Royal Academy of Music
The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is the oldest conservatoire in the UK, founded in 1822 by John Fane and Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. It received its Royal Charter in 1830 from King George IV with the support of the first Duke of Wellington, it is one of the leading conservatoires in the UK, rated fourth in the Complete University Guide and third in the Guardian University Guide for 2018. Famous Academy alumni include Sir Simon Rattle, Sir Harrison Birtwistle, Sir Elton John and Annie Lennox; the Academy provides undergraduate and postgraduate training across instrumental performance, jazz, musical theatre and opera, recruits musicians from around the world, with a student community representing more than 50 nationalities. It is committed to lifelong learning, from Junior Academy, which trains musicians up to the age of 18, through Open Academy community music projects, to performances and educational events for all ages; the Academy’s museum is home to one of the world’s most significant collections of musical instruments and artefacts, including stringed instruments by Stradivari and members of the Amati family.
It is a constituent college of a registered charity under English law. The Academy was founded by John Fane, 11th Earl of Westmorland in 1822 with the help and ideas of the French harpist and composer Nicolas Bochsa; the Academy was granted a Royal Charter by King George IV in 1830. The founding of the Academy was supported by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, he was determined to make the Academy a success. The Academy faced closure in 1866; the Academy's history took a turn for the better when its appointed Principal William Sterndale Bennett took on the chairmanship of the Academy's Board of directors and established its finances and reputation on a new footing. The Academy's first building was in Tenterden Street, Hanover Square and in 1911 the institution moved to the current premises, designed by Sir Ernest George, built at a cost of £51,000 on the site of an orphanage. In 1976 the Academy acquired the houses situated on the north side and built between them a new opera theatre donated by the philanthropist Sir Jack Lyons and named after him and two new recital spaces, a recording studio, an electronic music studio, several practice rooms and office space.
The Academy again expanded its facilities in the late 1990s, with the addition of 1-5 York Gate, designed by John Nash in 1822, to house the new museum, a musical theatre studio and several teaching and practice rooms. To link the main building and 1-5 York Gate a new underground passage and the underground barrel-vaulted 150-seat David Josefowitz recital hall were built on the courtyard between the mentioned structures; the Academy's current facilities are situated on Marylebone Road in central London adjacent to Regent's Park. The Royal Academy of Music offers training from infant level, with the senior Academy awarding the LRAM diploma, B. Mus. and higher degrees to Ph. D; the former degree GRSM, equivalent to a university honours degree and taken by some students, was phased out in the 1990s. All undergraduates now take the University of London degree of BMus. Most Academy students are classical performers: strings, vocal studies including opera, woodwind and choral conducting, percussion, organ, guitar.
There are departments for musical theatre performance and jazz. The Academy collaborates with other conservatoires worldwide, including participating in the SOCRATES student and staff exchange programme. In 1991, the Academy introduced a accredited degree in Performance Studies, in September 1999, it became a full constituent college of the University of London, in both cases becoming the first UK conservatoire to do so; the Academy has students from over 50 countries, following diverse programmes including instrumental performance, composition, musical theatre and opera. The Academy has an established relationship with King's College London the Department of Music, whose students receive instrumental tuition at the Academy. In return, many students at the Academy take a range of Humanities choices at King's, its extended academic musicological curriculum; the Junior Academy, for pupils under the age of 18, takes place every Saturday. The Academy's library contains over 160,000 items, including significant collections of early printed and manuscript materials and audio facilities.
The library houses archives dedicated to Sir Arthur Sullivan and Sir Henry Wood. Among the Library's most valuable possessions are the manuscripts of Purcell's The Fairy-Queen, Sullivan's The Mikado, Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and Serenade to Music, the newly discovered Handel Gloria. A grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund has assisted in the purchase of the Robert Spencer Collection—a set of Early English Song and Lute music, as well as a fine collection of lutes and guitars; the Academy's museum displays many of these items. The Orchestral Library has 4,500 sets of orchestral parts. Other collections include the libraries of Sir Henry Otto Klemperer. Soon after violinist Yehudi Menuhin's death, the Royal Academy of Music acquired his personal archive, which includes sheet music marked up for performance, news articles and photographs relating to Menuhin, autograph musical manuscripts, several portraits of Paganini
Aled Jones, is a Welsh singer and radio and television presenter. As a teenage chorister, he reached widespread fame during the mid-1980s. Since he has become well known for his television work with the BBC and ITV, as well as his radio work. In September 2012, Jones joined ITV Breakfast where he presented Daybreak, alongside Lorraine Kelly and Kate Garraway. For the BBC, he has presented Cash in the Attic, Going Back Giving Back. Jones was born in St. David's Hospital in Bangor, the only child of Nest Rowlands, a teacher, Derek John Jones, a draughtsman for a shipbuilder, he was raised in the small Welsh-speaking community of Llandegfan in Anglesey, attended Ysgol David Hughes. Jones joined the choir of Bangor Cathedral at age nine and was lead soloist within two years, although he was never Head Chorister; the remarkable quality of Jones' treble voice was appreciated by a member of the congregation, Hefina Orwig Evans, who wrote a letter to local record company Sain, he was duly signed. In 1982, Jones won the Cerdd Dant solo competitions for competitors under 12 at the Urdd Eisteddfod.
Jones became famous for the cover version of "Walking in the Air", the song from Channel 4's animated film The Snowman, based on the book by Raymond Briggs. The record reached No. 5 in the UK charts in 1985. The version used in the 1982 film was performed by a St. Paul's Cathedral choirboy. In June 1985, Jones was the subject of an Emmy award-winning BBC Omnibus documentary entitled The Treble. Jones, with the National Philharmonic Orchestra, was behind the Santa Claus The Movie, original motion picture soundtrack, Every Christmas Eve of 1985. In 1985, Jones was called by Mike Oldfield to sing on Oldfield's single "Pictures in the Dark", a three-voice song, on which he performed with Anita Hegerland and Barry Palmer, which became popular. In 1986, he sang the theme song for the Siriol Animation film A Winter Story; the song was a modest success. Jones' recording career was temporarily halted when his voice broke at 16. By he had recorded 16 albums, sold more than six million copies, sung for Pope John Paul II, the Queen, the Prince and Princess of Wales in a private recital, as well as presenting numerous children's television programmes.
He sang at the wedding of celebrities Bob Geldof and Paula Yates in 1986. Jones had the distinction of being the first artist to have two classical albums listed in the popular music charts, worked with Leonard Bernstein. In 1986, he sang the oratorio Athalia with Emma Kirkby. Jones' first biography, Walking on Air, was published in 1986. In September 1990, Jones made his acting debut at the Royal Theatre in Shaun McKenna's adaptation of Richard Llewellyn's How Green Was My Valley playing the teenage Huw Morgan. Jones went on to study at the Royal Academy of Music and the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, before beginning his adult recording career which has featured a religious/inspirational repertoire. In 1995 he took the leading role in the long-running production of Andrew Lloyd Webber's Joseph and the Amazing Technicolour Dreamcoat on a Blackpool pier. From September 1996 to May 1997 Jones played the young Tom Gradgrind in a large-scale national touring production of Charles Dickens's Hard Times.
Theatres at which the play was presented included Brighton Theatre Royal, Bath Theatre Royal and Richmond Theatre. In 2005, Jones launched his autobiography, Aled: The Autobiography, written in collaboration with Darren Henley. In 2013, Jones released Aled Jones: My Story. Following the launch of his first baritone album, Aled on the Universal Music label in Australia in May 2003, Jones visited the country on a promotional tour, he has since toured in concert there five times: in Dec 2003, Aug 2006, Oct 2008, Aug/Sep 2010 and Feb 2015, performing in eight cities. Jones has released two singles with Terry Wogan in aid of the Children in Need appeal. From 3 July to 30 August 2008, Jones played the lead role of Caractacus Potts in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang at the Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff, he returned to the stage, playing Bob Wallace in White Christmas at the Theatre Royal, at The Lowry, Salford Quays, from November 2009 until 9 January 2010, again from 11 to 26 November 2011 at the Mayflower Theatre, from 1 to 17 December at the Grand Canal Theatre, at the Empire Theatre, Liverpool On 8 November 2014 Jones made his West End debut, again playing Bob Wallace in "White Christmas", this time at the Dominion Theatre, Tottenham Court Road.
Following the publication of Aled's Forty Favourite Hymns in 2009, a further book, Favourite Christmas Carols, was published on 28 October 2010. On 29 November, Aled's Christmas Gift, was issued to accompany the book. On 11 October 2010, Jones was confirmed to take over as stand-in presenter of the early morning breakfast slot on BBC Radio 2 following the departure of Sarah Kennedy, a role he covered in the years leading up to her departure. Jones covered this slot for six weeks until the beginning of his UK tour. Jones is mentoring Isabel Suckling, the youngest classical recording artist signed by Decca Records and first choirgirl to sign a record contract with a major music label to date. Suckling's debut album was endorsed by Jones, who described it as "breathtaking" and it was released on 29 November 2010. In 2011, Jones hosted the television and DVD series, Classical Des
Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson was a Scottish novelist and travel writer, most noted for Treasure Island, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, A Child's Garden of Verses. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Stevenson suffered from serious bronchial trouble for much of his life, but continued to write prolifically and travel in defiance of his poor health; as a young man, he mixed in London literary circles, receiving encouragement from Andrew Lang, Edmund Gosse, Leslie Stephen and W. E. Henley, the last of whom may have provided the model for Long John Silver in Treasure Island, his travels took him to France and Australia, before he settled in Samoa, where he died. A celebrity in his lifetime, Stevenson attracted a more negative critical response for much of the 20th century, though his reputation has been restored, he is ranked as the 26th most translated author in the world. Stevenson was born at 8 Howard Place, Scotland on 13 November 1850 to Thomas Stevenson, a leading lighthouse engineer, his wife Margaret Isabella.
He was christened Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson. At about age 18, he changed the spelling of "Lewis" to "Louis", he dropped "Balfour" in 1873. Lighthouse design was the family's profession. Thomas's maternal grandfather Thomas Smith had been in the same profession. However, Robert's mother's family were gentry, tracing their lineage back to Alexander Balfour who had held the lands of Inchyra in Fife in the fifteenth century, his mother's father Lewis Balfour was a minister of the Church of Scotland at nearby Colinton, her siblings included physician George William Balfour and marine engineer James Balfour. Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his maternal grandfather's house. "Now I wonder what I inherited from this old minister," Stevenson wrote. "I must suppose, that he was fond of preaching sermons, so am I, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them."Lewis Balfour and his daughter both had weak chests, so they needed to stay in warmer climates for their health.
Stevenson inherited a tendency to coughs and fevers, exacerbated when the family moved to a damp, chilly house at 1 Inverleith Terrace in 1851. The family moved again to the sunnier 17 Heriot Row when Stevenson was six years old, but the tendency to extreme sickness in winter remained with him until he was 11. Illness left him extraordinarily thin. Contemporaneous views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis or sarcoidosis. Stevenson's parents were both devout Presbyterians, but the household was not strict in its adherence to Calvinist principles, his nurse Alison Cunningham was more fervently religious. Her mix of Calvinism and folk beliefs were an early source of nightmares for the child, he showed a precocious concern for religion, but she cared for him tenderly in illness, reading to him from John Bunyan and the Bible as he lay sick in bed and telling tales of the Covenanters. Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in "The Land of Counterpane" in A Child's Garden of Verses, dedicating the book to his nurse.
Stevenson was an only child, both strange-looking and eccentric, he found it hard to fit in when he was sent to a nearby school at age 6, a problem repeated at age 11 when he went on to the Edinburgh Academy. His frequent illnesses kept him away from his first school, so he was taught for long stretches by private tutors, he was a late reader, learning at age 7 or 8, but before this he dictated stories to his mother and nurse, he compulsively wrote stories throughout his childhood. His father was proud of this interest, he paid for the printing of Robert's first publication at 16, entitled The Pentland Rising: A Page of History, 1666. It was an account of the Covenanters' rebellion, published in 1866, the 200th anniversary of the event. In September 1857, Stevenson went to Mr Henderson's School in India Street, but because of poor health stayed only a few weeks and did not return until October 1859. During his many absences he was taught by private tutors. In October 1861, he went to Edinburgh Academy, an independent school for boys, stayed there sporadically for about fifteen months.
In the autumn of 1863, he spent one term at an English boarding school at Spring Grove in Isleworth in Middlesex. In October 1864, following an improvement to his health, he was sent to Robert Thomson's private school in Frederick Street, where he remained until he went to university. In November 1867, Stevenson entered the University of Edinburgh to study engineering, he showed from the start devoted much energy to avoiding lectures. This time was more important for the friendships he made with other students in the Speculative Society with Charles Baxter, who would become Stevenson's financial agent, with a professor, Fleeming Jenkin, whose house staged amateur drama in which Stevenson took part, whose biography he would write. Most important at this point in his life was a cousin, Robert Alan Mowbray Stevenson, a lively and light-hearted young man who, instead of the family profession, had
Queen are a British rock band formed in London in 1970. Their classic line-up was Freddie Mercury, Brian May, Roger Taylor, John Deacon, their earliest works were influenced by progressive rock, hard rock and heavy metal, but the band ventured into more conventional and radio-friendly works by incorporating further styles, such as arena rock and pop rock. Before forming Queen and Taylor had played together in the band Smile. Mercury was a fan of Smile and encouraged them to experiment with more elaborate stage and recording techniques, he joined in 1970 and suggested the name "Queen". Deacon was recruited before the band recorded their eponymous debut album in 1973. Queen first charted in the UK with their second album, Queen II, in 1974. Sheer Heart Attack that year and A Night at the Opera in 1975 brought them international success; the latter featured "Bohemian Rhapsody", which stayed at number one in the UK for nine weeks and helped popularise the music video format. The band’s 1977 album News of the World contained "We Will Rock You" and "We Are the Champions", which have become anthems at sporting events.
By the early 1980s, Queen were one of the biggest stadium rock bands in the world. "Another One Bites the Dust" became their best-selling single, while their 1981 compilation album Greatest Hits is the best-selling album in the UK and is certified eight times platinum in the US. Their performance at the 1985 Live Aid concert has been ranked among the greatest in rock history by various publications. In August 1986, Mercury gave his last performance with Queen at England. In 1991, he died of bronchopneumonia, a complication of AIDS, Deacon retired in 1997. Since 2004, May and Taylor have toured under the "Queen +" name with vocalists Paul Rodgers and Adam Lambert. Estimates of Queen's record sales range from 170 million to 300 million records, making them one of the world's best-selling music artists. Queen received the Outstanding Contribution to British Music Award from the British Phonographic Industry in 1990, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001. Each member has composed hit singles, all four were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2003.
In 2005, Queen received the Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Song Collection from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. In 2018, they were presented the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1968, guitarist Brian May, a student at London's Imperial College, bassist Tim Staffell decided to form a band. May placed an advertisement on a college notice board for a "Mitch Mitchell/Ginger Baker type" drummer; the group called themselves Smile. While attending Ealing Art College in west London, Tim Staffell became friends with Farrokh “Freddie” Bulsara, a fellow student from Zanzibar of Indian Parsi descent. Bulsara, working as a baggage handler at London’s Heathrow Airport, felt that he and the band had the same tastes and soon became a keen fan of Smile. In 1970, after Staffell left to join the band Humpy Bong, the remaining Smile members, encouraged by now-member Bulsara, changed their name to "Queen" and performed their first gig on 18 July; the band had a number of bass players during this period.
It was not until February 1971 that they settled on John Deacon and began to rehearse for their first album. They recorded four of their own songs, "Liar", "Keep Yourself Alive", "The Night Comes Down" and "Jesus", for a demo tape, it was around this time Freddie changed his surname to "Mercury", inspired by the line "Mother Mercury, look what they've done to me" in the song "My Fairy King". On 2 July 1971, Queen played their first show in the classic line-up of Mercury, May and Deacon at a Surrey college outside London. Having attended art college, Mercury designed Queen's logo, called the Queen crest, shortly before the release of the band's first album; the logo combines the zodiac signs of all four members: two lions for Leo, a crab for Cancer, two fairies for Virgo. The lions embrace a stylised letter Q, the crab rests atop the letter with flames rising directly above it, the fairies are each sheltering below a lion. There is a crown inside the Q and the whole logo is over-shadowed by an enormous phoenix.
The whole symbol bears a passing resemblance to the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with the lion supporters. The original logo, as found on the reverse-side of the cover of the band's first album, was a simple line drawing. Sleeves bore more intricate-coloured versions of the logo. In 1972, Queen entered discussions with Trident Studios after being spotted at De Lane Lea Studios by John Anthony. After these discussions, Norman Sheffield offered the band a management deal under Neptune Productions, a subsidiary of Trident, to manage the band and enable them to use the facilities at Trident to record new material, whilst the management searched for a record label to sign Queen; this suited both parties, as Trident were expanding into management, under the deal, Queen were able to make use of the hi-tech recording facilities used by other musicians such as the Beatles and Elton John to produce new material. Roger Taylor described these early off-peak studio hours as "gold dust". In 1973, Queen signed to a deal with Trident/EMI.
By July of that year, they released their eponymous debut album, an effort influenced by heavy metal and progressive rock. The album was received well by critics.
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales, was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility, she was the youngest daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, she grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. Diana came to prominence in February 1981 upon engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne; as Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas.
She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Diana was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989, she raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with HIV/AIDS, mental illness. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996 following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel on 31 August 1997 and subsequent televised funeral. Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Norfolk, she was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, his first wife, Frances. The Spencer family has been allied with the British royal family for several generations; the Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt, a prospective Princess of Wales.
On 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at Sandringham. She grew up with three siblings: Sarah and Charles, her infant brother, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, Lady Althorp was sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem"; the experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and the root of their divorce because I don't think they got over it." Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate. The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II; the royal family holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Diana was seven years old, her mother began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969. Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp.
Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy. In 1976, Lord Althorp married Countess of Dartmouth. Diana's relationship with her stepmother was bad, she resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs". She described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing". Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire. Diana was home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen, she began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine. She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973, she did not shine academically. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.
She left West Heath. Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time, she showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist. Diana excelled in swimming and diving, studied ballet and tap dance. After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette for one term in 1978, Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends. In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but cooked for her roommates, she took a series of low-paying jobs. She found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London, worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico. In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18
Sir Ridley Scott is an English film director and producer. Following his commercial breakthrough with the science fiction horror film Alien, further works include the neo-noir dystopian science fiction film Blade Runner, historical drama Gladiator, science fiction film The Martian. Scott's work has an atmospheric concentrated visual style. Though his films range in setting and period, they showcase memorable imagery of urban environments, whether 2nd century Rome, 12th century Jerusalem, Medieval England, contemporary Mogadishu, the future cityscapes of Blade Runner, or the distant planets in Alien, The Martian and Alien: Covenant. Several of his films are known for their strong female characters. Scott has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Directing. In 1995, both Ridley and his brother Tony received a BAFTA for Outstanding British Contribution To Cinema. In 2003, Scott was knighted for his "services to the British film industry". In a 2004 BBC poll Scott was named the tenth most influential person in British culture.
In 2015 he received an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art in London. In 2018 Scott received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement. Scott was born in South Shields, County Durham, North East England, to Elizabeth and Colonel Francis Percy Scott. Scott's great uncle Dixon Scott was a pioneer of the cinema chain. One of Dixon's cinemas, Tyneside cinema, is still operating in Newcastle, it is the last remaining open newsreel cinema operating in the United Kingdom. Ridley Scott was born shortly before the Second World War, he was brought up in an army family, his father – an officer in the Royal Engineers – was absent for most of his early life. His elder brother, joined the British Merchant Navy when he was still young, the pair had little contact. During this time the family moved around, living in Cumberland in North West England and Germany, he had a younger brother, who became a film director. After World War II, the Scott family moved back to their native North East settling on Greens Beck Road in Hartburn, County Durham, whose industrial landscape would inspire similar scenes in Blade Runner.
His interest in science fiction began by reading the works of H. G. Wells as a child, he studied at Grangefield Grammar School and West Hartlepool College of Art from 1954 to 1958, obtaining a diploma in design. Scott went on to study at the Royal College of Art in London, contributing to college magazine ARK and helping to establish the college film department. For his final show, he made a black and white short film and Bicycle, starring both his younger brother and his father. In February 1963 Scott was named in title credits as "Designer" for the BBC television programme Tonight, about the severe winter of 1963. After graduation in 1963, he secured a job as a trainee set designer with the BBC, leading to work on the popular television police series Z-Cars and science fiction series Out of the Unknown, he was assigned to design the second Doctor Who serial, The Daleks, which would have entailed realising the serial's eponymous alien creatures. However, shortly before Scott was due to start work, a schedule conflict meant he was replaced by Raymond Cusick.
In 1965, he began directing episodes of television series for the BBC, only one of which, an episode of Adam Adamant Lives!, is available commercially. In 1968, Ridley and Tony Scott founded Ridley Scott Associates, a film and commercial production company. Working alongside Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson and cinematographer Hugh Johnson, Ridley Scott made many commercials at RSA during the 1970s, including a notable 1973 Hovis advertisement, "Bike Round", set in the north of England but filmed in Gold Hill, Dorset. A nostalgia themed television advertisement that captured the public imagination, it was voted the UK's all-time favourite commercial in a 2006 poll. In the 1970s the Chanel No. 5 brand needed revitalisation having run the risk of being labelled as mass market and passé. Directed by Scott in the 1970s and 1980s, Chanel television commercials were inventive mini-films with production values of surreal fantasy and seduction, which "played on the same visual imagery, with the same silhouette of the bottle."Five members of the Scott family are directors, all have worked for RSA.
His brother Tony was a successful film director. Jake and Jordan both work from Los Angeles. In 1995, Shepperton Studios was purchased by a consortium headed by Ridley and Tony Scott, which extensively renovated the studios while expanding and improving its grounds; the Duellists marked Ridley Scott's first feature film as director. Shot in Europe, it was nominated for the main prize at the Cannes Film Festival, won an award for Best Debut Film; the Duellists had limited commercial impact internationally. Set during the Napoleonic Wars, it follows two French Hussar officers, D'Hubert and Feraud whose quarrel over an minor incident turns into a bitter extended feud spanning fifteen years, interwoven with the larger conflict that provides its backdrop; the film has been acclaimed for providing a authentic portrayal of Napoleonic u
The Avengers (TV series)
The Avengers is an espionage British television series created in 1961. It focused on Dr. David Keel, aided by John Steed. Hendry left after the first series, his most famous assistants were intelligent and assertive women: Cathy Gale, Emma Peel and Tara King. The series ran from 1961 until 1969; the pilot episode, "Hot Snow", aired on 7 January 1961. The final episode, "Bizarre", aired on 21 April 1969 in the United States, on 21 May 1969 in the United Kingdom; the Avengers was produced by a contractor within the ITV network. After a merger with Rediffusion London in July 1968, ABC Television became Thames Television, which continued production of the series, though it was still broadcast under the ABC name. By 1969, The Avengers was shown in more than 90 countries. ITV produced a sequel series The New Avengers with Patrick Macnee returning as John Steed, two new partners. In 2007, The Avengers was ranked; the Avengers was marked by different eras as co-stars went. The only constant was John Steed, played by Patrick Macnee.
Associated British Corporation produced a single series of Police Surgeon, in which Ian Hendry played police surgeon Geoffrey Brent, from September through to December 1960. While Police Surgeon did not last long, viewers praised Hendry, ABC Television cast him in its new series The Avengers, which replaced Police Surgeon in January 1961; the Avengers began with episode "Hot Snow", in which medical doctor David Keel investigates the murder of his fiancée and office receptionist Peggy by a drug ring. A stranger named John Steed, investigating the ring and together they set out to avenge her death in the first two episodes. Steed afterward asked Keel to partner him, as needed, to solve crimes. Hendry was considered the star of the new series, receiving top billing over Macnee, Steed did not appear in two episodes; as the first series of The Avengers progressed, Steed's importance increased, he carried the final episode solo. While Steed and Keel used wit while discussing crimes and dangers, the series depicted the interplay—and tension—between Keel's idealism and Steed's professionalism.
As seen in one of the three surviving episodes from the first series, "The Frighteners", Steed had helpers among the population who provided information, similar to the "Baker Street Irregulars" of Sherlock Holmes. The other regular in the first series was Carol Wilson, the nurse and receptionist who replaced the slain Peggy. Carol assisted Keel and Steed in cases, in at least one episode was much in the thick of the action, but without being part of Steed's inner circle. Hafner had played opposite Hendry as a nurse in one episode of Police Surgeon; the series was shot on 405-line videotape using a multicamera setup. There was little provision for editing and no location footage; as was standard practice at the time, videotapes of early episodes of The Avengers were reused. At present, only three complete Season 1 episodes are known to exist and are held in archives as 16 mm film telerecordings: "Girl on the Trapeze", "The Frighteners" and "Tunnel of Fear". Additionally, the first 15 minutes of the first episode, "Hot Snow" exist as a telerecording.
The missing television episodes are being re-created for audio by Big Finish Productions under the title of The Avengers - The Lost Episodes and star Julian Wadham as Steed, Anthony Howell as Dr. Keel and Lucy Briggs-Owen as Carol Wilson. Production of the first series was cut short by a strike. By the time production could begin on the second series, Hendry had quit to pursue a film career. Macnee was promoted to star and Steed became the focus of the series working with a rotation of three different partners. Dr Martin King, a thinly disguised rewriting of Keel, saw action in only three episodes produced from scripts written for the first series. King was intended to be a transitional character between Keel and Steed's two new female partners, but while the Dr. King episodes were shot first, they were shown out of production order in the middle of the season; the character was thereafter and dropped. Nightclub singer Venus Smith appeared in six episodes, she was a complete "amateur", meaning that she did not have any professional crime-fighting skills as did the two doctors.
She was excited to be participating in a "spy" adventure alongside secret agent Steed. Nonetheless, she appears to be attracted to him and their relationship is somewhat similar to that portrayed between Steed and Tara King, her episodes featured musical interludes showcasing her singing performances. The character of Venus underwent some revision during her run, adopting more youthful demeanor and dress; the first episode broadcast in the second series had introduced the partner who would change the show into the format for which it is most remembered. Honor Blackman played Dr Cathy Gale, a self-assured, quick-witted anthropologist, skilled in judo and had a passion for leather clothes. Widowed during the Mau Mau years in Kenya, she was the "talented amateur" who saw her aid to Steed's cases as a service to her nation, she was said to have bee