YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Alan Melikdjanian known by the alias Captain Disillusion, is a Latvian-born independent filmmaker. He is the founder of Amelik Entertainment, LLC, a South Florida-based video production company specializing in unique and inventive films, web series and music videos. Melikdjanian has been active in the founding of video-sharing sites Openfilm and Filmnet.com, is the creator of the YouTube web-series Captain Disillusion, a comedic series of videos promoting critical thinking and skepticism themed around disproving and explaining fantastical or supernatural viral videos. He regularly attended The Amaz!ng Meeting, an annual conference that focused on science and critical thinking, from 2008 to its final meeting in 2015. Melikdjanian was born to Soviet-era circus performer parents, his father, was a well-known performer. He toured the Soviet Union with his parents until beginning school at age 6, at which time he would live with his grandmother in Riga. Melikdjanian is of Russian descent. During that time, Melikdjanian assumed he'd grow up to be a circus performer himself: I thought I'd do magic, maybe.
I'd get to know all the magicians. They'd show me little sleight-of-hand things, I was all set to go that route when I was maybe 5, 6 years old. In Riga, during the school year, Melikdjanian would spend most of his free time trying to copy the styles of Disney animators. During summer, he'd resume his circus life on the road. At the age of 4, Melikdjanian appeared in the 1984 Russian film Shutki v storonu though his image remained on the movie's poster. At the age of 12, Melikdjanian and his family moved to the United States, he attended high school at William H. Turner Tech, in Miami, studied video production and 3-D animation, he continued to do so at the International Fine Arts College, now known as the Miami International University of Art & Design. He graduated from college with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Film Production. In 2001, Melikdjanian composed and directed the low-budget independent film The Realm about an introverted high school student who worries his teachers because he likes to write short stories full of violence and gore.
That year, Melikdjanian worked as an animator on the English-language, award-winning film Zelimo, a coming of age film that tells the story of a young Jewish farm boy who embarks on a journey from Russia to America in search of a better life. Melikdjanian was the director, writer and composer of the 2006 direct-to-DVD Russian-language film Citizen Mavzik, the story of a Russian immigrant family's assimilation into American culture; the film was produced by Vilalan Productions, named after his father Vilen. The movie took three years to make, first premiered at the Cinema Paradiso, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida; the film first streamed live on RTVi, on February 4, 2007. However, it aired during the Super Bowl; the same day, Melikdjanian posted a humorous video expressing his frustration to YouTube. Melikdjanian is the co-founder and creative director of FilmNet.com, is the co-founder and chief creative officer of Openfilm. Both are intended as alternatives to popular video-sharing site YouTube, but for serious amateur filmmakers who "don't want to place their work alongside YouTube's mediocrities."In 2009, Melikdjanian founded his own video production company, Amelik Entertainment, LLC, an abbreviation of what he has called his'unpronouncable' last name.
The company is involved in the pre-production and post-production of various independent films, music videos, etc. and showcases its efforts on its official website. He publishes his Captain Disillusion videos on his eponymous YouTube channel, which as of December 2018 has over 1.3 million subscribers and 85 million views. On his channel, he debunks, amongst other things and paranormal "hoax" videos, doing so humorously, with a heavy focus on visual effects, he edits his videos using various software programs beginning with Avid Media Composer followed by Adobe After Effects, Da Vinci Resolve. In his videos, he wears a vintage 1980s tracksuit, the skin of his entire body below the lower part of his face is covered in silvery paint, he introduced a sidekick, "Mr Flare" voiced by Melikdjanian. Melikdjanian described how he designed his superhero costume: When it came time to visualize him I just thought what do I have at hand? What can grab people's attention? And because it's supposed to be a superhero, what haven't we seen before?
What do I have at my disposal that I can pull off in terms of attire and make-up? And that's. I got some of this chrome colored make-up at the local party store and I had all those clothes and I would've done my whole face but it's too much work, it works out in terms of illusion revealing reality, and... which one's the reality? Firstly, the Captain addresses the audience. A typical introduction to his videos is Greetings, Captain Disillusion here. Secondly, he goes on to show a popular video a paranormal or viral video which is'too good to be true.' Thirdly, he reviews the footage, utilizing his expertise in digital editing, to'break down' the video and show how the end result was accomplished. He likes to recreate effects from the videos he debunks incorporating this into episodes, he ends each video with his motto: "Love with your heart. Use your head for everything else." His videos conclude with a humorous ending sequence, which relates with the preceding video. In addition to his regular Captain Disillusion series, Melikdjanian uploads'Quick D' episodes, which he describes as "Shorter, crisper'debunks' that will be posted mor
Modern Marvels is an American worldwide television series that aired on the History Channel. The program focuses on how technologies are used in modern society, it is among History's first, longest-running programs, having first aired on History's first day of broadcasting on January 1, 1995, its last episode aired on April 11, 2015. Modern Marvels has produced over 650 one-hour episodes covering various topics involving science, electronics, engineering, industry, mass production and agriculture; each episode discusses the history and production of several related items. To fit the network's format, Modern Marvels focuses a significant portion of the episode on the history of the subject; the show began to premiere new episodes in January 2010, not having done so through all of 2009. In August 2010, History Channel began to air older episodes, edited to fit a 30-minute time slot, under the title Modern Marvels: Essentials. In October 2011, Modern Marvels began airing first-run episodes on History 2 in addition to its main run on History Channel.
Reruns of the series air on the digital broadcast network Quest. Modern Marvels aired a special spin-off called Engineering Disasters; these periodic episodes describe the circumstances of situations in which technology does not work such as building collapses and airplane crashes, resulting in spectacular failures. Including an episode on New Orleans and another on the 1970s, 24 original Engineering Disasters episodes have been on Modern Marvels; the packaging on the box set of Engineering Disasters 4-20 plus New Orleans describes the series as such: "Dark clouds with silver linings, Modern Marvels: Engineering Disasters presents the tragic, yet invaluable, handmaidens of technological progress." Distinct from other History Channel series, the introduction of Modern Marvels features visuals and sounds of a bolt being turned by a ratchet wrench, followed by a computer-generated sequence involving construction workers building and hanging the title. Several narrators were used in the history of the series.
The last and longest-running is Max Raphael, who has narrated other History Channel series, such as Command Decisions. The History Channel has repackaged some episodes that aired in other series and stand-alone specials into episodes of Modern Marvels, such as Ice Road Truckers, which aired in 2000 as part of the series Suicide Missions; these episodes are not narrated by Raphael. Bruce Nash is credited with creating the series. Don Cambou has acted as executive producer on over 350 episodes for Actuality Productions, the production company behind the series. Mega Builders How It's Made How Do They Do It? HowStuffWorks Official website Modern Marvels on IMDb Modern Marvels at TV.com
Bubble gum is a type of chewing gum, designed to be inflated out of the mouth as a bubble. While there is a well-known "bubblegum flavor", that being a generic "fruity" flavor, which artificial flavorings called esters are mixed to obtain it varies from one company to another. It's thought to have a vaguely cherry-banana flavor. In modern chewing gum, if natural rubber such as chicle is used, it must pass several purity and cleanliness tests. However, most modern types of chewing gum use synthetic gum based materials; these materials allow for longer lasting flavor, a better texture, a reduction in tackiness. In 1928, Walter Diemer, an accountant for the Fleer Chewing Gum Company in Philadelphia, was experimenting with new gum recipes. One recipe, based on a formula for a chewing gum called "Blibber Blubber", was found to be less sticky than regular chewing gum, stretched more easily, it was a dingy grey color, so Diemer added red dye, that being what he had on hand at the time. This gum became successful and was named by the president of Fleer as Dubble Bubble because of its stretchy texture.
The original bubble gum was pink in color because, the dye that Diemer had most on hand at the time. This remained the dominant kind of bubble gum until after WWII, when Bazooka bubble gum entered the market; until the 1970s, bubble gum still tended to stick to one's face. At that time, synthetic gum was introduced, which would never stick as a bubble popped; the two first brands in the US were Bubble Yum. In taste tests, children tend to prefer strawberry and blue raspberry flavors, rejecting more complex flavors as they say these make them want to swallow the gum rather than continue chewing. In 1996, Susan Montgomery Williams of Fresno, California set the Guinness World Record for largest bubblegum bubble blown, 26 inches in diameter. Chad Fell holds the record for "Largest Hands-free Bubblegum Bubble" at 20 inches, achieved on 24 April 2004. Blibber-Blubber Bubblegum broccoli Functional gum Gum base Gum industry Inca Kola List of chewing gum brands
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
The metric system is an internationally recognised decimalised system of measurement. It is in widespread use, where it is adopted, it is the only or most common system of weights and measures, it is now known as the International System of Units. It is used to measure everyday things such as the mass of a sack of flour, the height of a person, the speed of a car, the volume of fuel in its tank, it is used in science and trade. In its modern form, it consists of a set of base units including metre for length, kilogram for mass, second for time and ampere for electrical current, a few others, which together with their derived units, can measure any physical quantity. Metric system may refer to other systems of related base and derived units defined before the middle of the 20th century, some of which are still in limited use today; the metric system was designed to have properties that make it easy to use and applicable, including units based on the natural world, decimal ratios, prefixes for multiples and sub-multiples, a structure of base and derived units.
It is a coherent system, which means that its units do not introduce conversion factors not present in equations relating quantities. It has a property called rationalisation that eliminates certain constants of proportionality in equations of physics; the units of the metric system taken from observable features of nature, are now defined by phenomena such as the microwave frequency of a caesium atomic clock which measures seconds. One unit, the kilogram, remains defined in terms of a man-made artefact, but scientists voted to change the definition to one based on Planck's constant via a Kibble balance; the new definition is expected to be formally propagated on 20 May 2019. While there are numerous named derived units of the metric system, such as watt and lumen, other common quantities such as velocity and acceleration do not have their own unit, but are defined in terms of existing base and derived units such as metres per second for velocity. Though other or widespread systems of weights and measures continue to exist, such as the British imperial system and the US customary system of weights and measures, in those systems most or all of the units are now defined in terms of the metric system, such as the US foot, now a defined decimal fraction of a metre.
The metric system is extensible, new base and derived units are defined as needed in fields such as radiology and chemistry. The most recent derived unit, the katal, for catalytic activity, was added in 1999. Recent changes are directed toward defining base units in terms of invariant constants of physics to provide more precise realisations of units for advances in science and industry; the modern metric system consists of four electromechanical base units representing seven fundamental dimensions of measure: length, time, thermodynamic temperature, luminous intensity, quantity of substance. The units are: the metre for length kilogram for mass second for time ampere for electromagnetism kelvin for temperature candela for luminous intensity mole for quantityTogether they are sufficient for measuring any known quantity, without reference to further quantities or phenomena; the metre, ampere and mole are all defined in terms of other base units. For example, the speed of light is defined as 299,792,458 metres per second, the metre is derived from that constant and the definition of a second.
As a result, in dimensional analysis, they remain wholly separate concepts. There are 22 derived units with special names in the metric system, these are defined in terms of the base units or other named derived units. Eight of these units are electromagnetic quantities: volt, a unit of electrical potential ohm, a unit of electrical resistance tesla, a unit of magnetic flux density weber, a unit of magnetic flux farad, a unit of electrical capacitance henry, a unit of electrical inductance siemens, a unit of electrical conductance coulomb, a unit of electrical chargeFour of these units are mechanical quantities: watt, a unit of mechanical or electrical power newton, a unit of mechanical force joule, a unit of mechanical, electrical or thermodynamic energy pascal, a unit of pressureFive units represent measures of electromagnetic radiation and radioactivity: becquerel, a unit of radioactive decay sievert, a unit of absorbed ionising radiation gray, a unit of ionising radiation lux, a unit of luminous flux lumen, a unit of luminous intensityTwo units are measures of circular arcs and spherical surfaces: radian, a unit of circular arc steradian, a unit of spherical surface areaThree units are miscellaneous: degree Celsius, a unit of thermodynamic temperature katal, a unit of catalytic activity hertz, a unit of cycles per second Although SI, as published by the CGPM, should, in theory, meet all the requirements of commerce and technology, certain customary units of measure have acquired established positions within the world community.
In order that such units are used around the world, the CGPM catalogued such units in Tables 6 to 9 of the SI brochure. These categories are: Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units; this list includes the hour and minute, the angular measures, the historic metric units, the litre and hectare Non-SI units whose values in SI units must be obtained experimentally. This list includes various units of measure used in atomic and nuclear physics and in astronomy such as the dalton, the electron mass, the electron volt, the astronomical unit
Anthony Hirst is a British actor and theatre director, best known for playing Mike Barnes on the soap opera Hollyoaks and in Coronation Street as Paul Kershaw, the love interest of Eileen Grimshaw. Hirst narrates the UK version of How It's Made, shown on Quest and the Discovery channels, various programmes for Channel 4. Hirst's acting roles include Mike Barnes from Hollyoaks, Martin Gooch from The Ghost Squad and Steve Kingsley from Holby City, he has narrated TV documentaries such as Blueprint for Disaster, 2005, The Garage, Smash Lab, How It's Made since 2001. He narrates some of the programme trailers on Fox and Channel 4. Hirst appeared as a fireman called Paul on Coronation Street during the show's 50th anniversary in December 2010. Paul returned to Coronation Street as a regular character during October 2011, it was revealed on 24 February 2013 that Hirst would be leaving Coronation Street in 2013 at the end of his contract. In 2014, Tony Hirst narrated two seasons of Food Factory and in 2015 narrated season 1 of Home Factory both on Discovery science.
Hirst appeared on Ready Steady Cook, on BBC Two on 5 March 2008, lost to Zoë Lister, who played Zoe Carpenter in Hollyoaks. He played the part of Rom, a Roman man, on CBBC children's history programme The Romans in Britain shown on BBC2 and "Uncle Jake" in the BBC children's programme "The World Around Us", he played the part of a policeman in the first series of the Channel 4 show Shameless. He appeared on the Channel 4 show No Angels as an "ambulance chaser" in the first series. Hirst narrates Benefits Street and the UK versions of Mike Rowe's Dirty Jobs and How It's Made on Discovery channels. Hirst portrays a man sent back from the future to warn of an impending alien invasion in an ad being aired on Discovery Science to promote their Out of this World campaign. Hirst produced two one-man shows touring the UK during the summer and autumn 2008, including four weeks at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival; the first play "Wombman", written and performed by Ricky Payne, which Hirst directed and the second "Wacker Murphy's Bad Buzz" written and performed by Edwin Mullane.
Hirst lives with partner Sue Colgrave and they have two children, actress Kate Colgrave Pope and a son Jack. Hirst has an MSA Competition Licence and competed in the 2012 Silverstone Classic Celebrity Challenge race. Tony Hirst on IMDb