The Howard Government refers to the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister John Howard between 11 March 1996 and 3 December 2007. It was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition, which won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives at four successive elections; the Howard Government commenced following victory over the Keating Government at the 1996 federal election. It concluded with its defeat at the 2007 federal election by the Australian Labor Party, whose leader Kevin Rudd formed the First Rudd Government, it was the second-longest government under a single Prime Minister, with the longest having been the second Menzies Government. Two senior ministers served in single roles for the duration of the Government; the leader of the National Party served as Deputy Prime Minister. Three men served in this capacity during the Howard government: Tim Fischer until July 1999, followed by John Anderson until July 2005 and Mark Vaile. Decisions of the Executive were made either by the appropriate Minister.
For the first three terms of government, part of the fourth term, the Howard Government did not have control of the Senate. Legislation needed the support of the Opposition or minor parties for that legislation to be passed and become law. In the 2004 election, the Coalition won control of the Senate for all but the first nine months of its fourth term, was able to pass legislation without the support of minor parties; the government faced internal problems and tension, with the loss of numerous ministers during its first term due to the introduction of a ministerial code of conduct and ongoing leadership rivalry between John Howard and Peter Costello. Significant issues for the Howard government included implementation of substantial spending cuts in its first term of office and paying off government debt. John Howard became Leader of the Opposition on 30 January 1995, replacing Alexander Downer, who resigned in his favour. Downer took the position of Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs, Peter Costello retained his position as Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party and Shadow Treasurer.
Howard had had a long Parliamentary career, having entered Parliament in 1974 and served as Treasurer in the Fraser Government from 1977 to 1983. He replaced Andrew Peacock as leader of the Opposition in 1985 and challenged the Hawke Government at the 1987 Election, which saw Labor returned. Peacock challenged and replaced Howard prior to the 1990 Election, which again returned Labor; the Liberals turned to two further leaders before restoring Howard to the office to lead the Coalition against the Keating Labor Government. Long-serving Labor Treasurer Paul Keating had challenged Bob Hawke for the leadership of the Labor Party and the prime ministership in 1991. Despite Australia suffering a deep recession in the early 1990s, Labor had increased its lead over the Coalition at the 1993 Election, which had seen the Liberals under Hewson offer an ambitious program of economic reform called Fightback!, which proposed a Goods and Services Tax as its centrepiece. As opposition leader, Howard delivered a series of "headland speeches", which dealt broadly with the philosophy of government.
In contrast to Keating, he used these addresses to speak in favour of traditional Australian institutions and symbols like the Australian flag and ANZAC legacy. By the time of the 1996 Election, unemployment was high, but at a lower rate than at the previous 1993 Election, interest rates were lower than they had been in 1990, but foreign debt had been growing; the Keating Government was projecting a small budget surplus. Following the election, an $8 billion deficit was confirmed. In his 18 February 1996 Policy Launch Speech delivered at the Ryde Civic Centre in Sydney, Howard emphasised that Labor had been in office a long time, cited high inflation, a poor current account deficit and high national debt as evidence of bad economic management, he called for industrial relations reform to increase flexibility and improve productivity and offered tax relief for families. He proposed increased spending on environmental challenges, to be in part funded by the partial sale of telstra, he promised to restore the prime minister's attendance at question time in parliament.
The 1996 Election brought to an end 13 years of the Hawke-Keating Labor Government. The Liberal-National Coalition won the federal election on 2 March 1996 against the incumbent Keating Labor government; the coalition had a 45-seat majority in the House of Representatives. Howard announced his proposed ministry team on 8 March 1996, with the Governor-General swearing them into office on 11 March; the size of the Coalition victory gave John Howard great power within the Liberal party and he said he came to the office "with clear views on where I wanted to take the country". In the first week of the new government, Howard sacked six department heads and chose new department heads himself and changes were made across the public service. On 28 April 1996, eight weeks into the new government's
Sydney Ringer FRS was a British clinician and pharmacologist, best known for inventing Ringer's solution. He was born in March 1835 in Norwich and died following a stroke 14 October 1910, in Lastingham, England, his gravestone and some other records report 1835 for his birth, some census records and other documents suggest 1836, but his baptismal record at St Mary's Baptist Chapel confirms this was 1835. Born into a non-conformist family in Norwich, Ringer's father died in 1843 while he was still young, his elder brother, John Melancthon, amassed a vast fortune in Shanghai, whilst his younger brother, went to Japan, where he founded the company Holme, Ringer & Co in Nagasaki and became so successful he was given the name "King of Nagasaki”. Ringer's entire professional career was associated with London, he entered University College in 1854 and graduated M. B. in 1860, being a resident medical officer in the University Medical Hospital from 1861 to 1862. He gained his M. D. in 1863 and that same year was appointed as assistant physician to the hospital, becoming a full physician in 1866.
From 1865 to 1869, he held the position as assistant physician at the Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street. Ringer was an outstanding bedside teacher who continued the high standard of clinical instruction, established at the University College Hospital, he was not, however. Ringer served successively as professor of materia medica and therapeutics, the principles and practice of medicine at the University College faculty of medicine. In 1887, he was named Holme professor of clinical medicine, a chair he held until his retirement in 1900. In 1870 he became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and in 1885 a Fellow of the Royal Society. Ringer's Handbook of Therapeutics was a classic of its day and passed through thirteen editions between 1869 and 1897; this book was commissioned as a revision of Jonathan Pereira's massive Elements of Materia Medica, but Ringer was little concerned with the minutiae of traditional medical botany and materia medical. He offered instead a practical treatise in which the actions and indications of drugs were concisely summarised.
Ringer was one of the early true clinical investigators. Patient care, clinical teaching, writing occupied most of Ringer's career, but for many years he maintained a small laboratory in the department of physiology, he was universally known for his punctuality and the fanatical way he would spend every spare moment in his laboratory. It is recorded that he climbed the palings of the hospital wall one evening when he found the door locked, to get to his laboratory. Following his morning round he would always make an appearance in the physiological laboratory and make suggestions to the laboratory assistant, examine the traces and depart for his rooms at Cavendish Place, where he would do his consultant work. With the aid of a series of collaborators, including E. G. A. Morshead, William Murrell, Harrington Sainsbury, Dudley Buxton, Ringer published between 1875 and 1895 more than thirty papers devoted to the actions of inorganic salts on living tissues. In the 1860s Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig had developed some perfusion techniques for the study of isolated organs.
From the beginning the heart had served as the principal organ for these "extravital" investigations, most of Ringer's physiological work relied on Ludwig's experimental model. In a classic series of experiments performed between 1882 and 1885, Ringer began with an isolated frog heart suspended in a 0.75% solution of sodium chloride. He introduced additional substances to the solution and observed the effects on the beating heart, he demonstrated that the abnormally prolonged ventricular dilation induced by pure sodium chloride solution is reversed by both blood and albumin. Ringer showed that small amounts of calcium in the perfusing solution are necessary for the maintenance of a normal heartbeat, a discovery he made after realising that instead of distilled water, his technician was using tap water containing calcium at nearly the same concentration as the blood. Ringer thus perfected Ludwig's perfusion technique by proving that if small amounts of potassium are added to the normal solution of sodium chloride, isolated organs can be kept functional for long periods of time.
This formed the basis of "Ringer's solution", which became an immediate necessity for the physiological laboratory. Clinically important derivatives include "Ringer's Lactate". In 2007, a brief biography of Ringer was published by the Physiological Society, of which Ringer was an early member. Dewolf, WC. "Sydney Ringer". Investigative Urology. 14: 500–1. PMID 323186. Sternbach, George. "Sydney ringer: Water supplied by the new river water company". Journal of Emergency Medicine. 6: 71–4. Doi:10.1016/0736-467990254-5. PMID 3283218. Fye, W B. "Sydney Ringer and cardiac function". Circulation. American Heart Association. 69: 849–53. Doi:10.1161/01. CIR.69.4.849. PMID 6365353. Lee, J. Alfred. "Sydney Ringer and Alexis Hartmann". Anaesthesia. 36: 1115–21. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1981.tb08698.x. PMID 7034584. Miller, D. J.. "Sydney Ringer. The Journal of Physiology. 555: 585–7. Doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.060731. PMC 1664856. PMID 14742734. Moore, Benjamin. "In Memory of Si
The Rat Patrol was an American action and adventure television series that aired on ABC between 1966 and 1968. The show follows the exploits of four Allied soldiers — three Americans and one Briton — who are part of a long-range desert patrol group in the North African campaign during World War II, their mission: "to attack and wreak havoc on Field Marshal Rommel's vaunted Afrika Korps". The show was inspired by and loosely modeled on David Stirling's British Special Air Service, which used modified Jeeps armed with machine guns as their transport through the treacherous desert terrain, Popski's Private Army; such units did not exist as part of the American military until after the Second World War. The title of the program refers to the nicknames given to some of the British Commonwealth forces in the North African campaign. At the time of the original telecast, many British and New Zealand viewers took offense at the majority of American characters on the program, resulting in the show's being pulled from the BBC after six episodes.
In Australia, the show was relegated to a Saturday afternoon timeslot, when most people were out. The main audience became children who didn't know the history of WW2. In addition, the opening episode presented the trio of American actors outnumbering the token British, Sergeant Jack Moffitt, who asks permission to "brew up", an English public school attempt to educate his American ally on the virtues of a cup of tea. While the premise for the show might have been the SAS, the show itself modeled parts of the movie The Desert Rats; the 30-minute time constraint limited the show's storyline to a formulaic plot: a regular contest between the characters Troy, the American, Dietrich, the German, mirroring "cowboys" and "Indians". The show first aired on 12 September 1966. Despite its many historical inconsistencies, the show achieved successful ratings at a time when military shows were in decline because of public disaffection with the Vietnam War In its first season, The Rat Patrol was an instant success, siphoning about a million viewers from The Lucy Show, placing it in the top 30 for the season and making a strong enough showing to be renewed for a second season.
During the 1967–68 season, it faced competition in Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In and The Man from Uncle, which were shown in the same time slot, bookended by The Monkees and the Danny Thomas Show. ABC's other night with 30-minute time slots, was decidedly family-oriented: Batman, Flying Nun and That Girl. Although running only two seasons, The Rat Patrol remains a popular and iconic series to this day; as of February 2020, the Heroes & Icons channel broadcasts the series as part of its Saturday night lineup. The four members of the Allied patrol were: Notable enemies included: For a few episodes during the second season, the storyline required the temporary absence of Tully. Three different characters took turns rounding out the Patrol until Tully returned: Peterson Andy Bo Randall A Rat Patrol soldier named Cotter is shown being hit by enemy fire and slumping over his machine gun during the opening action sequence of the pilot episode, "The Chase of Fire Raid"; the resulting vacancy allowed for the addition of Moffitt to the team.
A total of fifty-eight 30-minute episodes were produced by Mirisch-Rich Television Productions, a subsidiary of United Artists Television, in association with Tom Gries Productions Inc.. Just as with The Man From U. N. C. L. E. in which episode titles included the word "Affair", all Rat Patrol episodes titles had "Raid" e.g. "The Do or Die Raid", "The Lighthouse Raid" or "Mask-A-Raid". Part of the show's first season was filmed in Almería, with the rest in the United States; the three-part story arc "The Last Harbor Raid" was released theatrically in some venues under the title "Massacre Harbor". Christopher George suffered multiple injuries, including a heart contusion, Gary Raymond suffered a broken ankle when a jeep overturned on them during filming of episode 27, "Take Me To Your Leader Raid", in January 1967. George's injury contributed to his 1983 death; as was usual for productions of the era, other equipment was substituted for original ones, though a number of the soft-skinned vehicles used by the Germans in the Spanish-filmed episodes are German or Italian Axis vehicles.
The German armoured vehicles were American Patton tanks, M7 Priest self-propelled guns and M3 Half-tracks painted in desert sand colors. In the US-filmed episodes M35 2-1/2 ton cargo trucks replaced the more convincing vehicles used in Spain; some of the US jeeps used by secondary characters are post-war. The most-remembered visual was a jeep jumping over a sand dune, seen in the opening credits and other scenes in the series; the submachine guns used by the squad were unusual. Because the first season had been filmed in Spain, the producers obtained several fixed wood-stock versions of the Spanish Star Z-45 submachine gun from the Spanish Army, in an apparent attempt to imitate the look of the WWII.45 Thompson submachine gun. This was changed in first-season episodes when Thompsons were made available. During the series, Sgt. Troy wore a bush hat typical of Australian troops; when the show aired in Australia, veterans of both World Wars there were critical of an American actor wearing such an important symbol of Australian courage a
The Harpeth Hills Flying Monkey Marathon is a 26.2-mile road race in Percy Warner Park, the larger of the Warner Parks in Nashville, Tennessee. It was created to be among the top five most difficult road marathons in the United States, was designed to be somewhat anti-establishment and grassroots in character. In particular, the Harpeth Hills Flying Monkey Marathon is consciously not part of any running series and is neither certified nor sanctioned by the USATF, but is the standard 42.195 kilometres. A runner cannot use this race to qualify for the Boston Marathon; this marathon was dreamt up by a broad array of Middle Tennessee runners and was first described on an internet message board dedicated to Middle Tennessee runners. The original organizers included Trent Rosenbloom, The Nashville Striders, Peter Pressman, Diana Bibeau, others; the marathon was inaugurated on November 2006, with 97 runners. In the inaugural running, the first place male runner finished in 2:50:25, the first place female finisher in 3:11:05.
The marathon's second running took place on November 18, 2007 with 174 runners from 29 states, two Canadian provinces, one from Italy. In 2007, the overall male winner cut 4:50 off the course record by finishing in 2:45:35. In 2008, four runners broke the previous course record, when Ben Schneider set a new 9:10 minute course record by winning with 2:36:25 on a sunny 30–40 degree day. Ben had successes in 2009, 2011 and 2012 when he returned to defend his title. In 2012, Olympic Trialist Leah Thorvilson became the first woman to break 3 hours on the course; the race is run in Percy Warner Park in Nashville, TN – one of the country's largest public city parks. It is one of the hardest road marathons in the country according to many runners, has been named the best marathon in Tennessee; the marathon starting and finishing line is located at 7601 Highway 100 South, Nashville, TN, 37221. Coordinates: 36°03′59″N 86°54′02″W; the marathon's creator asserts. According to the legend, the flying monkeys are an endangered cryptid confused with large owls and hawks.
Before 1939, the monkeys were commonly seen throughout the Southeastern United States, with large populations living in middle Tennessee and Appalachia. The legend states that, following 1939, the flying monkeys were hunted to the point of near-extinction. Current course record, by gender, denoted by asterisk; the Warner Parks, one of eighty parks owned and operated by the Nashville Metropolitan Board of Parks and Recreation, are located in southwest Davidson County in the Harpeth Hills. The Parks comprise a vast rolling woodland in the heart of the Nashville community, are situated just 9 miles from downtown. Surrounded by urban and suburban settings on all sides, the Warner Parks include the adjoined Percy and Edwin Warner Parks, together encompassing nearly 3,000 acres of forests, hills and wetlands; the Warner Parks together make up one of the largest city parks in the country. While the parks have walking and nature trails, the singular draw for runners is their extensive network of paved running routes.
Snaking through the 2,058 acres Percy Warner Park is the 11.2-mile Main Drive. "The 11.2", as the locals call it, winds its way through the tree-shaded Park, covering over 1,500 feet of elevation gain and loss with grades of up to 10–12% at times, with occasional open fields and densely forested glades. The route goes by scenic overlooks of Nashville, various sports and recreation areas, quiet picnic pavilions. Runners pass the Iroquois Steeplechase, one of the country's oldest grassy horse tracks. Marathon's website Elly Foster's Pictures from the 2010 Marathon Troy Gizzi's Pictures from the 2010 Marathon Houston Masters Sports Association Newsletter with review Flying Monkey Marathon Chatter Rules for the Flying Monkey Marathon Marathon and Beyond Magazine Partner Vulcan Runner story on the marathon
The 1983 Gael Linn Cup, the most important representative competition for elite level participants in the women's team field sport of camogie, was won by Leinster, who defeated Munster in the final, played at Ballinlough. Leinster defeated Connacht by 5–8 to 1–2 at Mobhi Road. Joan Gormley scored a goal in the dying seconds of the final against Munster at Ballinlough to win by 2–7 to 1–7. Angela Downey scrambled Leinster's first goal in a goalmouth melee in the first half and Tipeprary's Deirdre Lane had a goal for Munster in the opening minutes. In the Gael Linn Cup trophy Ulster defeated Munster at Ballymacward by 2–12 to 3–5. Leinster defeated Connacht 4–6 to 1–4 at Mobhi Road; the sides were level on 12 occasions in the final and the match went into extra time before Munster won by 1–12 to 1–11. Camogie Association
Euphemius of Constantinople was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Theophanes calls. Prior to his appointment, Euphemius was a presbyter of Constantinople, administrator of a hospital for the poor at Neapolis, unsuspected of any Eutychian leanings, is described as learned and virtuous. In 482, Emperor Zeno had published a decree called the Henotikon, which forbade in the current theological discussions any other criterion but those of the Councils of First Council of Nicaea and First Council of Constantinople avoided speaking of Christ's two natures, used ambiguous formulae that were meant to conciliate the Monophysites. Despite his efforts, the Henotikon satisfied no one: Monophysites disliked it as much as the Orthodox. However, Acacius at Constantinople, Peter Mongus Patriarch of Alexandria, Peter the Fuller Patriarch of Antioch had all signed it. Pope Felix III convened in 484 a Roman synod of sixty-seven bishops that condemned the emperor's decree and excommunicated Acacius, Peter Mongus, Peter Fuller.
Acacius retorted by striking the pope's name from his diptychs and persecuted Catholics at Constantinople. When he died, his successor, applied for recognition at Rome, but in vain, since he would not give up communion with Peter Mongus. Euphemius recognized the Council of Chalcedon, restored the pope's name to his diptychs, broke with Peter Mongus, who died in October of the year of Euphemius's accession. By these acts, he showed his desire to heal the rift with Rome, he still refused to erase the names of his two predecessors from the diptychs, where they appeared among the faithful departed. Pope Felix insisted that favourers of heresy should not be prayed for publicly. Gelasius allowed that in other circumstances he would have written to announce his election, but sourly observes that the custom existed only between bishops who were united in communion, was not to be extended to those who, like Euphemius, preferred a strange alliance to that with St. Peter; as a mark of condescension Gelasius granted the canonical remedy to all, baptised and ordained by Acacius.
Theodoric the Great had become master of Italy, in 493 sent Faustus and Irenaeus to the emperor Anastasius I to ask for peace. During their sojourn at Constantinople the envoys received complaints from the Greeks against the Roman church, which they reported to the pope. Euphemius urged. Before the accession of the Emperor Anastasius I, Euphemius had made him sign a profession of faith; as the Isaurian War was under way, Euphemius was accused of treason by revealing the emperor's plans to his enemies. A soldier, either by Anastasius's own order or to gain his favour, drew his sword on Euphemius at the door of the sacristy, but was struck down by an attendant; the emperor further wanted back his written profession of faith, which Euphemius refused to give up, so Anastasius assembled the bishops who were in the capital and preferred charges against their patriarch, whom they obsequiously excommunicated and deposed. The people loyally refused to surrender him, but yielded to the emperor. Meanwhile, fearing for his life, sought sanctuary in the baptistery, refused to go out until Macedonius II had promised on the word of the emperor that no violence should be done to him when they conducted him to exile.
Sinclair 1911 With a proper feeling of respect for the dignity of his fallen predecessor, Macedonius made the attendant deacon take off the newly-given pallium and clothed himself in the dress of a simple presbyter, "not daring to wear" his insignia before their canonical owner. After some conversation, Macedonius handed to him the proceeds of a loan he had raised for his expenses. Euphemius died in 515 at Ancyra, he was recognized to the end as lawful patriarch by his peers in the East who included Elias of Jerusalem Patriarch of Jerusalem, Patriarch Flavian II of Antioch. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Fortescue, Adrian. "Euphemius of Constantinople". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Sinclair, W. M. "Euphemius, patriarch of Constantinople". In Wace, Henry. Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century.
London: John Murray