Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Claremont McKenna College
Claremont McKenna College is a coeducational, private liberal arts college in Claremont, California. It has a curricular emphasis on economics, international relations and public affairs. CMC is a member of the Claremont Colleges consortium. Founded as a men's college in 1946, CMC became coeducational in 1976, its campus is located 35 miles east of Downtown Los Angeles. The college focuses on undergraduate education, but in 2007 it established the Robert Day School of Economics and Finance, which offers a master's program in finance. CMC is known for its conservative political orientation relative to comparable liberal arts colleges; as of 2016, there are 1,344 undergraduate students and postgraduate students. Claremont McKenna College was founded as Claremont Men's College in September 1946 with a founding class of 86 students and seven faculty. Many of its first students were war veterans of World War II attending college on the G. I. Bill. Claremont Men’s College was the third Claremont College, following Pomona College and Scripps College.
CMC founded with the mission to foster leadership in its students in the fields of government and international affairs. The college's motto is "Crescit cum commercio civitas", or "Civilization prospers with commerce". Following a national trend toward coeducation among colleges such as Yale, Williams and Dartmouth, Claremont Men's College faced compelling arguments to admit women in the 1970s. With support from students represented by the Associated Students of Claremont's Men College, the trustees of the college voted to admit women to CMC with a two-thirds vote. A year in 1976 Claremont Men's College admitted their first women to their freshman class; the President of Claremont Men's College during this transition Jack Stark would say the admission of women was the college’s most important moment. The women of the earliest classes of CMC are known as "Pioneers" and graduated with degrees that still bore the "Claremont's Mens College" moniker, it wasn't until 1981 that the college was renamed to Claremont McKenna College was renamed after Donald McKenna, a founding trustee.
In November 1989, a father of a CMC student hired a stripper to perform in the college's dining hall, sparking protests among some students. Then-president Jack Stark told the New York Times he did not wish to comment on "whether was or was not degrading to women". On the evening of March 9, 2004, visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology Kerri Dunn reported that her car had been vandalized and painted with racist and anti-semitic slurs. In response, there was a series of demonstrations, candlelight vigils and community meetings; the investigation by the City of Claremont's police department and the FBI revealed that Dunn had slashed her own tires and applied the insulting phrases to her own vehicle. She was found guilty of filing attempted insurance fraud, she was sentenced to one year in prison and ordered to pay a fine of $19,000 in restitution. On September 27, 2007, the college announced a $200 million gift from alumnus and trustee Robert Addison Day to create the "Robert Day Scholars Program" and a master's program in finance.
CMC literature professor Robert Faggen sent a letter signed by several other literature professors to CMC president Pamela Gann, saying they were concerned that the gift will "distort the college into a single focus trade school."On January 30, 2012, President Gann revealed that a "high-ranking admissions official," identified as the school's former dean of admissions, Richard C. Vos, had been inflating SAT scores reported to the U. S. News & World Report by 10-20 points over the previous six years. A 2013 Time article opined that "such a small differential could not have affected U. S. News & World Report rankings". A report commissioned by the college claimed to have found no evidence that these misrepresentations were made to inflate the school's rankings; the controversy prompted Forbes to omit CMC from its annual rankings in 2013. In November 2015, the college's dean of students resigned after students protested what they called a lack of institutional resources for marginalized students.
These protests followed and were associated with the 2015 University of Missouri protests. On April 6, 2017, a group of 300 student protesters blockaded the Marian Miner Cook Athenaeum in an attempt to shut down a speech by conservative pundit Heather Mac Donald; the college livestreamed the talk. The college disciplined seven of its students who participated in the blockade, including suspending two for a semester and three for a full year. CMC is chartered as a private, non-profit organization and is a member of the seven-institution Claremont Colleges consortium. Students can take classes at any of the member colleges, the colleges share libraries, student health, a bookstore, athletic facilities, various student services; the appointed, 40-voting-member board of trustees elects a president to serve as chief executive officer of the college. Hiram Chodosh is CMC's fifth president; the president has an executive cabinet of 9 vice presidents, including a VP of Students Affairs and VP of Academic Affairs.
George C. S. Benson, founding president Howard R. Neville Jack L. Stark Pamela Gann Hiram Chodosh In 2018, Forbes ranked Claremont McKenna as the 26th-best college in the nation and the 7th-best liberal arts college
Petroleum is a occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation using a fractionating column. It consists of occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds; the name petroleum covers both occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterisation have been completed, it is refined and separated, most by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The use of petroleum as fuel is controversial due to its impact on global warming and ocean acidification. Fossil fuels, including petroleum, need to be phased out by the end of 21st century to avoid "severe and irreversable impacts for people and ecosystems", according to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; the word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum, which comes from Latin petra', "rock", Latin oleum, "oil". The term was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term petroleum was used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal, refined oils produced from them. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy and technology.
The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry the synthesis of plastics, solvents and pesticides. More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society; the use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. In I Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to use petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China. Crude oil was distilled by Arabic chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.
The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around Azerbaijan; these fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Arab and Persian chemists distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century, it has been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură. Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been used; the still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, notably for medical purposes.
Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century. Both in Pechelbronn as in the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton, Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by sl
Superior Oil Company
Superior Oil Company was an independent American oil company, now part of ExxonMobil. Founded in 1921 in Coalinga, California, by William Myron Keck, Superior Oil began as a drilling contracting firm and grew into the exploration and production of oil and natural gas. In 1930 the company was the first to use directional drilling in California. Moving to Houston, Texas, by 1931 the company had wells in Texas, Nebraska and Venezuela. In 1938, the company constructed the first offshore oil platform off the coast of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. In the 1970s, Superior Oil was involved in the oil shale industry developing the Superior multimineral process. In September 1984 the company based in Houston, became a wholly owned subsidiary of Mobil. Company founder William Myron Keck founder of the W. M. Keck Foundation, started his career as a "roustabout" in the oil business in Pennsylvania, before making his way to California. In California, he worked as a speculator drilling wells on contract for big oil companies.
He would take payment as leases instead of cash. Keck was successful as an oil prospector. In one instance at the height of the oil boom in the 1920s in Los Angeles, he was the only "wildcatter" to purchase and retain a lease on 300 acres of Andrew Joughin's farm outside Torrance. While other prospectors turned away from the property, Keck's "46 productive wells were considered one of California's most successful oil-drilling projects. Keck struck oil in California's Huntington Beach and Kettleman Hills oil fields. Author Kevin Krajick has described Keck as "the world's greatest oil prospector, a man whose instincts about the location of petroleum were so uncanny, some believed him clairvoyant." The Superior Oil Company was founded in 1921 in Coalinga, California, by Keck, after he had accumulated enough leases to start his own firm. Superior Oil began as a drilling contracting firm and grew into other oil services including exploration and production of oil and natural gas; the company soon focused on the exploration and production of oil and gas, was involved with a number of new methods.
In 1930 the company was the first to use directional drilling in California. Keck was one of the first oilmen to move his business to Houston, by 1931, the company had wells in Texas, Nebraska and Venezuela. In 1933, the company was the first to use a reflection seismograph to help with finding hydrocarbons; the company was a "pioneer" in deep offshore drilling. The first independent to drill offshore in the Gulf of Mexico and the first to find commercial deposits in the Gulf of Mexico, in 1938, the company constructed the first offshore oil platform off the coast of Louisiana in cooperation with Pure Oil, another independent producer. In the Gulf, Superior set consecutive records for the deepest-drilled well; the company became the largest independent oil producer in the United States, according to author Kevin Krajick, Keck "practically ran the oil-rich nation of Venezuela."The marbled-clad Superior Oil Company Building was constructed in 1952 in Los Angeles, California as an office building by the Keck family to serve as the headquarters for Superior Oil Company.
Completed in 1955, the Modern architecture 12 story structure was designed by Claud Beelman and became "one of the area's most significant examples of the postwar modernism style popular in corporate architecture during the 1950s." From the company's founding in 1921 until 1963, Superior Oil was led by W. M. Keck. Running his company like a "one-man machine," Keck kept control of the company's stock after it went public; the elder Keck served as chairman of Superior, at the time of his death in 1964, his family owned 51 per cent of Superior's shares. Upon Keck's death, his son William M. Keck Jr. became Superior's chief executive officer, followed by leadership from Keck's second son Howard B. Keck from 1963 until 1981. Upon Keck's death, 11,000 shares of Superior stock, valued at $17 million in 1964, were placed in trust to be divided among the University of Southern California, Pomona College, Occidental College, the Episcopal Church of Our Saviour, San Gabriel, California. In the 1970s, Superior Oil was involved in the oil shale industry developing the Superior multimineral process.
In 1976, its revenues were $441 million. By 1978, Mobil was suing Superior Oil for "raiding" talent by hiring 32 of Mobil's exploration and production experts. Howard Keck retained "firm control" of the board. In September 1981, chairman and CEO Joseph E. Reid resigned from his positions, succeeded by former president and COO Fred C. Ackman, who remained president. At the end of 1982, the company had domestic crude oil reserves of 139 million barrels, domestic natural gas reserves of 1.8 trillion cubic feet. Unlike many other oil companies of the time, it had marketing operations. Superior Oil's 1983 sales came to $1.8 billion. In October 1983, Howard B. Keck stepped down as a director, while still controlling 18.4 percent of the company, saying he wanted to sell his stake. In late 1983, an "uneasy truce" was reached between two major stockholders, former chairman Howard B. Keck and his sister Willametta Keck Day. Day had in April of that year "led a stockholder revolt" leading to changes in Superior's bylaws, requiring the company's management to consider takeover bids.
Howard Keck had opposed the bylaw change. He disclosed his intention to sell his stake. Several months before March 1984, the Keck family, which owned a total of about 22 percent of the stock of Superior, approached Mobil Corporation with an offer to sell the family st
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
Mackay School of Earth Sciences and Engineering
The Mackay School of Earth Sciences and Engineering is a specialized school within the University of Nevada, Reno. It was named after benefactors of the university by Clarence and John Mackay. Part of the College of Science, the school has three academic departments: Geological Sciences and Engineering, Mining Engineering and Geography; the Mackay School houses four departments devoted to public service: Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Nevada Seismological Laboratory, Nevada State Climate Office and the Nevada Stable Isotope Laboratory. Research facilities include the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Center for Research in Economic Geology, Mining Life-Cycle Center, Center for Neotectonic Studies, Arthur Brant Laboratory for Exploration Geophysics, Collaboratory for Computational Geosciences, Dendro Laboratory and Geospatial Laboratory; the school is affiliated with the U. S. Geological Survey and Desert Research Institute. In June 1908, the Mackay School of Mines building was presented to the University of Nevada, as a memorial to John Mackay, by his widow and son, Marie Louise Mackay and Clarence Mackay.
A statue of John Mackay by Gutzon Borglum stands in front of the mining building on the main quad of the campus. The "Mackay School of Mines Building," was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982; the W. M. Keck Earth Science and Mineral Engineering Museum is located within the building, it focuses on early Nevada mining history, ores, fossil specimens and photographs and contains a collection of ornate Mackay family silver completed by Tiffany & Co. in 1878. Official website
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S