Area 7 (novel)
Area 7 is a novel written by Australian thriller writer Matthew Reilly. It is his fourth book, published in 2001, is the sequel to Ice Station; the President of the United States is visiting America's most secret military installation, Area 7. Assigned to his protective detail is Shane Schofield and his team of Marines including Gunnery Sergeant Gena'Mother' Newman, Staff Sergeant Elizabeth'Fox' Gant and Buck'Book II' Riley Jr, they are plunged into a race for survival when an Air Force general, Charles “Caesar” Russell, unleashes a plan he has been working on for over 15 years. Despite being'executed' on the day of the president's inauguration, Caesar is revived, with a squadron of 50 elite Air Force soldiers, have taken control of Area 7 and initiated a lockdown. A transmitter, attached to the president's heart before he was elected, has been activated. If the satellite does not receive the messages from the transmitter, 14 Type-240 Blast Plasma-based nuclear warheads in the airports of the major cities of the United States will explode, destroying these cities, making way for a new, Confederate America.
As long as the President's heart beats, the messages will be sent to the satellite, the nuclear warheads will not detonate. To prevent the president from trying to escape Area 7, Caesar overrode the launch codes on the Nuclear Football so that to prevent the detonation of the warheads, the president must place his hand on the fingerprint sensor on the Football every 90 minutes. While moving through the underground complex Gant and her group, including the president, come to a cell block and find a scientist locked inside one of the cells. After being released and questioned, it is discovered that the prisoners being held at Area 7 are "volunteers" that the scientists use to carry out experiments, it soon comes to light that there are ways of opening exits out of Area 7, that two have been opened by another scientist, Dr Gunther Botha. In addition to opening two exits, Botha has shut down main power to the complex, so that it is now running on auxiliary power. Meanwhile and his group, after fleeing from the ground level hangar, make their way into the sublevels where they find a bedroom of a 6-year-old boy named Kevin who lives in a cube.
Schofield's group meets up with Riley's group, the president reveals that the reason for his visit to Area 7 is to check on the progress of a vaccine being developed for the Sinovirus, a genetically engineered virus that differentiates between the amount of pigmentation in a person's skin, allowing it to target only people of a specific race. The president explains that to develop a vaccine for the Sinovirus the scientists had to create a genetically engineered human, a boy named Kevin, whose blood could be used to produce antibodies, the prisoners being held at Area 7 are used as guinea pigs to test the vaccine. Botha is killed during a chase on Lake Powell the President and Scarecrow escape to Area 8; when they reach it they realize Echo unit from the 7th squadron are being paid 120 million American dollars by the Chinese government to bring Kevin to them. Schofield and the President follow onto the 747 which has a mounted X-38 in an attempt to rescue Kevin. Schofield hijacks the X-38, escaping with Kevin.
Schofield and Gant face off with Caesar back in Area 7. Captain Shane "Scarecrow" Schofield: The commander of the US Marines in the President's security, Schofield is the main protagonist of the novel. Gunnery Sergeant Gena "Mother" Newman: A Marine and close friend of Schofield. Was presumed to have been killed by the 7th Squadron, but was revealed to have cheated death, her call sign is short for motherfucker. Staff Sergeant Elizabeth "Fox" Gant: Another Marine, a close friend of Schofield and Mother. Together with Schofield, the two managed at the last moment to foil Caesar's revolutionary plan. Fox survived the events of the novel. Sergeant Buck "Book II" Riley Jr.: A young Marine, the son of Schofield's deceased and loyal colleague, Book II urges Schofield to find the answers relating to his father's death. Although wounded, Book II survived the novel's events. Colonel Rodney "Hot Rod/ Ramrod" Hagerty: The pompous White House Liaison Officer, Hagerty is known as an officer who never experienced the full elements of direct combat.
After being imprisoned by a serial killer in the base, he attempted to escape Area 7. However, the Marines presumed he was killed by the thermonuclear blast. Sergeant Wendall "Elvis" Haynes: A Marine, a close friend of Love Machine, Elvis attempted a kamikaze strike on the 7th Squadron Unit, Bravo Unit, to avenge the death of Love Machine. Although Elvis himself was killed, he managed to foil Bravo Unit's attempt in killing the US President and his security detail by inflicting severe casualties among the Unit's members. Sergeant Ashley "Love Machine" Lewicky: A Marine and close friend of Elvis, Love Machine was killed during Bravo Unit's attempted assassination on the US President. Corporal Gus "Braniac" Gorman: A Marine, regarded as a genius, Braniac was killed by a decoy vehicle triggered by the Reccondos. Captain Tom "Calvin" Reeves: A young and skilled Marine officer, Calvin was killed by a raid triggered by Alpha Unit, one of the 7th Squadron units in the base. Colonel Michael Grier: The pilot of Marine One, he was killed by 7th Squadron commandos.
Lieutenant Colonel Michelle Dallas: The copilot of Marine One, she
Seven Ancient Wonders
Seven Ancient Wonders is a book written by Australian author Matthew Reilly in 2005. Its sequel, The Six Sacred Stones was released in the autumn of 2007; the most recent novel in the series, The Three Secret Cities, was released in Australia on October 30, 2018. Around 4,500 years ago, the capstone upon the summit of the Great Pyramid of Giza absorbed the energy released by the Tartarus Rotation, saved the earth from major flooding and catastrophic weather; this capstone was divided up by Alexander the Great with one piece hidden in a booby-trapped location within each of the other seven wonders of the world. If and when they are reunited and replaced on the capstone during another solar event, they can bring 1,000 years of peace or power for the nation which possesses them. In 2006, seven days before this sunspot is again due, the pieces are still divided, three teams are trying to reunite them: Two for their own gain; the third team is an alliance of a group of'small nations' called the Alliance of Minnows, led by Jack West Jr, trying to reunite the capstone for nobler reasons.
This team and the European team each possess a child—one of the only two people who can read the "Word of Thoth", a special hieroglyphics system used in the booby-traps. West's team gains and loses a capstone to the CIEF but manage to escape and reach the hiding place of two more pieces at Hamilcar's Refuge on the coast of Tunisia. There they again lose their gains to the CIEF, again escape, they spring Mustapha Zaeed, the world's foremost authority on the Capstone and the Seven Wonders and a known terrorist, from Guantanamo Bay, who leads them to two more pieces. After separating the team, the "Coalition of the Minnows" is devastated through death; the survivors escape to the Hanging Gardens of Babylon in Iraq, but are there apprehended by an Israeli strike team. West is forced to lead the Israelis to the piece, but the Americans arrive, execute the Israelis, capture the piece and trap West and his team. Jack is presumed dead; the European contingent escorts their hostages to Cairo with a lone Piece—taken from St. Peter's Basilica—and, in attempting to capture the CIEF's five pieces, lose the St Peter's piece to them.
The CIEF team goes to Hatshepsut's Mortuary, and—with the aid of the measurements from the Paris Obelisk—finds the last piece in the tomb of Alexander the Great. Taking the whole Capstone to the Giza pyramid on the day of the rotation, placing Alexander in the chamber beneath it to ensure the ritual works. However, Jack West and his team's plane return to stop them. Judah tries to carry out the ritual, but Alexander crawls out to save himself from death, unwittingly ensuring its failure and del Piero's death. West, has ensured a twist to who has world dominion by replacing the earth inside with some from central Australia. West's team wins the battle and he finds that Lily has survived by going into the chamber willingly; the epilogue takes place three weeks with Wizard and Zoe accompanying Lily across Central Australia, before reuniting with West. Jack West, call-sign: Huntsman / Woodsman, Australia Professor Maximilian T. Epper, call-sign: Caster, Canada Lily'West', Call-sign: Eowyn, Egypt Captain Zahir al Anzar al Abbas, call-sign: Saladin / Pooh Bear, United Arab Emirates Sheik Abbas, Pooh Bear's father.
Lieutenant Enrique Velacruz, call-sign Matador / Noddy, Spain Sergeant V. J. Weatherly, call-sign Witch Doctor / Fuzzy, Jamaica Sergeant Zoe Kissane, call-sign Bloody Mary / Princess Zoe, Ireland Corporal Liam Kissane, call-sign Gunman / Big Ears, call-sign Sky Monster, New Zealand Lieutenant Benjamin Cohen, call-sign Archer / Stretch, Israel Matthew Reilly has written a sequel to this novel, titled The Six Sacred Stones, it was released on 23 October 2007 in most bookstores in Australia, but some stores released them later. It was released on 8 January 2008 in the US and UK. Like its predecessor, the main character of the novel is Jack West Jr. Seven wonders of ancient world The Six Sacred Stones The Five Greatest Warriors The Four Legendary Kingdoms MatthewReilly.com - homepage of author
The Five Greatest Warriors
The Five Greatest Warriors is the third thriller novel in the Jack West Jr. series, by the Australian writer Matthew Reilly. The book is the third in an Indiana Jones–style action series; the preceding book was The Six Sacred Stones, which ended in a cliffhanger with archaeologist and ex-soldier Jack West Jr. and his team searching for the last four "Vertices of the Machine". The Four Legendary Kingdoms is its sequel; the series is published by Pan Macmillan and this book was first released on 20 October 2009 in Australia. The Six Sacred Stones began the story of Jack West Jr's quest to rebuild the mythical'Machine' before there is an uninterrupted line between Earth and a zero-point field, which will wipe out all life on Earth. In order to complete the Machine, West had to locate six oblong diamonds known as'the pillars', place them in six underground Vertices at their allotted times. Two pillars had to be placed in December 2007, the remaining four in March 2008 before the arrival of the'Dark Sun'.
However, due to the knowledge of the Machine having been lost over the millennia, West first had to locate the Six Sacred Stones, which give him the information about the Machine he needs. By the end of the book, two pillars had been placed, the various sacred stones had passed between many groups. Jack West Jr is the main protagonist of the book, he is codenamed Huntsman. He is the son of codenamed Wolf and half brother of Rapier, he was last seen falling into the abyss with the Japanese-American Marine A. J. Isaki; the second sub-group was in an airfield in Botswana, as they were unable to reach the Second Vertex in time. The group is composed of Prof. Max Epper; the items they have with them are the Seeing Stone of Delphi, a Neetha inclinometer. They were last seen escaping from a group of South African F-15's Zahir al Abbas is travelling to Israel to rescue his friend, Ben Cohen from the Mossad who have placed a 16 million reward on his head for betraying them; the main antagonist, Johnathan West Sr, aka'Wolf', holds all the cards at the end.
He has the Philosopher's Stone, the Firestone, the Killing Stone of the Maya, the pillars from the first two Vertices. He has captured Lily West's friend, Alby Calvin, leaves him at the Second Vertex; the secondary antagonists, who desire to destroy the world to erase Japan's humiliation after World War II, they are led by Epper's colleague, Professor'Tank' Tanaka, have the third pillar in their possession. They try to kill the twins and professor Max Epper Every identity of the Five Warriors were revealed to be Moses, Genghis Khan and Napoleon Bonaparte and the fifth is Jack West Jr himself; each of the Soldiers/Leaders had, in someway, been involved in the mystery of the capstone/Dark Sun/6 sacred stones. Genghis Khan held the locations to the entrances to the temples. Jack's role, however, is revealed at the end of the book to be fighting against his father to save the world from the Dark Sun; the novel revolves around the placement of six Pillars at specific dates and times which coincide with astronomical events.
The placement of these Pillars activates the Great Machine, which protects the earth from the deadly rays of the Dark Star/Sun. When these pillars are placed, whoever removes it from the pyramid receives the individual'reward' of that Pillar; the First Pillar was given to Jack's team by Vulture. The First Vertex is in Egypt, under Lake Nasser near Abu Simbel and the First Pillar must be placed there on 10 December 2007 at 6:12am, during a Titanic Rising; the Reward for the placement of this pillar is Knowledge, revealed to be technical knowledge. Alby translates the four sides of the pillar, with Lily's help, discovers that one side is a variety of the carbon matrix, a super strong and lightweight form of carbon fibre. Another side is revealed to be a map of Sirius and its two companion stars, one of, a zero-point field like the Dark Sun; the Third side of the pillar contains the solution to the Universe Expansion Problem, while the final side is not explained. The Second Pillar was in the deep jungles of the Congo.
The Vertex of the Second Pillar is beneath the Cape of Good Hope. The Second Pillar must be placed one week after the First on 17 December 2007 sometime around 2:55am, again during a Titanic Rising; the Reward for the placement of this pillar is Heat, believed to be the secret to Perpetual motion and an endless energy source. The Third Pillar was located in a trap system within the Third Vertex; the Third Vertex is located on the north-west coast of the Japanese island of Hokkaido. Its Pillar must be placed on 11 March 2008 during a Titanic Rising; the Reward for the laying of this pillar is Sight, the ability to see the death of the person whose blood is on the Pillar. The Fourth Pillar was in the possession of the British Royal family and was handed to Pooh Bear and the Twins in an attempt to lay it; the Fourth Vertex is at Bristol Channel. The Fourth and Fifth Pillars
Orson Scott Card
Orson Scott Card is an American novelist, public speaker and columnist. He is known best for science fiction, his novel Ender's Game and its sequel Speaker for the Dead both won Hugo and Nebula Awards, making Card the only author to win both science fiction's top U. S. prizes in consecutive years. A feature film adaptation of Ender's Game, which Card co-produced, was released in 2013. Card is a professor of English at Southern Virginia University, has written two books on creative writing, hosts writing bootcamps and workshops, serves as a judge in the Writers of the Future contest. A great-great-grandson of Brigham Young, Card is a practicing member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In addition to producing a large body of fiction works, he has offered political and social commentary in his columns and other writing. Card is the son of Willard Richards Card and Peggy Jane, the third of six children and the older brother of composer and arranger Arlen Card. Card was born in Richland and grew up in Santa Clara, California as well as Mesa and Orem, Utah.
He served as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Brazil and graduated from Brigham Young University and the University of Utah. D. program at the University of Notre Dame. For part of the 1970s Card worked as an associate editor of the Ensign, an official magazine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Influences on his fiction include Heinlein, Mitchell, Asimov and Bradbury. Card lives in Greensboro, North Carolina, a place that has played a significant role in Ender's Game and many of his other works. Card began his writing career as a poet, studying with Clinton F. Larson at BYU. During his studies as a theater major, he began "doctoring" scripts, adapting fiction for readers theater production, writing his own one-act and full-length plays, several of which were produced by faculty directors at BYU, he explored fiction writing, beginning with stories that evolved into The Worthing Saga. After returning to Provo, Utah from his Church of Jesus Christ mission in Brazil, Card started the Utah Valley Repertory Theatre Company, which for two summers produced plays at "the Castle", a Depression-era outdoor amphitheater behind the state psychiatric hospital in Provo.
Meanwhile, he took part-time employment as a proofreader at BYU Press made the jump to full-time employment as a copy editor. In 1976, in the midst of a paid role performing in the church's musical celebrating America's Bicentennial, he secured employment as an assistant editor at the Ensign, moved to Salt Lake City, it was while working at Ensign. His short story "Gert Fram" appeared in the July 1977 fine arts issue of that magazine under the pseudonym Byron Walley, he wrote the short story "Ender's Game" while working at the BYU press, submitted it to several publications. The idea for the novel of the same title came from the short story about a school where boys can fight in space, it was purchased by Ben Bova at Analog Science Fiction and Fact and published in the August 1977 issue. Meanwhile, he started writing half-hour audioplays on LDS Church history, the New Testament, other subjects for Living Scriptures in Ogden, Utah, he completed his master's degree in English at the University of Utah in 1981 and began a doctoral program at the University of Notre Dame, but the recession of the early 1980s caused the flow of new book contracts to temporarily dry up.
He returned to full-time employment as the book editor for Compute! magazine in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1983. In October of that year, a new contract for the Alvin Maker "trilogy" allowed him to return to freelancing. Ender's Game and its sequel Speaker for the Dead were both awarded the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award, making Card the only author to win both of science fiction's top prizes in consecutive years. Card continued the series with Xenocide, Children of the Mind, Ender's Shadow, Shadow of the Hegemon, Shadow Puppets, "First Meetings in the Enderverse", Shadow of the Giant, A War of Gifts, Ender in Exile, a book that takes place after Ender's Game and before Speaker for the Dead. Card has announced his plan to write Shadows Alive, a book that connects the "Shadow" series and "Speaker" series together. Shadows in Flight serves as a bridge towards this final book, he co-wrote the formic war novels: Earth Unaware, Earth Afire, Earth Awakens and The Swarm as prequels to the Ender novels, with two more novels in the pipeline, which will result in two prequel formic war trilogies.
These trilogies relay, among the history of Mazer Rackham. Children of the Fleet is the first novel in a new sequel series, called Fleet School. In 2008 Card announced that Ender's Game would be made into a movie, but that he did not have a director lined up, it was to be produced by Chartoff Productions, Card was writing the screenplay himself. The film was made several years and released in 2013, with Asa Butterfield in the title role and Gavin Hood directing. Other works include the alternative histories The Tales of Alvin Maker, Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus, The Homecoming Saga, Hidd
The Argonauts were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, named after its builder, Argus. "Argonauts" means "Argo sailors". They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe in the area. After the death of King Cretheus, the Aeolian Pelias usurped the throne from his half-brother Aeson and became king of Iolcus in Thessaly; because of this unlawful act, an oracle warned him. Pelias put to death every prominent descendant of Aeolus he could, but spared Aeson because of the pleas of their mother Tyro. Instead, Pelias forced him to renounce his inheritance. Aeson married Alcimede. Pelias intended to kill the baby at once, but Alcimede summoned her kinswomen to weep over him as if he were stillborn, she smuggled the baby to Mount Pelion. He was raised by the trainer of heroes; when Jason was 20 years old, an oracle ordered him to dress as a Magnesian and head to the Iolcan court.
While traveling Jason lost his sandal crossing the muddy Anavros river while helping an old woman. The goddess was angry with King Pelias for killing his stepmother Sidero after she had sought refuge in Hera's temple. Another oracle warned Pelias to be on his guard against a man with one shoe. Pelias was presiding over a sacrifice to Poseidon with several neighboring kings in attendance. Among the crowd stood a tall youth in leopard skin with only one sandal. Pelias recognized, he could not kill him. Instead, he asked Jason: "What would you do if an oracle announced that one of your fellow-citizens were destined to kill you?" Jason replied that he would send him to go and fetch the Golden Fleece, not knowing that Hera had put those words in his mouth. Jason learned that Pelias was being haunted by the ghost of Phrixus. Phrixus had fled from Orchomenus riding on a divine ram to avoid being sacrificed and took refuge in Colchis where he was denied proper burial. According to an oracle, Iolcus would never prosper unless his ghost was taken back in a ship, together with the golden ram's fleece.
This fleece now hung from a tree in the grove of the Colchian Ares, guarded night and day by a dragon that never slept. Pelias swore before Zeus that he would give up the throne at Jason's return while expecting that Jason's attempt to steal the Golden Fleece would be a fatal enterprise. However, Hera acted in Jason's favour during the perilous journey. There is no definite list of the Argonauts. H. J. Rose explains this was because "an Argonautic ancestor was an addition to the proudest of pedigrees." The following list is collated from several lists given in ancient sources. Several more names are discoverable from other sources: Amyrus, eponym of a Thessalian city, is given by Stephanus of Byzantium as "one of the Argonauts". Philammon, son of Apollo was reported one of the Argonauts. Jason, along with his other 49 crew-mates, sailed off from Iolcus to Colchis to fetch the golden fleece; the Argonauts first stopped at Lemnos. The reason of, as follows, for several years, the women did not honor and make offerings to Aphrodite and because of her anger, she visited them with a noisome smell.
Therefore, their spouses took captive women from the neighboring country of Thrace and bedded with them. Dishonored, all the Lemnian women, except Hypsipyle, were instigated by the same goddess in conspiring to kill their fathers and husbands, they deposed King Thoas who should have died along with the whole tribe of men, but was secretly spared by his daughter Hypsipyle. She put Thoas on board a ship. In the meantime, the Argonauts sailing along, the guardian of the harbour Iphinoe saw them and announced their coming to Hypsipyle, the new queen. Polyxo who by virtue of her middle age, gave advice that she should put them under obligation to the gods of hospitality and invite them to a friendly reception. Hypsipyle bedded with him, she bore him sons and Nebrophonus or Deipylus. The other Argonauts consorted with the Lemnian women, their descendants were called Minyans, since some among them had emigrated from Minyan Orchomenus to Iolcus.. The Lemnian women gave the names of the Argonauts to the children.
Delayed many days there, they were chided by Hercules, departed. But when the other women learned that Hypsipyle had spared her father, they tried to kill her, she fled from them, but pirates captured and took her to Thebes, where they sold her as a slave to King Lycus. Her son Euneus became king of Lemnos. In order to purify the island from blood guilt, he ordered that all Lemnian hearth-fires be put off for nine days and a new fire be brought on a ship from Apollo's altar in Delos. After Lemnos, the Argonauts made their second stop at Bear Mountain, an island of the Propontis shaped like a bear; the locals, called the Doliones, were all descended from Poseidon. Their king Cyzicus, son of Eusorus, who had just got married received the Argonauts
A paperback known as a softcover or سعيد, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.
These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.
British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.
De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.
This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that
Dewey Decimal Classification
The Dewey Decimal Classification, colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Described in a four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011, it is available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers; the Decimal Classification introduced the concepts of relative location and relative index which allow new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. Libraries had given books permanent shelf locations that were related to the order of acquisition rather than topic; the classification's notation makes use of three-digit Arabic numerals for main classes, with fractional decimals allowing expansion for further detail.
Using Arabic numerals for symbols, it is flexible to the degree that numbers can be expanded in linear fashion to cover special aspects of general subjects. A library assigns a classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume in a position relative to other books in the library, on the basis of its subject; the number makes it possible to find any book and to return it to its proper place on the library shelves. The classification system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries. Melvil Dewey was self-declared reformer, he was a founding member of the American Library Association and can be credited with the promotion of card systems in libraries and business. He developed the ideas for his library classification system in 1873 while working at Amherst College library, he applied the classification to the books in that library, until in 1876 he had a first version of the classification. In 1876, he published the classification in pamphlet form with the title A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library.
He used the pamphlet, published in more than one version during the year, to solicit comments from other librarians. It is not known who received copies or how many commented as only one copy with comments has survived, that of Ernest Cushing Richardson, his classification system was mentioned in an article in the first issue of the Library Journal and in an article by Dewey in the Department of Education publication "Public Libraries in America" in 1876. In March 1876, he applied for, received copyright on the first edition of the index; the edition was 44 pages in length, with 2,000 index entries, was printed in 200 copies. The second edition of the Dewey Decimal system, published in 1885 with the title Decimal Classification and Relativ Index for arranging and indexing public and private libraries and for pamflets, notes, scrap books, index rerums, etc. comprised 314 pages, with 10,000 index entries. Five hundred copies were produced. Editions 3–14, published between 1888 and 1942, used a variant of this same title.
Dewey modified and expanded his system for the second edition. In an introduction to that edition Dewey states that "nearly 100 persons hav contributed criticisms and suggestions". One of the innovations of the Dewey Decimal system was that of positioning books on the shelves in relation to other books on similar topics; when the system was first introduced, most libraries in the US used fixed positioning: each book was assigned a permanent shelf position based on the book's height and date of acquisition. Library stacks were closed to all but the most privileged patrons, so shelf browsing was not considered of importance; the use of the Dewey Decimal system increased during the early 20th century as librarians were convinced of the advantages of relative positioning and of open shelf access for patrons. New editions were readied as supplies of published editions were exhausted though some editions provided little change from the previous, as they were needed to fulfill demand. In the next decade, three editions followed on: the 3rd, 4th, 5th.
Editions 6 through 11 were published from 1899 to 1922. The 6th edition was published in a record 7,600 copies, although subsequent editions were much lower. During this time, the size of the volume grew, edition 12 swelled to 1243 pages, an increase of 25% over the previous edition. In response to the needs of smaller libraries which were finding the expanded classification schedules difficult to use, in 1894, the first abridged edition of the Dewey Decimal system was produced; the abridged edition parallels the full edition, has been developed for most full editions since that date. By popular request, in 1930, the Library of Congress began to print Dewey Classification numbers on nearly all of its cards, thus making the system available to all libraries making use of the Library of Congress card sets. Dewey's was not the only library classification available. Charles Ammi Cutter published the Expansive Classification in 1882, with initial encouragement from Melvil Dewey. Cutter's system was not adopted by many libraries, with one major exception: it was used as the basis for the Library of Congress Classification system.
In 1895, the International Institute of Bibliography, located in Belgium and led by Paul Otlet, contacted Dewey about the possibility of translating the classification into French, using the classification system for bibliographies. This would have