English Heritage is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments and places. These include medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses; the charity states that it uses these properties to ‘bring the story of England to life for over 10 million people each year’. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian's Wall. English Heritage manages the London Blue Plaque scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings; when formed in 1983, English Heritage was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties. It was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. In 1999 the organisation merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
On 1 April 2015, English Heritage was divided into two parts: Historic England, which inherited the statutory and protection functions of the old organisation, the new English Heritage Trust, a charity that would operate the historic properties, which took on the English Heritage operating name and logo. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to help establish it as an independent trust, although the historic properties remained in the ownership of the state. Over the centuries, what is now called'Heritage' has been the responsibility of a series of state departments. There was the'Kings Works' after the Norman Conquest. Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works to the Department of the Environment and now the Department for Culture and Sport; the state's legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. Central government subsequently developed several systems of heritage protection for different types of'assets', introducing listing for buildings after WW2 and conservation areas in the 1960s.
In 1983 Secretary of State for the Environment Michael Heseltine gave national responsibility for the historic environment to a semi‑autonomous agency to operate under ministerial guidelines and to government policy. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission was formed under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983 on 1 April 1984; the 1983 Act dissolved the bodies that had provided independent advice – the Ancient Monuments Board for England and the Historic Buildings Council for England and incorporated these functions in the new body. Soon after, the commission gained the operating name of English Heritage by its first Chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. A national register of historic parks and gardens, was set up in 1984, a register for historic battlefields was created in March 1995.'Registration' is a material consideration in the planning process. In April 1999 English Heritage merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.
By adoption this included responsibility for the national record of archaeological sites from the Ordnance Survey. These, together with other nationally important external acquisitions, meant that English Heritage was one of the largest publicly accessible archives in the UK: 2.53 million records are available online, including more than 426,000 images. In 2010–2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessions and over 110,000 people visited NMR exhibitions held around the country in 2009/10. In 2012 the section responsible for archive collections was renamed the English Heritage Archive; as a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks and submerged landscapes within 12 miles of the English coast. The administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. However, actual listing decisions still remained the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, required by the Planning Act 1990 to approve a list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.
Following the Public Bodies Reform in 2010, English Heritage was confirmed as the government's statutory adviser on the historic environment, the largest source of non-lottery grant funding for heritage assets. It was retained on grounds of "performing a technical function which should remain independent from Government"; however the department suffered from budget cuts during the recession of the 2010s resulting in a repairs deficit of £100 million. In June 2013 the British Government announced plans to provide an £80 million grant to enable English Heritage to become a self-financing charity; the national portfolio of historic properties remain in public ownership, but the new English Heritage will be licensed to manage them. The change occu
Howard "Bunny" Colvin
Howard "Bunny" Colvin is a fictional character on the HBO drama The Wire, played by actor Robert Wisdom. Colvin is a wise and able police major in the Baltimore's Western District, alienated by the careerism and bureaucracy rampant in Baltimore Police Department and detrimental social effects of the War on Drugs. Close to retirement, he secretly breaks chain of command and puts his resources into "Hamsterdam," three zones within his district where drug dealing is pressured to non-violently conglomerate in exchange for informal legal sanction. Colvin concentrates policing in these areas and attracts important ground-level social services, such as needle and condom distribution. Despite unprecedented statistical gains, Colvin is forced to retire from the force, he becomes a field researcher alongside academic Dr. David Parenti in Baltimore city schools. In this role, Colvin falls into the guardianship of Namond Brice. Colvin joined the Baltimore Police Department in 1973, patrolling his home neighborhood in Baltimore's Western District.
Over his tenure, he advanced to the rank of district commander in the Western. Colvin's philosophy of policing involves protecting the community he serves by making quality arrests through the use of trusted informants on his foot post; as a commander, he insists that his men learn their foot post and urges them to focus on doing real police work. Toward the end of his career, he begins seeing the War on Drugs as an ineffective waste of time and resources that has led to many needless casualties in his district. Colvin is at the scene when a child is accidentally shot during a turf war, appalled at the senselessness of the killing; when ordered to crack down on the area, his second in command, Dennis Mello, states that they waited too long to make the arrests they had. Colvin begins to question what it is they are doing on their job. Colvin, months away from being eligible to retire on a major's pension, decides to make a last effort to have a real impact on the community, he recognizes that much of his time and resources are spent on policing addicts and low level dealers, which never improves the situation in his district and leaves little time for "real" police work.
All of Baltimore's district majors are under extreme pressure to reduce the city's violent crime rate from Mayor Clarence Royce, seeking re-election. After Commissioner Ervin Burrell relieves Major Marvin Taylor from his post commanding the Eastern District due to his poor performance, other district commanders begin "juking" their stats to make crime rates appear to drop. Colvin refuses to do this, his stats reflect a 2% rise in felonies, he is chewed out by Deputy Commissioner William Rawls, while Burrell threatens to have him replaced. Colvin wonders. After the attempted murder of Kenneth Dozerman, Colvin decides that he will independently set up three "free zones" in the Western where addicts and dealers can conduct their business under supervision, but without interference; this moves the drug trade into a uninhabited area to protect the rest of his district. Colvin does not seek the permission or approval of his superiors before implementing his plan, ignores the concerns of his subordinates, including Mello and Ellis Carver, who are charged with ensuring no violence takes place within the free zones.
One of these areas becomes known after Amsterdam's liberal drug laws. Because his retirement is imminent and he is guaranteed a pension, Colvin believes he'll be free from any consequences should his plan be discovered. Legalizing drugs in Hamsterdam allows him to redirect police resources to quality felony cases elsewhere. After implementing the Hamsterdam plan for five weeks, Colvin delivers a cumulative 14% reduction in the felony rate, unheard of in the Western's history. Colvin is forced to take his vacation time after revealing his experiment to Rawls and Burrell. Royce considers trying to spin Hamsterdam as an enforcement strategy because of its success in lowering the crime rate. However, in the meantime, Herc leaks information about Hamsterdam to the press. After realizing that public opinion is against the free zones, that there are broader political ramifications, Royce recants and decides to end the Hamsterdam experiment. Burrell and Rawls force Colvin into becoming a scapegoat by threatening to persecute his officers.
He is demoted to lieutenant and thus gets a lowered pension. Burrell contacts Johns Hopkins University and convinces them to withdraw a job offer for their campus security force; as a commanding officer, Colvin is well liked by his men. Colvin has a major impact on Carver, convincing him to reassess his role as DEU sergeant and to take a more community-minded approach to policing, he reconnects with Jimmy McNulty, who had started out as a beat officer under his command. Colvin's last piece of detective work involves McNulty's Major Case Unit: Stringer Bell contacts Colvin to inform on Avon Barksdale, Colvin passes the information on to McNulty. In Colvin, Stringer sees a fellow reformer who feels his superiors are preventing useful work from being done; as Bell puts it, they are "both trying to make sense of this game," though from opposite sides of the law. Colvin attempts to supplement his diminished pension by working as the head of security for a downtown hotel, he becomes disillusioned with the post when the hotel manager refuses to let him arrest a wealthy client who had assaulted a prostitute in his hotel room, quits the job soon thereafter.
He is approached with another job from The Deacon, who has learned of a large grant to the University of Maryland to look at repeat violent offenders. The study is led by Dr. David Parenti. Colvin has develo
In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks. It has been defined as "the human-made space in which people live and recreate on a day-to-day basis." The "built environment encompasses places and spaces created or modified by people including buildings and transportation systems." In recent years, public health research has expanded the definition of "built environment" to include healthy food access, community gardens, mental health, "walkability", "bikeability". Early concepts of built environment date to Classical Antiquity: Hippodamus of Miletos, known as the "father of urban planning," developed Greek cities from 498 BC to 408 BC that created order by using grid plans that mapped the city; these early city plans gave way to the City Beautiful movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s, inspired by Daniel Hudson Burnham, a reformist for the Progressivism movement who promoted "a reform of the landscape in tandem with political change."
The effort was in partnership with others who believed that beautifying American cities would improve the moral compass of the cities and encourage the upper class to spend their money in cities. This beautification process included architectural design. By mid-century modernist "indifferent" design influenced the character of work and public spaces, followed by what Alexander describes as a late twentieth century "revival of interest relating to the concept of place, its relevance to mental health and other fields of study." Built environments are used to describe the interdisciplinary field that addresses the design, construction and use of these man-made surroundings as an interrelated whole as well as their relationship to human activities over time. The field is not regarded as a traditional profession or academic discipline in its own right, instead drawing upon areas such as economics, public policy, public health, geography, engineering and environmental sustainability. Within the field of public health, built environments are referred to as building or renovating areas in an effort to improve the community's well-being through construction of “aesthetically, health improved, environmentally improved landscapes and living structures”.
For example: community forest user group in Nepal is multidimensional institution, which serves goods and services to the communities through natural resource management. Technology is playing a pivotal role in shaping the industries of today by augmenting processes, streamlining activities, integrating innovations to propel the functioning of companies and organisations across a multitude of industries and help them achieve new heights. Building information modeling is prominent practice, it involves illustration & pre-execution overview of physical and functional characteristics of places. BIM tools help the planner in making a future ready informed decision regarding a building or other built asset. Smart Building Management, Drone-based Surveying, 3D Printing, Intelligent Transportation System are recent implementation of technology in modern built environment. In public health, built environment refers to physical environments that are designed with health and wellness as integral parts of the communities.
Research has indicated that the way neighbourhoods are created can affect both the physical activity and mental health of the communities’ residents. Studies have shown that built environments that were expressly designed to improve physical activity are linked to higher rates of physical activity, which in turn, positively affects health. Neighbourhoods with more walkability had lower rates of obesity as well as increased physical activity among its residents, they had lower rates of depression, higher social capital, less alcohol abuse. Walkability features in these neighbourhoods include safety, sidewalk construction, as well as destinations in which to walk. In addition, the perception of a walkable neighbourhood, one, perceived to have good sidewalks and connectivity, is correlated with higher rates of physical activity. Assessments of walkability have been completed through the use of GIS programs, such as the Street Smart Walk Score; this example of a walkability assessment tool determines distances to grocery stores and other amenities, as well as connectivity and intersection frequency using specific addresses.
Assessments such as the Street Smart Walk Score can be utilized by city and country planning departments to improve existing walkability of communities. To implement walkable neighbourhoods, community members and local leaders should focus on policy development. An effective framework, utilized in an abundance of communities is the Complete Streets concept of community planning, developed by the National Complete Streets Coalition. NCSC states that the most successful policies are those that reflect input from a broad group of stakeholders, including transportation planners and engineers, elected officials, transit agencies, public health departments, members of the community. According to Riggs, 2016, policies may focus on a “Complete Streets” investment, which includes sidewalk bulb-outs and refuges to reduce crossing distances or street widths for pedestrians. Other investments should include installing crosswalks, road markings, benches and sidewalk art installations; every community will have a unique method of policy development depending on whether it is an urban, suburban, or rural com
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art
The Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art is a scholarly centre in London devoted to supporting original research into the history of British Art. It was endowed by a gift from Paul Mellon. Since 1996, it has been situated at 16 Bedford Square in a Grade I listed building; this building houses an outstanding library of 26,000 publications focused on British art and architecture, over 25 collected archives which include papers of eminent art historians such as Ellis K Waterhouse, Oliver Millar, Brian Sewell and Brinsley Ford. It holds the records of its own institutional archives, including a growing oral history collection; the centre compiled its own photographic archive from 1970-1996 and now holds the Tate photographic archive. All of these research collections are available to consult in the Centre's Public Study Room; as well as being incorporated as a British educational charity, the centre is part of Yale University and provides teaching in London for Yale students, through the successful Yale-in-London scheme.
The centre supports a publication programme through Yale University Press and co-ordinates its activities with the sister institution, the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven. The centre administers a comprehensive programme of grants and fellowships designed to support research into the history of British art, hosts workshops, symposia and regular series of seminars; the centre is a registered charity under English law and is a member of the Association of Research Institutes in Art History. The Paul Mellon Centre underwrites the production costs of publications concerned with the study of British art and architecture; the books are distributed by Yale University Press. In 2015 the Centre launched an online and open access journal, British Art Studies, copublished by the Yale Center for British Art; the centre published an online catalogue raisonné of the artist Richard Wilson to coincide with the tercentenary of the artist's birth. In 2016, the centre published another catalogue raisonné of the artist Francis Towne.
New York Times Article An Anglophilic Yankee Aristocrat and His Finds Across the Pond New York Times Article Voracious Anglophile Official website Official Twitter Profile Official Facebook Page Richard Wilson Online catalogue raisonné British Art Studies online journal Francis Towne Online catalogue raisonné Library & Photographic Archives Catalogue Archive Catalogue
Fellow of the British Academy
Fellowship of the British Academy is an award granted by the British Academy to leading academics for their distinction in the humanities and social sciences. There are three kinds of fellowship Fellows, for scholars resident in the United Kingdom Corresponding Fellows, for scholars not resident in the UK Honorary Fellows, an honorary academic titleThe award of fellowship is evidenced by published work and fellows may use the post-nominal letters: FBA. Examples of fellows include Mary Beard, Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford, Jeremy Horder, Michael Lobban, M. R. James and Rowan Williams. List of Fellows of the British Academy