WNYL is an FM radio station licensed to New York City and owned by Entercom. WNYL broadcasts an Alternative rock format branded as "Alt 92.3", with studios located in the Hudson Square neighborhood in Manhattan and transmitter located at the Empire State Building. The station was the flagship of The Howard Stern Show from November 1985 to December 2005, The Opie and Anthony Show from April 2006 until March 2009. WNYL broadcasts in HD Radio; the station, first went on the air on December 25, 1948 as WMCA-FM. The station was co-owned with WMCA by former New York state senator Nathan Straus Jr.. FM radio was not a successful venture for Straus, he decided to either sell the FM station or close it down altogether. In late 1950, Straus sold the station to the owners of WHOM radio and WHOM-FM went on the air on February 26, 1951, featuring a variety of formats, including ethnic, background music, classical and easy listening. By the early 1970s, WHOM-FM had a Spanish-language easy listening format. WHOM and WHOM-FM, in the early 1970s, were sold to SJR Communications.
On June 5, 1975, WHOM-FM became WKTU, taking on an Adult Contemporary format and was positioned as "soft rock". They were known as "Mellow 92", they played current AC songs that crossed over to Top 40 as well as a mix of music from 1964 forward. Core artists included Eagles, Stevie Wonder, Elton John, James Taylor, Paul Simon, Linda Ronstadt, Four Tops, Carly Simon, Barry Manilow, some more contemporary cuts by Barbra Streisand. For 1960s music the station played softer Beatles songs and Papas, Spanky and Our Gang, Fifth Dimension, among others; the station steered clear of AC only songs and standards vocalists as well as hard rock or uptempo R & B. The station evolved, re-positioned as mellow rock, dropped artists like the Carpenters, most R & B product, added some softer songs from AOR artists. Unlike today's Adult contemporary music formats, WKTU, by early 1978, was only playing artists heard on Album-oriented rock stations, using the softer songs from their popular albums. Artists found on Top 40 stations were no longer included.
WKTU was still called "Mellow 92" at that point. Ratings were low; the Mellow 92 continued until June 1978. Meanwhile, station executive, David Rapaport, visited New York's Studio 54 discothèque on half a dozen occasions, was impressed with the crowds there, he got the idea that a disco-based station was needed, as several FM-based Top 40 stations were leaning disco in other markets, although no one was airing all disco music around the clock. As a result, Rapaport brought them into the station. WKTU abruptly flipped to a disco-based rhythmic top 40 format with the tagline "Disco 92" at 6 p.m. on July 24, 1978. The same disc jockeys from the mellow format were at first kept on, with Paco from Spanish language sister station 1480 WJIT added for afternoons; that fall, the station rose from "Worst to First", unseating long-time leader 770 WABC in the 18−30 age demographic. Air personalities of this era included Kenn Hayes, Randy Place, Paul Robinson, Trip Reeb, Mary Thomas, Dave Mallow and Joe Guarisco.
During the height of the disco craze, WKTU was the station to follow in New York. WKTU played dance/disco and a few rhythm-friendly pop and rock songs, but by 1979, the station began to add more R&B music as well as rhythm friendly new wave rock. By WKTU was still regarded as a disco station, but could be more described as rhythmic contemporary hit radio. Since that term was not yet used, the station had been classified as urban contemporary. During this period, the disc jockeys included Paco, G. Keith Alexander, Rosko, J. D. Holiday, Dale Reeves, Bob Bottone, Jim Harlan, Carlos DeJesus, Joe Causi, Guy Broady, Jay Thomas, Freddie Colon, Don Geronimo, Al Bandiero and Diane Pryor. Paco went to jail for drug dealing, curious considering he had a successful career in radio and didn't need the money that the illicit profession of drug dealing provided. In 1981, SJR Communications sold WKTU to Infinity Broadcasting; that year, WKTU added more dance-based new wave to the format. WKTU remained among the top ten New York City radio stations through 1983.
Shortly thereafter, WKTU received new competition from WHTZ and WPLJ, both of which adapted a CHR format. The station maintained respectable but declining ratings. By mid-1984, WKTU moved to a mainstream CHR format as well, giving up its disco past, but the ratings continued to decline; that fall, the station added legendary WABC host Dan Ingram to afternoons, Jo Maeder, "The Madame", from Miami's Y-100, joined Jay Thomas in the morning and did her own midday show, but the station continued to struggle in the ratings. To make matters worse, then-named 103.5 WAPP went CHR that fall. So strong was the memory of the late-1970s WKTU that despite all the subsequent on-air changes, the general public still regarded it as a disco station. Though WAPP moved back to playing rock music in the form of a rock-based CHR in June 1985, giving WKTU one less competitor, the station management thought a more drastic change was needed. Since New York City only had one full-time rock station with WNEW-FM, there was an opportunity.
On July 13, 1985, at midnight, on the same day WKTU aired the historic Live Aid concert, the station switched to an album-oriented rock format, adopted the moniker "K-Rock", changed their call letters to WXRK. (The WKTU call letters reappeared on New York City's 103.5 FM with a dance
Miss America (book)
Miss America is the second book by American radio and media personality Howard Stern. Released on November 7, 1995 by ReganBooks, it became the fastest-selling title in the publisher's history; this was a sequel to Private Parts and publisher Simon & Schuster. The book's front features Stern dressed in drag, with the first edition back featuring a picture of Stern with O. J. Simpson at the wedding of Donald Trump in 1993. Three different versions of a paperback edition were released on October 16, 1996, that featured Stern dressed as a drag with blonde and red hair. A selection of color photographs are included that did not appear in the first edition. Stern biographer Luigi Lucaire reported that Miss America sold six printings within 12 hours of its release; the Barnes & Noble on Fifth Avenue in New York City opened at 6:30am in the morning of the book's release, with over 250 people in line. By the end of the first day, Miss America sold 33,000 copies at Barnes & Noble stores across the United States, a first day record for the country's largest book seller.
The book broke the previous record for the fastest selling book in one day being Sex by Madonna in 1992. A week after its release, Miss America hit the top spot on the New York Times Best Seller list, knocking off My American Journey by Colin Powell. In total, the book was listed on the list for a period of 16 weeks in total; the book sold more than nine copies for every one copy of the next best-selling book on the list. By the end of 1995, Miss America had sold 1,398,880 hardcover copies, making it the third best-seller of the year, according to a March 1996 edition of Publishers Weekly. In 1996 alone, the book sold more than 1.6 million copies. When: Miss America became the number one selling paperback of 1998 at Amazon.com. When asked on the book's title in a 1995 interview on Today, Stern replied with: In the book's opening acknowledgements Stern thanks the Miss America Pageant for naming him "Miss America 1996" as well as Regis Philbin and Kathie Lee Gifford, his father Ben and those who spent "endless hours in improving his physical beauty."
The first chapter is about Stern's experiences with cybersex on the on-line chat service Prodigy under various names such as "Holy Ghost" and "Captain Japan." In the second chapter, Stern details a private meeting with Michael Jackson in New York City. Stern in the third chapter reveals his past suffering with Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Stern, Howard. Judith Regan, ed. Miss America. Regan Books. ISBN 978-0-06-039167-6. Stern, Howard. Judith Regan, ed. Miss America. Regan Books. ISBN 978-0-06-101234-1. Stern, Howard. Judith Regan, ed. Miss America. Regan Books. ISBN 978-0-06-109550-4. Miss America at HarperCollins
Just for Laughs Radio
Just for Laughs Radio is a Sirius XM Radio channel featuring uncensored comedy from Canada. It was created in November 2005 as a result of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission's regulations for Canadian content on the XM Radio Canada platform as Laugh Attack until 2013 and as Canada Laughs from 2013 to 2019. In conjunction with the Just for Laughs comedy festival, the channel was rebranded as Just for Laughs Radio on February 25, 2019 and will broadcast content from Just for Laugh events as well as independent content by Canadian comics; as Canada Laughs, the channel featured sketch comedy. This channel, The Verge, Radio Parallèle, and/or ATN-Asian Radio were sometimes preempted by XM Radio Canada in order to air extra NHL play-by-play on channels 235 - 239. Laugh Attack was not added to Sirius after the Sirius/XM merger in 2008, as the Canadian Sirius and XM affiliates did not merge until 2011. Laugh Attack was renamed Canada Laughs and made available on SIRIUS and XM in May 2013.
In February 2019, SiriusXM announced a branding deal with the Just for Laughs comedy festival, which would see the channel rebranded as Just for Laughs Radio, the programming extended to include archival comedy performances from the Just for Laughs library. The rebranding was criticized by Canadian comedians, because the use of archival material — which would be open to international comedians as well — would vastly reduce the amount of broadcast time available to Canadian comedians. Many comedians, in fact, noted that their royalties from Canada Laughs airplay were their single largest and most reliable comedy-related income source. On February 27, Just for Laughs announced a partial retreat, under which the station will retain the Just for Laughs branding but the 100 per cent Canadian content rule will be restored, they modified the new name of the station to Just for Laughs Canada. Laugh Attack Laugh Attack on Myspace
Private Parts (1997 film)
Private Parts is a 1997 American biographical comedy film produced by Ivan Reitman and directed by Betty Thomas. The film is an adaptation of the autobiographical chapters from the best selling 1993 book of the same name by radio personality Howard Stern, developed from a script written by Len Blum and Michael Kalesniko, it follows Stern's life from his rise to success in radio. Stern and several of his radio show staff star as themselves, including newscaster and co-host Robin Quivers, producers Fred Norris and Gary Dell'Abate, comedian Jackie Martling; the film stars Mary McCormack, Allison Janney, Paul Giamatti. After a proposed film featuring Stern as his superhero character Fartman fell through, development for a new film began in 1994, several months following the release of Private Parts. Stern signed with Rysher Entertainment, who agreed to fund it, teamed with producer Ivan Reitman who thought a biographical take on Stern's life was best suited for a film. Production was delayed after Stern rejected 22 scripts from several screenwriters until he accepted one developed by Blum and Kalesniko in late 1995.
Filming took place in the New York City area and Washington, D. C. from May to November 1996 with a budget of $28 million, during which Stern continued to host his radio show each weekday morning. Numerous celebrities and family members of the radio show staff make cameo appearances in the film; the soundtrack is formed of songs from several rock bands as well as two original tracks featuring Stern performing with Rob Zombie and the Dust Brothers. The film's score was conducted by Basil Poledouris. Released in the United States on March 7, 1997 by Paramount Pictures, Private Parts ranked at number one on the US box office in its opening weekend with a gross of $14.6 million. It grossed a domestic total of $41.2 million at the end of its theatrical run. It received positive reviews from film critics, a group whom Stern made a conscious effort to please, including the public who did not listen to the radio show or were not fans of his. In 1998, the film was released on DVD and Stern won a Blockbuster Award for Favorite Male Newcomer for his performance.
Stern shot additional scenes for a censored version of the film prior to its premiere television broadcast on the USA Network in 1999. Following his appearance at the MTV Music Video Awards as his superhero character Fartman, radio personality Howard Stern boards his flight home and is seated next to Gloria, visibly repelled by him. Stern, thinking she sees him as a moron, begins to tell his life story, starting with the verbal abuse he received as a boy from his father Ben; as a youngster, Stern dreams of being on the radio after visiting his father's recording studio and grows up to be a quiet awkward teenager. He decides to work in radio and studies Communications at Boston University, he becomes a DJ at WTBU, the college station, meets his girlfriend Alison. After graduating, Howard works at WRNW in Briarcliff Manor, New York and is promoted to program director, which allows him to marry Alison, he leaves after being asked to fire a fellow DJ and moves to WCCC in Hartford, where he befriends DJ Fred Norris.
Howard adopts a more casual attitude on the air, becoming more upfront. He and Fred attend the premiere of actress Brittany Fairchild's new film; the three leave early for Fairchild's hotel room, where she strips for a bath and convinces Howard and Fred to join in. Brittany's behavior becomes more sexual, an embarrassed Howard leaves; when Alison finds his wet underwear in their car and believes he has been unfaithful, she leaves him. Howard leaves Hartford for WWWW in Detroit, Michigan and is miserable, but Alison goes to Detroit and forgives him. WWWW switches to country music, Howard quits. Howard starts at WWDC in Washington, D. C. in 1981 and meets his news anchor Robin Quivers, whom he encourages to riff with him on the air. They refuse orders from boss Dee Dee for breaking format. One of their antics, in which Howard assists a female caller to reach orgasm gets him fired until a ratings boost forces Dee Dee to keep him and hire Fred to the team. Meanwhile, Alison announces her pregnancy. Although they cheer each other up by joking about it, Howard makes light of the situation on the air, which upsets Alison.
With Alison pregnant again, Howard gets his dream offer to work in New York City at WNBC, where he has the chance to become a nationwide success. However, upper management at NBC hired Howard not realizing what his show was like until they see a news report about him. Program director Kenny "Pig Vomit" Rushton offers to keep Howard in line or he will force him to quit. Howard and Robin ignore Kenny's restrictions on content until a risque Match Game with comedian Jackie Martling causes Rushton to fire Robin; the show fails in her absence and her replacement quits after Howard's interview with an actress who swallows a kielbasa sausage. Robin is brought back, but Howard's antics continue with a naked woman in the studio, resulting in Kenny cutting off the broadcast. Howard gets into a physical altercation with Kenny in his office. In 1985, Howard becomes number one at WNBC and Kenny tries to gain Howard's friendship but is turned down flat. Howard thanks his fans with an outdoor concert by AC/DC.
During the performance, Alison gives birth to a daughter. Back on the flight, it is revealed that Howard has told his story to Gloria and believes he could get her, but stays "loyal" to Alison, he meets Alison at the airport and his daughters run to greet him. During the end credits, Stuttering John rants about his absence in the film. Mia Farrow presents an Academy Award for Best Actor f
The Howard Stern Show
The Howard Stern Show is an American talk radio show hosted by Howard Stern. It gained wide recognition when it was nationally syndicated on terrestrial radio from 1986 to 2005; the show has been exclusive to Sirius XM Radio, a subscription-based satellite radio service, since 2006. Other prominent staff members include co-host and news anchor Robin Quivers, writer Fred Norris, executive producer Gary Dell'Abate; the show developed in 1979 when Stern landed his first morning shift at WCCC in Hartford, four years into his professional radio career. He continued to break out as a morning personality at WWWW in Detroit, Michigan in 1980, was paired with Quivers in 1981 at WWDC in Washington, D. C. In 1982, Stern's success in Washington led to a spot at WNBC in New York City, where he hosted the city's top afternoon show until his firing in 1985; that year, the show began a 20-year run at WXRK in New York City where it aired on a total of 60 markets across the United States and Canada and gained an audience of 20 million listeners at its peak.
In the New York area, the show was the highest-rated morning program consecutively between 1994 and 2001. A total of $2.5 million in fines were issued to station licensees that carried the show by the Federal Communications Commission, for what it considered indecent material. Following Stern's contract with Sirius in 2004, the show left terrestrial radio in December 2005. Since 1994, the show has been taped and broadcast on several networks, including E!, CBS, HowardTV, an on-demand digital cable service. SiriusXM launched a "360" app in 2018 available to subscribers where video clips of the show can be seen. Stern landed his first professional radio job while at Boston University, performing on-air skits, news casting and production duties at WNTN in Newton, Massachusetts from August to December 1975, he hosted a show with three fellow students on WTBU, campus radio station, named The King Schmaltz Bagel Hour, cancelled during its first broadcast for a sketch called "Godzilla Goes to Harlem".
After his graduation, Stern landed some cover shifts in December 1976 at WRNW, a progressive rock station in Briarcliff Manor, New York where he was subsequently hired full-time working middays. He produced more creative commercials by calling the owners of businesses on the air, which he wrote "was mind-blowing to everyone there."In 1979, Stern responded to an advertisement for a "wild, fun morning guy" at WCCC, rock station in Hartford, Connecticut. He produced a more outrageous audition tape, playing Robert Klein and Cheech and Chong records mixed with flatulence routines and one-liners, he was hired for his first in a large radio market. As the station's public affairs director, Stern hosted a half-hour interview show on Sunday mornings, which he favored as it contained no music, he would ask more unusual type questions such as their dating habits. Stern held a two-day boycott of Shell Oil Company during the summer of the 1979 energy crisis, which made Stern and the station make national news.
Stern began his "Dial-a-Date" routines at WCCC, met Fred Norris, the station's overnight disc jockey who provided Stern's show with various comedic impressions of celebrities. Norris would join the show as Stern's writer and producer in 1981. After Stern left WCCC for being denied a raise in salary, he began a new morning shift at WWWW, a struggling rock outlet in Detroit, Michigan on April 21, 1980, he learned to become more open on the air and "decided to cut down the barriers...strip down all the ego...and be honest... I still sounded like an FM announcer". Stern held a bra-burning event and wrestled women outside the studios, invited listeners to confess the most outrageous places where they had sex, record their calls for the air. A stunt in which listeners paid $1.06 to hit a Japanese car with a sledgehammer earned Stern national mention. For his performance, Stern won a Billboard award for "Best Album-Oriented Rock Disc Jockey" and was featured in the Drake-Chenault "Top Five Talent Search" contest in the AOR category.
Published in January 1981, the fall Arbitron ratings showed that Stern trailed his three rock competitors with a 1.6% market share of the listening audience during an average quarter-hour. It was the final straw for management, who turned WWWW into a more successful country music format on January 18. Much to his dislike, Stern left the station soon after and declined offers to work at CHUM in Toronto, WXRT in Chicago, WPLJ in New York City. On March 2, 1981, Stern began his third morning job at WWDC, a rock station in Washington, D. C, he was determined to become a success, noticed the importance of news segments for satire. He wished for a news person to riff with him in the studio. Management paired Stern with Robin Quivers, a news anchor and consumer reporter from WFBR in Baltimore, who agreed to meet Stern after hearing him interview a prostitute on the air. Quivers at first "thought I would come in and do the news...but it wasn't that way...he wanted someone to play off of...he wanted a real live person there with him".
The show began to break format, Stern held a lesbian edition of "Dial-a-Date" in May 1981. He formed the Think Tank, a cohesive trio of male listeners who conversed with Stern and played along with quizzes and routines, which helped the show sound more natural. By January 1982, Stern had the second highest-rated morning program in the city. On January 14, one day after the crash of Air Florida Flight 90, Stern made listeners believe he asked Air Florida the price of a one-way ticket to the 14th Street Bridge, the location of the disaster. "Is that going to be a permanent stop?" asked Stern. On June 29, 1982, Stern's contract at WWDC was terminated. Later
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
XM Satellite Radio
XM Satellite Radio was one of the three satellite radio and online radio services in the United States and Canada, operated by Sirius XM Holdings. It provided pay-for-service radio, analogous to cable television, its service included 73 different music channels, 39 news, sports and entertainment channels, 21 regional traffic and weather channels and 23 play-by-play sports channels. XM channels were identified by Arbitron with the label "XM"; the company had its origins in the 1988 formation of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation, a consortium of several organizations dedicated to satellite broadcasting of telephone and data signals. In 1992, AMSC established a unit called the American Mobile Radio Corporation dedicated to developing a satellite-based digital radio service; the satellite service was launched on September 25, 2001. On July 29, 2008, XM and former competitor Sirius Satellite Radio formally completed their merger, following U. S. Federal Communications Commission approval, forming Sirius XM Radio, Inc. with XM Satellite Radio, Inc. as its subsidiary.
On November 12, 2008, Sirius and XM began broadcasting with their combined channel lineups. On January 13, 2011, XM Satellite Radio, Inc. was dissolved as a separate entity and merged into Sirius XM Radio, Inc. Prior to its merger with Sirius, XM was the largest satellite radio company in the United States. While the satellite receiver radio service was its primary product, XM operated several audio and data services, advertising. XM's primary business was satellite radio entertainment. XM carried music, sports, talk radio and radio drama. In addition, XM used to broadcast local traffic conditions in its larger markets; the channel lineup was available on-line. To receive satellite radio programming, a customer was required to purchase a receiver. Prices ranged from less than $50 to over $200. With a service commitment, it was possible to get a simple receiver for free. Monthly packages started at US$6.99/month but after adding multiple sports channels the monthly subscription changed to US$14.49/month with add-on "family" radios at US$8.99/month.
Best-of-Sirius was available on US accounts for an additional monthly fee. Lifetime packages were available. Channel quality was in one of two flavors, stereo music channels at 39 kbit/s and mono talk channels at 16 kbit/s using proprietary compression. Many subscribers have complained about the low quality of satellite radio sound, but providers have stuck with the plan for more channels instead of better quality. HD terrestrial digital radio, a competitor has always used this difference as a selling point. XM Radio Online, XM's Internet radio product, offered many of XM's music stations and could be accessed from any Internet connected computer, or via the SIRIUS XM mobile app. Prior to March 11, 2009, XMRO was included with XM Radio subscriptions, or was available separately for $7.99/month to Internet-only subscribers. XM provided data services such as weather information for pilots and weather spotters through its Sirius XM Weather & Emergency datacasting service; this up to the minute weather information could be displayed in the cockpit of an aircraft equipped with a satellite weather receiver.
Unlike weather radar, which relies on the aircraft's own equipment, the satellite service could give a pilot information about weather anywhere in USA and Canada. The downside is that the various weather streams took around 15 minutes to complete the data download, meaning that the information can be somewhat out-of-date by the time it is shown. In-cockpit radar and lightning receivers returned realtime information, but they cost thousands of dollars, did not provide forecasts, nor did they provide complete weather reports. FAA Temporary Flight Restrictions were available and shown. Certain aircraft had the XM radio service provided to the aircraft's audio system, which allowed passengers to listen to XM radio while flying. In 2005, AirTran Airways began putting XM Satellite Radio on their aircraft, while in January 2006, JetBlue Airways added XM Radio to their aircraft. United Airlines started carrying prerecorded XM content in March 2006. Zipcar, an urban car-sharing service in the United States installed XM receivers in all of their vehicles available for daily or hourly rental.
However, citing uncertainty in the satellite radio market, Zipcar announced on May 1, 2007 that all XM radios would be removed from its fleet in the following months. In contrast to its high-quality broadcasts, Sirius/XM's customer service has drawn fire from some state governments. In October 2010, Richard Cordray, Ohio's Attorney General, began investigating complaints regarding Sirius XM's policies on billing, customer solicitation as well as subscription renewals and cancellations; the company informed shareholders of the probe shortly thereafter. According to news reports, Connecticut, Tennessee and the District of Columbia have expressed interest in participating in the inquiry. According to Reuters, "The investigations come as Sirius XM, home to programs by Howard Stern and Oprah Winfrey, has found its footing and distanced itself from years of huge losses and questions about its business model."In a report obtained in March 2011, The Better Business Bureau reported receiving over 4500 complaints against Sirius XM in the preceding 36 months, around half of which regarded the company's billing and collection practic