture mapping referred to a method that wrapped and mapped pixels from a texture to a 3D surface. In recent decades, the advent of multi-pass rendering and complex mapping such as height mapping, bump mapping, normal mapping, displacement mapping, reflection mapping, specular mapping, occlusion mapping, many other variations on the technique have made it possible to simulate near-photorealism in real time by vastly reducing the number of polygons and lighting calculations needed to construct a realistic and functional 3D scene. A texture map is an image applied to the surface of a polygon; this may be a procedural texture. They may be stored in common image file formats, referenced by 3d model formats or material definitions, assembled into resource bundles, they may have 1-3 dimensions.
For use with modern hardware, texture map data may be stored in swizzled or tiled orderings to improve cache coherency. Rendering APIs manage texture map resources as buffers or surfaces, may allow'render to texture' for additional effects such as post processing, environment mapping, they contain RGB color data, sometimes an additional channel for alpha blending for billboards and decal overlay textures. It is possible to use the alpha channel for other uses such as specularity. Multiple texture maps may be combined for control over specularity, displacement, or subsurface scattering e.g. for skin rendering. Multiple texture images may be combined in texture atlases or array textures to reduce state changes for modern hardware.. Modern hardware supports cube map textures with multiple faces for environment mapping. Texture maps may be acquired by scanning/digital photography, authored in image manipulation software such as GIMP, Photoshop, or painted onto 3D surfaces directly in a 3D paint tool such as Mudbox or zbrush.
This process is akin to applying patterned paper to a plain white box. Every vertex in a polygon is assigned a texture coordinate; this may be done through explicit assignment of vertex attributes, manually edited in a 3D modelling package through UV unwrapping tools. It is possible to associate a procedural transformation from 3d space to texture space with the material; this might be accomplished via planar projection or, cylindrical or spherical mapping. More complex mappings may consider the distance along a surface to minimize distortion; these coordinates are interpolated across the faces of polygons to sample the texture map during rendering. Textures may be repeated or mirrored to extend a finite rectangular bitmap over a larger area, or they may have a one-to-one unique "injective" mapping from every piece of a surface. Texture mapping maps the model surface into texture space. UV unwrapping tools provide a view in texture space for manual editing of texture coordinates; some rendering techniques such as subsurface scattering may be performed by texture-space operations.
Multitexturing is the use of more than one texture at a time on a polygon. For instance, a light map texture may be used to light a surface as an alternative to recalculating that lighting every time the surface is rendered. Microtextures or detail textures are used to add higher frequency details, dirt maps may add weathering and variation. Modern graphics may use more than 10 layers, for greater fidelity. Another multitexture technique is bump mapping, which allows a texture to directly control the facing direction of a surface for the purposes of its lighting calculations. Bump mapping has become popular in recent video games, as graphics hardware has become powerful enough to accommodate it in real-time; the way that samples are calculated from the texels is governed by texture filtering. The cheapest method is to use the nearest-neighbour interpolation, but bilinear interpolation or trilinear interpolation between mipmaps are two used alternatives which reduce aliasing or jaggies. In the event of a texture coordinate being outside the texture, it is either wrapped.
Anisotropic filtering better eliminates directional artefacts when viewing textures from oblique viewing angles. As an optimization, it is possible to render detail from a high resolution model or expensive process into a surface texture; this is known as render mapping. This technique is most used for lightmapping but may be used to generate normal maps and displacement maps; some video games have used this technique. The original Quake software engine used on-the-fly baking to combi
1995 in video gaming
1995 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Mario's Picross, Chrono Trigger, Mega Man 7, Twisted Metal, Star Wars: Dark Forces, Destruction Derby and Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island. May 11 – Introduction of trade magazine GameWeek May 11–13 — The 1st annual Electronic Entertainment Expo is held in Los Angeles, California. November 5 — GameFAQs debuts on the web, as an archive of video game FAQs November 24 — Nintendo unveils a playable version of the Nintendo Ultra 64 renamed the Nintendo 64, at the 7th Annual Nintendo Space World Software Exhibition in Japan. Thirteen games were demonstrated but only two were in playable form, Kirby Ball 64 and Super Mario 64. Nintendo releases: March 20 — Game Boy Play It Loud! series, color/clear versions of the Game Boy April 23 — Satellaview accessory for the Super Famicom console in Japan only July 21 — Virtual Boy 32-bit console in Japan. It is discontinued on December 22. May 11 — Sega releases the Sega Saturn console in North America.
August 14 — The Nintendo Entertainment System is discontinued in North America. September 9 — Sony releases the PlayStation console in the United States. September 29 — Sony releases the PlayStation console in Europe October 25 — Funtech releases the Super A'Can console in Taiwan. New companies: BioWare, Frog City, Interworld Productions, TalonSoft Defunct: Cyberdreams Nintendo v. Samsung Electronics; the suit is settled. Nintendo of America, Inc. v. NTDEC