The River Bure is a river in the county of Norfolk, most of it in the Broads. The Bure rises near Melton Constable, 11 miles upstream of Aylsham, the original head of navigation. Nowadays, the head of navigation is 10 miles downstream at Coltishall Bridge. After Aylsham Lock and Burgh Bridge, the Bure passes through Buxton Lammas, Belaugh, Horning, Ludham Bridge, past St. Benet's Abbey, through Oby, Stokesby, along the northern border of the Halvergate Marshes, through Runham and Great Yarmouth where it meets Breydon Water and flows into the sea at Gorleston, it has the River Thurne and the River Ant. There is Muck Fleet which connects the Trinity Broads to the main network; the River Bure has been navigable for some 31 miles as far as Horstead Mill, near Coltishall, since at least 1685, when cargoes of coal and timber were carried to within 1 mile of Meyton Manor House. It was stated at the time. Vessels could not travel beyond Coltishall, so Aylsham was served by carts, either loaded from wherries at Coltishall and carried north, or loaded from boats at Cromer and carried south.
Plans to extend the limit of navigation were drawn up in 1773. An Act of Parliament was obtained on 7 April 1773, authorising improvements from Coltishall to Aylsham, which John Adey estimated would cost £6,000; some £1,500 had been raised or promised, the balance was to be funded by subscriptions. Adey acted as clerk to the Bure Commissioners. Work began on 29 June 1774, the lock and cut at Coltishall were completed by 16 March 1775, when the first boat used the lock. Progress after, slow, for in October 1777 Smith announced that he had spent £3,600 so far, but estimated that a further £2,951 would be required to complete the work, it appears that the money had run out, but Smith was persuaded to carry on after 18 traders and landowners provided loans of between £50 and £150. John Green of Wroxham was appointed as joint engineer in March 1779, the new waterway opened in October 1779. Five locks were provided, at Aylsham, Burgh-near-Aylsham Mill, Oxnead Mill, Buxton Mill at Oxnead Lamas and Coltishall.
Within a month, the Commissioners found that silting of the river bed had occurred, reducing the navigable depth, dredging of the river bed using a scoop, known locally as a didle, was a regular activity. Small wherries, capable of carrying 13 tons, were used for the carriage of flour, agricultural produce and timber. A brickyard at Oxnead was served by the boats, while below Coltishall, marl was carried away from pits which were served by a system of navigable dikes on the estate of Horstead Hall; the marl trade continued until 1870. At each of the mills, cuts were made to accommodate the locks, but at Aylsham a longer cut of about 1 mile was made, ending at a basin where warehouses were constructed. Boats could get from there to Aylsham Mill Pool, which enabled them to deliver grain and carry flour away; the navigation was reasonably successful until 1880, when railway competition arrived, in the form of the East Norfolk Railway, which followed the Bure valley. The East Norfolk became part of the Great Eastern Railway.
Further competition arrived in 1883, when the Eastern and Midlands Railway opened a railway station near the terminal basin on its line from Melton Constable to North Walsham. Despite this, wherries were using the navigation until 1912, when a disastrous flood damaged the locks. Assessment of the damage suggested that repairs would cost £4,000, which the Commissioners could not find, so the navigation was abandoned; this act was formalised in 1928, when it was abandoned. Oxnead Lamas Lock was filled in, in 1933, but the other structures remain, although the lock gates have been replaced by sluices. Bure Valley Railway, a heritage railway Bure Valley Path Bure Marshes NNR, a national nature reserve Bure, a Category C men's prison in Scottow, Norfolk named after the river. Visit Aylsham and the Bure Valley Watermills & Windmills on the River Bure River Bure Literary History
The Norfolk wherry is a type of boat used on The Broads in Norfolk and Suffolk, England. Three main types were developed over its life, all featuring the distinctive gaff rig with a single, high-peaked sail and the mast stepped well forward. Wherries were sail and oar craft dating back to 1604; these were small craft, in 1727 being of 8 tons net tonnage. They were still sail and oar boats, fitted with hoops and canvas tilts for the comfort of their passengers, they would have provided a service small perishable cargoes. Alongside these early wherries were the bigger keels, which were transom-sterned clinker-built barges with a square sail on a mast stepped amidships of about 54 feet by 14 feet and able to carry 30 tons of goods; the keel had been built since the Middle Ages and the design went back to the Viking invasion. After 1800, the Norfolk Keel disappeared because a wherry could be sailed with fewer crew, it had limited manoeuvrability and lacked speed. The'Trading Wherry' developed from the Keel.
It is double-ended, its hull painted black with a white nose to aid visibility after dusk. Most trading wherries were clinker-built, but Albion, surviving today, was the sole example to be carvel-built, they carry a gaff rig, the sail also black from being treated with a mixture of tar and fish oil to protect it from the elements. The mast tops and wind vanes were painted or shaped to identify the wherry's owner - a traditional design is a'Jenny Morgan', after a folk song character. Sizes varied. Wherries were able to reach larger boats just off the coast at Great Yarmouth or Lowestoft and take their cargoes off to be transported inland through the broads and rivers; the last trading wherry, was built in 1912. The'Pleasure Wherry' evolved. Enterprising owners realised that conversion to carry passengers was a way to replace the lost income as the Broads were at the same time being discovered as a destination for tourism and recreation. Early examples featured hammocks and a stove in the hold of a trader, but boatbuilders soon began to make craft for pleasure sailing and holidays, using the same hull and rig design but incorporating living quarters instead of a cargo hold.
Some were fitted out to a high standard indeed. For some holidaymakers, the distinction between the working boats and pleasure wherries was not strong enough, the sleeker and more genteel'Wherry Yacht' was developed; the main distinguishing features are a smooth, white yacht-like hull and a large counter-stern providing a quiet seating area away from the sail winch and any quanting activity. Wherries came according to the river they used; the North Walsham & Dilham Canal Wherry was maximum 50 ft x 12 ft x 3' 6". The River Ant Wherry was 50' x 12' max; the River Bure Wherry was 54' x 12' 8", but for the Aylsham Navigation, i.e. the upper reaches of the Bure, the boats had to be 12' 6" x 3' 6" maximum. On the southern Broads, steam wherries were used; the River Waveney Wherry was 70' x 16' max. The mast is pivoted with a large counterbalance weight at the bottom; this enables the wherry to lower the mast for passing under bridges. The mast can be dropped, the wherry continues forward under its momentum and the mast is raised again on the far side by the crew of two.
If there is no wind, or the wherry must be turned or otherwise manoeuvred, quant poles are used to provide the required force. A special wherry wheelbarrow was used to unload e.g. stone, from the wherries. It was strengthened with iron bands, it had no legs, therefore it could be rested on the 11-inch-wide planks on the side of the wherry. All types of wherry became uneconomic to run, but a small number have been saved either by private individuals or charities. Most of the survivors can be seen sailing up and down the rivers and broads today, although some are awaiting full restoration. Of the eight surviving examples of recreational and commercial sailing wherries, seven are on the National Register of Historic Ships. An eighth wherry listed on the Register is Jester a motorized ice wherry of 1923. In April 2011, Wherry Yacht Charter Charitable Trust opened their restored base in Wroxham, where work on the restoration and maintenance of the Edwardian pleasure wherry Hathor and wherry yachts Norada and Olive can be undertaken in all weathers.
The site located at Barton House was part of a £1.5 million project. As of Easter 2012, White Moth is based here. Norada was relaunched after restoration in July 2012, while Olive celebrated in July 2013; the Norfolk Wherry Trust keep trading wherry Albion at Forsythe Wherry Yard, off Womack Water at Ludham. Solace can be seen on Wroxham Broad in the sailing season, while Ardea is seen at Southgates yard in Horning. Images of wherries can be seen on many pub signs and village signs. There is a mosaic of a wherry at North Walsham, part of a special monument commemorating the Millennium celebrations. Arthur Ransome's children's novel. Black Sailed Traders – Roy Clark. Wherries and Waterways – Robert Malster. Albion.
Martham Broad is a 60-hectare National Nature Reserve north of Great Yarmouth in Norfolk. It is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, is part of the Upper Thurne Broads and Marshes Site of Special Scientific Interest, it is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, The Broads Special Area of Conservation. This reserve is composed of two shallow broads divided by the River Thurne, together with fen and marshes. There are a number of bat species and breeding birds include bearded tits, common terns, Cetti's warblers and marsh harriers. There is public access to the site
In the United Kingdom and Ireland coarse fishing refers to angling for freshwater fish which are traditionally considered undesirable as a food or game fish. Freshwater game fish are all salmonids—most salmon and char—so coarse fish known as rough fish, are freshwater fish that are not salmonids. There is disagreement over whether grayling should be classified as a coarse fish. Fly fishing is the technique used for freshwater game fishing, while other angling techniques are used for coarse fishing; the sport of coarse fishing and the techniques it uses are popular in the United Kingdom and mainland Europe, as well as in some former British Commonwealth countries and among British expatriates. The distinction between coarse fish and game fish has no taxonomic basis, it originated in the United Kingdom in the early 19th century. Prior to that time, recreational fishing was a sport of the gentry, who angled for salmon and trout and called them game fish. There was a view that other fish did not make as good eating, they were disdained as coarse fish.
Coarse fish have scales that are larger than the scales of game fish, they tend to inhabit warmer and stiller waters. A large array of baits can be used for a variety of fish. Baits used will vary accordingly to many factors; some of these deciding factors include the venue being fished, the species of fish being targeted, time of year, water colour. The options of either moving or still water plays a part in the size, colour or style of bait being used; when fishing on rivers for game fish, i.e. brown, rainbow and sea trout, salmon and in some cases grayling, artificial flies, small spinners and lures are a popular choice for many game anglers due to the way they intentionally mimic a fly or small fish on the surface and top layers of the water, enticing the fish into feeding as it sits among actual live flies and fish fry. Both floating and sinking flies and lures can be used to fish either on the surface or in the upper layers of the water. In summer months, a spinner or fly manoeuvred across the surface will bring about a take from a fish, due to the tendency of fish to move into the warmest part of the water, the surface and first layer of water below.
When fishing a river for coarse fish species such as chub, roach and bream, the favourite hook baits tend to be maggot, worm, pellets and luncheon meat. Loose feed can be any of the above baits with a particle bait fed by hand, in a feeder, or by catapult, sometimes in the form of hemp seed, a manufactures fishmeal ground bait. For stillwater fishing and commercial fisheries, a huge array of baits are available. Many of the old favourites are still as potent today as they have been. For most species, hook baits such as luncheon meat, maggot and pellets will work; when targeting more specific species such as specimen carp, large pellets, large bunches of maggots, large lungworm, tiger nuts, meat chunks from cat food can work well. Micro pellets softened along with groundbait can be fed alongside all hook baits mentioned. In the summer months, fish such as carp can be seen feeding off the surface. In this case, a floating dog biscuit or piece of bread floated on the surface can be ideal. For predatory fish, either dead or live bait is used in the form of a small fish, such as a live roach.
However, many venues do not allow this practice, so dead baiting is used for larger predators such as pike, zander and eels. A piece of mackerel bought from a fishmonger can be used as well. Spinning, the use of an artificial lure, is widely used for predators; these can come in all shapes and colours, to mimic injured fish and small fast fish. Used at all depths, these can be an exciting method to catch perch. For all anglers in England and Wales, anybody aged 12 and over must purchase a valid rod licence before fishing; this will enable anglers to fish in England and Wales for non migratory trout and coarse fish. A single rod licence will enable an angler to fish with up to three rods at any one time. Many specimen carp anglers fish with 3 or 4 rods at once on large lakes to maximise lake coverage and give greater chance of catching. Most commercial fisheries, some rivers are operated on a day ticket basis. In the UK, these can range in price depending on the venue, they are paid on the bank with a representative of the venue collecting the fees from anglers from the peg at some time during the day, or prior to commencing fishing.
In some cases, season tickets can be purchased. Some lakes and river stretches are operated by angling clubs. Application forms can be available from angling club websites. Waiting lists may indicate the waters operated by the club are sought after can be worth the wait. Other fishing venues can be operated by syndicates where membership is by invitation, they can sometimes be joined by contacting a senior member of the syndicate. Depending on the situation, different types of fishing tackle can be used. Most common is the rod and reel, the rod being between 8 and 13 feet long, manufactured of tubular carbon fibre or splits of Tonkin bamboo. A reel is attached near the base of the rod to hold a long length of line, run to the tip of the rod through eyelets. Once cast out, the line can be retrieved by winding a handle on the reel. However, the use of "poles" is now widespread. Here, the line is fixed to the tip of
Horsey Mere is one of the Norfolk Broads in the east of England. It is reached by the River Thurne; the nearest settlements are West Somerton. Horsey Mere is part of a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the mere is owned by the National Trust. Brief details Map sources for Horsey Mere
Horning is an ancient village and parish in the English county of Norfolk. It had a population of 1,033 in the 2001 census. Horning parish lies on the northern bank of the River Bure south of the River Thurne and is located in The Broads National Park. For the purposes of local government, it falls within the district of North Norfolk, although areas alongside the rivers and broads fall into the executive area of the Broads Authority; the name Horning means the "folk who live on the high ground between the rivers". Its history dates back to 1020 when the manor was given by King Canute to the newly founded Abbey of St. Benet at Hulme; the Bishop of Norwich, as Abbot of St. Benets, is still Lord of the Manor. Horning Parish extends along the south bank of the River Bure to Thurne Mouth and includes the ruins of St Benet's Abbey & St. James Hospital. St. Benet's Abbey is a Grade I listed building, dates back to the 9th Century; the importance of the Abbey as a medieval place of pilgrimage is reflected in the medieval finds of two papal seals, that would have secured documents from the Pope.
The Church of St. Benedict dates back to the 13th Century. Horning is situated on the River Bure between Ludham. A ferry plied across the river for more than 1,000 years. Horning has an entry in the Domesday Book, noted under the name'Horningam'. In 1086, Horning had 18 villagers, 11'smallholders', 4 cattle, 10 pigs, 360 sheep and the taxable value was £4. Archaeologists have found ancient earthworks in Horning, which run alongside the River Bure dating to the early Saxon period; the earliest ancient monument is possible burial pit. Neolithic and Bronze Age artefacts have been found; the village of Horning is a popular tourist destination within the Norfolk Broads, having attractions both around the village and surrounding areas. The village lies on the north bank of the River Bure, has many waterside properties, shops, tea-rooms, boat-trips as well as other features to enjoy. Horning is picturesque, described as the prettiest village on the broads; the sights to see are: the River Bure from the landing stages, Lower Street, St. Benedicts Church and many properties with thatched roofs.
Following Lower Street to the east, leads to the school, leisure centre and the old riverbank. North of Horning are the broads of Barton and Burntfen, village of Neatishead. West is the popular area of Wroxham. East lies the quaint village of Ludham. To the south, across the river via the ferry, are Bure Marshes and village of Woodbastwick. Adjacent to the ferry, The Ferry Inn reopened in 2010 after a period of closure; the Ferry Inn was destroyed in a Second World War bombing raid by the German Luftwaffe on 26 April 1941, during which 15 bombs are believed to have been dropped on Horning and the surrounding area by a single aircraft. Most landed in the local marshes but one hit the ferry and one hit the Inn, where 21 of the 24 people in the pub at the time were killed; the Ferry Inn was open for business with a makeshift bar only three weeks later. Rebuilt in the 1950s, the pub was damaged again by fire in 1965. Horning is home to "Southern Comfort" the Mississippi Cruise boat, which leaves from the staithe adjacent to The Swan Inn.
The village is popular for sail & motor boating, Horning Sailing Club hosts regular annual events. Several boatyards specialise in boat hire, boat building and repairs. There are two marinas; the River Bure is navigable from the North Sea at Great Yarmouth all the way to Horning. The village centre is quite small, consisting of just a single street, a village green, The Swan Inn pub, a few shops and restaurants and a riverbank adjacent to the River Bure; the main Village Hall, playing fields and children's play area are located behind Lower Street on the upper side of the village. Outside the village centre is the popular Bewilderwood theme park, voted best large attraction in the East of England, as well as having many other UK and International awards. Broadland Cycle Hire is located within Bewilderwood, from which there are many good cycle routes through rural areas to villages and broads. Other local attractions nearby include Barton Broad boardwalk, Neatishead village, Ludham village, shopping in Hoveton & Wroxham.
A short distance away are many beautiful beaches such as Waxham, Sea Palling and Winterton-on-Sea, as well as the more popular holiday destinations of Great Yarmouth and Cromer. The North Norfolk Coast is 1hr away, a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Horning lies just off the A1062 road, a designated "Rural Route"; this Rural Route starts at Hoveton, passes through Horning and ends in Potter Heigham. The city of Norwich is a 25min drive away. Norwich Park & Ride being 12 mins away; the nearest railway station is'Hoveton & Wroxham'. Journey time to London is 2hrs 30mins, with trains every hour; the 12A bus connects Horning with ` Wroxham' station. Norwich International Airport has scheduled flights to places such as Amsterdam, Edinburgh and Exeter; the airport is a 26min drive away. Horning is served by the 12A bus operated by First; every 30mins on-peak, every 1hr off-peak. There are 4 bus stops in Horning on the A1062 at Bewilderwood, Ropes Hill, Mill Hill, Horning Upper Street and Ludham Bridge.
There is a high quality cycle path between Hoveton, which takes about 15 mins to cycle. There is a self-serve cycle hire centre in Horning adjacent to the Swan Car Park, with further self-hire locatio
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm