An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy. Although an intimate relationship is a sexual relationship, it may be a non-sexual relationship involving family, friends, or acquaintances. Emotional intimacy involves feelings of liking or loving one or more people, may result in physical intimacy. Physical intimacy is characterized by romantic love, sexual activity, or other passionate attachment; these relationships play a central role in the overall human experience. Humans have a general desire to belong and to love, satisfied within an intimate relationship; such relationships allow a social network for people to form strong emotional attachments. Intimacy involves the feeling of belonging together, it is a familiar and close affective connection with another as a result of a bond, formed through knowledge and experience of the other. Genuine intimacy in human relationships requires dialogue, transparency and reciprocity. Dalton discussed how anthropologists and ethnographic researchers access "inside information" from within a particular cultural setting by establishing networks of intimates capable to provide information unobtainable through formal channels.
In human relationships, the meaning and level of intimacy varies between relationships. In anthropological research, intimacy is considered the product of a successful seduction, a process of rapport building that enables parties to confidently disclose hidden thoughts and feelings. Intimate conversations become the basis for "confidences". Sustaining intimacy for a length of time involves well-developed emotional and interpersonal awareness. Intimacy involves the ability to be both separate and together participants in an intimate relationship. Murray Bowen called this "self-differentiation," which results in a connection in which there is an emotional range involving both robust conflict and intense loyalty. Lacking the ability to differentiate oneself from the other is a form of symbiosis, a state, different from intimacy if feelings of closeness are similar. Intimate behavior joins close friends, as well as those in love, it evolves through reciprocal candor. Poor skills in developing intimacy can lead to getting too close too quickly.
Psychological consequences of intimacy problems are found in adults who have difficulty in forming and maintaining intimate relationships. Individuals experience the human limitations of their partners, develop a fear of adverse consequences of disrupted intimate relationships. Studies show that fear of intimacy is negatively related to comfort with emotional closeness and with relationship satisfaction, positively related to loneliness and trait anxiety. Scholars distinguish between different forms of intimacy, including physical, cognitive, or spiritual intimacy. Physical intimacy may include being inside someone's personal space, holding hands, kissing, heavy petting or other sexual activity. Emotional intimacy in sexual relationships develops after a certain level of trust has been reached and personal bonds have been established; the emotional connection of "falling in love", has both a biochemical dimension driven through reactions in the body stimulated by sexual attraction, a social dimension driven by "talk" that follows from regular physical closeness or sexual union.
Love is an important factor in emotional intimacy. It is qualitatively and quantitatively different from liking, not only based on the presence or absence of sexual attraction. There are three types of love in a relationship: passionate love, companionate love, sacrificial love. Sacrificial love reflects the subsumption of the individual self will within a union. Companionate love involves diminished potent feelings of attachment, an authentic and enduring bond, a sense of mutual commitment, the profound feeling of mutual caring, feeling proud of a mate's accomplishment, the satisfaction that comes from sharing goals and perspective. In contrast, passionate love is marked by infatuation, intense preoccupation with the partner, throes of ecstasy, feelings of exhilaration that come from being reunited with the partner. Cognitive or intellectual intimacy takes place when two people exchange thoughts, share ideas and enjoy similarities and differences between their opinions. Spiritual intimacy involves bonding over spirituality.
The use of empirical investigations in 1898 was a major revolution in social analysis. A study conducted by Monroe examined the habits of children in selecting a friend; some of the attributes included in the study were kindness and honesty. Monroe asked 2336 children aged 7 to 16 to identify "what kind of chum do you like best?" The results of the study indicate that children preferred a friend, their own age, of the same sex, of the same physical size, a friend with light features, friends that did not engage in conflict, someone, kind to animals and humans, that they were honest. Two characteristics that children reported as least important included religion; the study by Monroe was the first to mark the significant shift in the study of intimate relationships from analysis, philosophical to those with empirical validity. This study is said to have marked the beginning of relationship science. In the years foll
A doppelgänger is a non-biologically related look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and seen as a harbinger of bad luck. Other traditions and stories equate a doppelgänger with an evil twin. In modern times, the term twin stranger is used; the word "doppelgänger" is used in a more general and neutral sense, in slang, to describe any person who physically resembles another person. The word doppelgänger is a loanword from the German Doppelgänger, a compound noun formed by combining the two nouns Doppel and Gänger; the singular and plural forms are the same in German, but English prefers the plural "doppelgängers". The first known use, in the different form Doppeltgänger, occurs in the novel Siebenkäs by Jean Paul, in which he explains his newly coined word by a footnote – while the word Doppelgänger appears, but with a quite different meaning. Like all nouns in German, the word is written with an initial capital letter. Doppelgänger and Doppelgaenger are equivalent spellings, Doppelganger is different and would correspond to a different pronunciation.
In English, the word should be written with a lower-case letter unless it is the first word of a sentence or part of a title. It is further common to drop the umlaut on the letter "a", writing "doppelganger". English-speakers have only applied this German word to a paranormal concept. Francis Grose's, Provincial Glossary of 1787 used the term fetch instead, defined as the "apparition of a person living." Catherine Crowe's book on paranormal phenomena, The Night-Side of Nature helped make the German word well-known. However, the concept of alter egos and double spirits has appeared in the folklore, religious concepts, traditions of many cultures throughout human history. In Ancient Egyptian mythology, a ka was a tangible "spirit double" having the same memories and feelings as the person to whom the counterpart belongs; the Greek Princess presents an Egyptian view of the Trojan War in which a ka of Helen misleads Paris, helping to stop the war.. This is depicted in Euripides' play Helen. In Norse mythology, a vardøger is a ghostly double, seen performing the person's actions in advance.
In Finnish mythology, this is called having an etiäinen, "a firstcomer". The doppelgänger is a version of the Ankou, a personification of death, in Breton and Norman folklore. Izaak Walton claimed that English metaphysical poet John Donne saw his wife's doppelgänger in 1612 in Paris, on the same night as the stillbirth of their daughter. German playwright Goethe described an experience in his autobiography Dichtung und Wahrheit in which he and his double passed one another on horseback. In addition to describing the doppelgänger double as a counterpart to the self, Percy Bysshe Shelley's drama Prometheus Unbound makes reference to Zoroaster meeting "his own image walking in the garden". Lord Byron uses doppelgänger imagery to explore the duality of human nature. In The Devil's Elixir, a man murders the brother and stepmother of his beloved princess, finds his doppelgänger has been sentenced to death for these crimes in his stead, liberates him, only to have the doppelgänger murder the object of his affection.
This was one of E. T. A. Hoffmann's early novels. Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel The Double presents the doppelgänger as an opposite personality who exploits the character failings of the protagonist to take over his life. Charles Williams' Descent into Hell has character Pauline Anstruther seeing her own doppelgänger all through her life. Clive Barker's story "Human Remains" in his Books of Blood is a doppelgänger tale, the doppelgänger motif is a staple of Gothic fiction. In Stephen King's book, The Outsider, the antagonist is able to use the DNA of individuals to become their near perfect match through a science-fictional ability to transform physically; the allusion to it being a doppelganger is made by the group trying to stop it from killing again. The group discusses other examples of fictional doppelgangers that occurred throughout history to provide some context. In The CW supernatural drama series, The Vampire Diaries, actress Nina Dobrev portrayed the roles of several doppelgangers; the series focused on the doppelgangers of the sweet & genuine Elena and the malevolent & bitchy Katherine.
With the advent of social media, there have been several reported cases of people finding their "twin stranger" online, a modern term for a doppelgänger. Twinstrangers.net is a website where users can upload a photo of themselves and facial recognition software attempts to match them with another user of like appearance. The site reports that it has found numerous living doppelgängers—including three living doppelgängers of its founder Niamh Geaney. Heautoscopy is a term used in psychiatry and neurology for the hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance", it can occur as a symptom in schizophrenia and epilepsy, is considered a possible explanation for doppelgänger phenomena. Criminologists find a practical application in the concepts of facial familiarity and similarity due to the instances of wrongful convictions based on eyewitness testimony. In one case, a person spent 17 years behind bars persistently denying any involvement with the crime of which he was accused, he was released after someone was found who shared a striking resemblance and the same first name.
Alter ego Capgras delusion Doppelganger Week Evil twin Fetch Fylgja Sy
SS Oriana (1959)
SS Oriana was the last of the Orient Steam Navigation Company's ocean liners. She was built at Vickers-Armstrongs, Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria and launched on 3 November 1959 by Princess Alexandra. Resplendent with her owners' traditional corn coloured hull, Oriana appeared as an Orient Line ship until 1966, when that company was absorbed into the P&O group. Faced with unprofitable around the world passenger routes, the P&O white hulled Oriana was operated as a full-time cruise ship from 1973. Between 1981 and her retirement from service five years Oriana was based at Sydney, operating to Pacific Ocean and South-East Asian ports. Deemed surplus to P&O's requirements in early 1986, the vessel was sold to become a floating hotel and tourist attraction, first in Japan and in China; as a result of damage sustained from a severe storm whilst in the port of Dalian in 2004, SS Oriana was sold to local breakers in 2005. In May 1954 the Orient Steam Navigation Company began considering replacing SS Orontes and RMS Orion on the United Kingdom to Australia route.
One ship was called for, named Orbustus in the early stages of planning, before Oriana was settled on - a reference to both the former Elizabeth I of England and the crowned Queen Elizabeth II. Oriana's maiden voyage was from Southampton to Sydney in December 1960, during this voyage the Oriana was the first Ocean liner to berth at the Fremantle Passenger Terminal. At 41,915 gross tons and with capacity for more than 2,000 passengers in two classes, Oriana was the largest passenger liner in service on the UK to Australia and New Zealand route, until the introduction of the 45,733 ton SS Canberra in 1961; the Canberra could never match the Oriana for speed however, the latter having achieved 30.64 knots during her pre-hand over trials in 1960 and held the Golden Cockerel trophy for the fastest ship in the P&O fleet which she retained until she retired in 1986, when it was handed back to the Canberra. On Canberra's final cruise the Golden Cockerel was handed over to the new MV Oriana when both ships were anchored off Cannes and sent boats out to perform the handover.
In 1962, the Oriana collided with the USS Kearsarge, resulting in damage and an eventual court case with the United States government, Orient Steam Navigation Company v. United States. In August 1970, the Oriana caught fire while steaming out of Southampton; this serious fire occurred when the Boiler Room caught fire at the beginning of its journey across the Atlantic on its way to USA, New Zealand, Australia. Repairs took more than two weeks. From 1973, Oriana was converted to operate as a one class cruise ship and from 1981 until retirement in March 1986 was based in Sydney. After a layup of two months at No. 21 Pyrmont wharf, the ship was sold and moved to Osaka to become a floating hotel. The ship served as a floating museum at Beppu, Ōita from 1987 but this venture was not successful, she was subsequently sold to Chinese interests in 1995; the ship served as a floating hotel and tourist attraction in Shanghai until 2002, when she was moved to Dalian. In 2004 Oriana was damaged in a storm.
Repairs proved to be unfeasible and she was towed to a ship breakers yard and dismantled in 2005. The name Oriana was assigned to another P&O Cruises ship in the MV Oriana. Orient Steam Navigation Company McCart, Neil. SS Oriana -The Last Great Orient Liner. Cheltenham: FAN Publications. ISBN 0-9519538-0-X. Oriana at SS Maritime
Selwyn College, Cambridge
Selwyn College, Cambridge is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. The college was founded by the Selwyn Memorial Committee in memory of George Augustus Selwyn, the first Bishop of New Zealand, subsequently Bishop of Lichfield, it consists of three main courts built of stone and brick along with several secondary buildings, including adjacent townhouses and lodges serving as student hostels on Grange Road, West Road and Sidgwick Avenue. The college has 110 non-academic staff. In 2017, Selwyn was ranked ninth on the Tompkins Table of Cambridge colleges in order of undergraduates' performances in examinations, but was first in 2008; the college was ranked 16th out of 30 in an assessment of college wealth conducted by the student newspaper Varsity in November 2006. Selwyn's sister college at the University of Oxford is Keble College; the college was founded following the death of Bishop George Augustus Selwyn, who had played an important role in the establishment of New Zealand as its first bishop.
Selwyn was a scholar of St John's College, a member of the Cambridge crew which competed in the inaugural Boat Race in 1829. He came out second in the Classical Tripos in 1831, graduating Bachelor of Arts 1831, Master of Arts 1834, Doctor of Divinity per lit. reg. 1842, was a fellow of St John's College from 1833 to 1840. After graduating, Selwyn first taught at Eton College. In 1833, he was ordained deacon, and, in 1834, a priest. Selwyn displayed leadership talent and, in 1841, after an episcopal council held at Lambeth had recommended the appointment of a bishop for New Zealand, Charles James Blomfield, Bishop of London, offered the post to Selwyn, he returned to England in 1867, accepted the post of Bishop of Lichfield, which he held until his death on 11 April 1878, aged 69. After Selwyn's death in 1878, a number of scholars from Cambridge launched plans to establish a college to honour his life; the Selwyn Memorial Committee was founded with Charles Abraham as secretary, it proposed that a Cambridge college should be established as a memorial.
The college's first Master, Arthur Lyttelton, was formally elected on 10 March 1879, the Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Tait was invited to become Visitor on 28 June 1878 and building of Old Court, as it is now known, began in 1880. The foundation stone of the College was laid by Edward Herbert, 3rd Earl of Powis in a ceremony on 1 June 1881, following a lunch in King's College, Cambridge. A Charter of Incorporation was granted by Queen Victoria on 13 September 1882, the west range of Old Court was ready for use by the college's official opening on 10 October 1882, in time for Michaelmas term. Selwyn's first 28 undergraduates, joined the original Master and twelve other Fellows at the Public Hostel of the university in 1882; the first Master of the College was Arthur Lyttelton, who sought to establish the college on a firm academic and financial foundation. Lyttelton had the benefit of experience as a senior tutor at Oxford, he came from a well-established family with strong connections in both the Church and State, his mother being the sister-in-law of the Prime Minister, William Gladstone, to become a major benefactor of the College.
Lyttelton was himself a life-long supporter of the Liberal party and was familiar with many politicians in Westminster, his wife Kathleen, a women's activist, being the daughter of the Liberal MP George Clive. Lyttelton persuaded Gladstone to make a personal gift to the College of the louder of the two Chapel bells. Gladstone believed that Cambridge students needed to be well woken if they were to get up at a productive time in the morning. Today, the Chapel Bell is affectionately known as'Gladstone's Bell' by students; the college was founded with a distinctly religious character. The royal charter for the college, reproducing the terms of the charter of Keble College, was sealed on 13 September 1882; the charter declared that the college was "founded and constituted with the especial object and intent of providing persons desirous of academic education and willing to live economically with a College wherein sober living and high culture of the mind may be combined with Christian training based upon the principles of the Church of England".
Only baptised Christians were accepted as students or scholars. The original foundation charter specified that the college should "make provision for those who intend to serve as missionaries overseas and... educate the sons of clergymen". Selwyn was not yet a full college of the university, but a "Public Hostel", with its undergraduates regarded as non-collegiate and marked with the designation "H. Selw." on Senate House lists. In 1926 the "Public Hostel" status was abolished, replaced with that of "Approved Foundation", granting more security to the college; the distinction of the college as "H. Selw." on Senate House lists had ceased from June 1924. On 14 March 1958, Selwyn was granted full collegiate status. Selwyn, in common with most other Oxford and Cambridge colleges admitted only men, but was one of the first colleges to become mixed when women were admitted from 1976. In that year, women lived only on E and H Staircases, but in subsequent years could live anywhere in College. In 2009, Selwyn became the first Cambridge college to appoint Helen Stephens.
The college's founders purchased from Corpus Christi College 6 acres of land which lay between Grange Road, West Road and Sidgwick Avenue on 3 November 1879 at a cost of £6,111
South London is the southern part of London, England. Situated south of the River Thames, it includes the historic districts of Southwark, Lambeth and Greenwich. South London emerged from Southwark, first recorded as Suthriganaweorc, meaning "fort of the men of Surrey". From Southwark, London extended further down into northern Surrey and western Kent. South London consists of 11 whole boroughs, plus Richmond which includes land on both sides of the river, with part of its Twickenham district lying north of the river. South London began at Southwark at the southern end of London Bridge, the first permanent crossing over the river, with the initial development of the area being a direct result of the existence and location of the bridge. In 1720, John Strype’s ‘Survey of London’ described Southwark as one of the four distinct areas of London; the area now referred to as North London developed later. As late as the mid 18th century, there were no other bridges crossing the river and as a result urban growth was slower in the south than in areas north of the Thames.
The opening of Westminster Bridge and other subsequent bridges to the west encouraged growth in the south-west, but only Tower Bridge was built to the east of London Bridge, so south-east London grew more at least until the Surrey Commercial Docks were built. The development of a dense network of railway lines in the mid nineteenth century accelerated growth. A significant feature of south London’s economic geography is that while there are more than thirty bridges linking the area with West London and the City, there is only one, Tower Bridge, linking the area with East London. Little of London’s underground rail network lies south of the river due to the challenging geology, however 21st century technology makes tunnelling much cheaper than before and this may well lead to an improved underground provision in south London with the Crossrail 2 line proposed alongside extensions to the Northern and Bakerloo Lines. South London contains a extensive overground rail network and all of London’s trams operate within the area.
The 12 boroughs included, in whole or part are: The term ‘south London' has been used for a variety of formal purposes with the boundaries defined according to the purposes of the designation. In 2013 the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies; the Commission's study, was to start with existing regions of England and group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division. The south London sub-region included all 12 boroughs which lay in part south of the river; the recommendations of the report were not adopted, the 2017 study has taken a different approach. For the purposes of progress reporting on the London Plan, there was a south London sub-region in operation from 2004 to 2008 consisting of Bromley, Kingston, Merton and Sutton. In 2001 this area had a population of 1,329,000; this definition is used by organisations such as Connexions. Between 2008 and 2011 it was replaced with a South East sub-region consisting of Southwark, Greenwich and Bromley and a South West sub-region consisting of Croydon, Lambeth, Sutton and Wandsworth.
In 2011 a new south London region was created consisting of Bromley, the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames, Sutton, Bexley and Lewisham. South London is, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Three Met Office weather stations collect climate data south of the river. Long term climate observations dating back to 1763 are available for Greenwich, although observations ceased here in 2003. Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning the southern margins of south London are a couple of degrees cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Snow can be seen to lie on the North Downs near Croydon when central London is snow free; the record high temperature at Greenwich is 37.5 °C recorded during August 2003. Sunshine is notably lower than other London area weather stations, suggesting Greenwich may be a fog trap in winter, that the hillier land to the south may obscure early morning and late evening sunshine.
The highest temperature recorded across south London was 38.1 °C on the same occasion at Kew Gardens. Although the Met Office accepts a higher reading from Brogdale in Kent, many have questioned the accuracy of this and regard the Kew reading as the most reliable highest UK temperature reading. South Bank Time Out editors. "North London v South London – The debate". Time Out London. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Alan Rutter and Peter Watts. "North London v South London – The debate". Time Out London
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position, he chose to stay in the capital. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies and operas, portions of the Requiem, unfinished at the time of his early death at the age of 35; the circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber and choral music, he is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music.
Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, Joseph Haydn wrote: "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years". Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl, at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg; this was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, his elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart, nicknamed "Nannerl". Mozart was baptised the day at St. Rupert's Cathedral in Salzburg; the baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He called himself "Wolfgang Amadè Mozart" as an adult, but his name had many variants. Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
Four years he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. Leopold became the orchestra's deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his son's birth, Leopold published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which achieved success; when Nannerl was 7, she began keyboard lessons with her father, while her three-year-old brother looked on. Years after her brother's death, she reminisced: He spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was striking, his pleasure showed that it sounded good.... In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier.... He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, keeping in time.... At the age of five, he was composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down; these early pieces, K. 1–5, were recorded in the Nannerl Notenbuch. There is some scholarly debate about whether Mozart was four or five years old when he created his first musical compositions, though there is little doubt that Mozart composed his first three pieces of music within a few weeks of each other: K. 1a, 1b, 1c.
In his early years, Wolfgang's father was his only teacher. Along with music, he taught academic subjects. Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught, his first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his own initiative, came as a surprise to Leopold, who gave up composing when his son's musical talents became evident. While Wolfgang was young, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies; these began with an exhibition in 1762 at the court of Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, at the Imperial Courts in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour followed, spanning three and a half years, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Paris, The Hague, again to Paris, back home via Zurich and Munich. During this trip, Wolfgang met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers.
A important influence was Johann Christian Bach, whom he visited in London in 1764 and 1765. When he was eight years old, Mozart wrote his first symphony, most of, transcribed by his father; the family trips were difficult, travel conditions were primitive. They had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility, they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold both children; the family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. After one year in Salzburg and Wolfgang set off for Italy, leaving Anna Maria and Nannerl at home; this tour lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a maturing composer. Wolfgang met Josef Mysliveček and Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna, was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere twice in performance, in the Sistine Chapel, wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this guarded property of the Vatican.
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto, performed with success. This led to further oper
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst