Howard Leigh, Baron Leigh of Hurley
Howard Darryl Leigh, Baron Leigh of Hurley is a British businessman, Conservative Party politician, since September 2013 a member of the House of Lords. He is the Senior Partner of Cavendish Corporate Finance. Leigh was created a Life Peer on 16 September 2013 taking the title Baron Leigh of Hurley, of Hurley in the Royal County of Berkshire. Leigh attended Clifton College in Bristol. From 1977 to 1980 he studied Economics at the University of Southampton. After completing his studies, he worked at a British merchant bank. In September 1981 he joined consulting firm Deloitte Haskins Sells. There he worked as a tax consultant, moving to the Corporate Tax Department of Deloitte upon qualifying as a chartered accountant. During this time he completed additional training at the Chartered Institute of Taxation. In the spring of 1986, he built the Deloitte's Mergers and Acquisitions Group, a special department for corporate mergers and acquisitions, on. In May 1988 he left Deloitte Haskins Sells and together with his partner Hugo Haddon-Grant he founded Cavendish Corporate Finance LLP in the same month.
From 2000 to 2004 he was Chairman of the Faculty of Corporate Finance at the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales. In 2008 he received the "Outstanding Achievement in Corporate Finance Award" from the Faculty of Corporate Finance. Since 1979, Lord Leigh supported the Conservative Party during election campaigns, he was 2000-2005 Treasurer of the Conservative Party. He is a member of the Executive Board of the Conservative Friends of Israel. On 16 September 2013 he was elevated formally to Life Peer, he was Chairman and is President of Westminster Synagogue. On 11 July 2015 the Minister for Civil Society, Rob Wilson, appointed Lord Leigh to take part in a review of the self-regulation of fundraising of charities, published on 21 September 2015. Lord Leigh is Vice-President of the Jewish Leadership Council and the President of the Institute of Jewish Policy Research. Lord Leigh is father to two daughters, he has participated in several national and local half marathons. He lives alternately in Hurley.
Lord Leigh of Hurley – House of Lords Howard Leigh – Cavendish Howard Leigh – LinkedIn
Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching developed from karate mixed with boxing. Kickboxing is practiced as a contact sport. Japanese kickboxing originated with competitions held since then. American kickboxing originated in the 1970s and was brought to prominence in September 1974, when the Professional Karate Association held the first World Championships. Kickboxing can be considered a hybrid martial art formed from the combination of elements of various traditional styles; this approach became popular since the 1970s, since the 1990s, kickboxing has contributed to the emergence of mixed martial arts via further hybridization with ground fighting techniques from Brazilian jiu-jitsu and folk wrestling. There is no single international governing body. International governing bodies include International Combat Organisation, World Association of Kickboxing Organizations, World Kickboxing Association, International Sport Karate Association, International Kickboxing Federation, World Kickboxing Network, among others.
There is no single kickboxing world championship, champion titles are issued by individual promotions, such as K-1, Glory and Kunlun Fight among others. Bouts organised under different governing bodies apply different rules, such as allowing the use of knees or clinching, etc; the term "kickboxing" can be used in a broad sense. The narrow use is restricted to the styles that self-identify as kickboxing, i.e. Japanese kickboxing, Dutch kickboxing, American kickboxing. In the wider sense, it includes all stand-up combat sports that allow both punching and kicking, including Muay Thai, Kun Khmer, Adithada, Lethwei and certain styles of karate; the term kickboxing itself was introduced in the 1960s as a Japanese anglicism by Japanese boxing promoter Osamu Noguchi for a hybrid martial art combining Muay Thai and karate which he had introduced in 1958. The term was also adopted by the American variant. Since there has been a lot of cross-fertilization between these styles, with many practitioners training or competing under the rules of more than one style, the history of the individual styles cannot be seen in isolation from one another.
The French term Boxe pieds-poings is used in the sense of "kickboxing" in the general meaning, including French boxing as well as American and Japanese kickboxing and Thai boxing, any style of full contact karate, etc. Arts labeled as kickboxing in the general sense include: The Indochinese family of kickboxing sports including: Pradal Serey – similar to Muay Thai with an emphasis on elbow techniques. Known as Kun Khmer. Thai Muay Boran – Predecessor of Muay Thai, allows the use of headbutts. Thai kickboxing or Muay Thai – the modern Thai martial art with strong emphasis on knee and elbow strikes. Burmese Lethwei, a traditional Burmese martial art of which has now grown into a popular kickboxing event with strong emphasis on knee, elbow strikes and headbutt. Any part of the body may be used to be struck, it is known as Bando kickboxing. Laotian Muay Lao – Laotian boxing, similar to Muay Thai Filipino Yaw-Yan – Sayaw ng Kamatayan is the proper name for Yaw-Yan, a Filipino martial art developed by Napoleon Fernandez.
The art resembles Muay Thai in a sense, but differs in the hip torquing motion as well as downward-cutting nature of its kicks and with strong emphasis on delivering attacks from long range. Indian Musti yuddha and Adithada, a form of kickboxing that uses knee and forehead strikes in Southern kalaripayattu. French Savate, a historical sport which developed in the 19th century, it is known for its foot-kicking techniques. Modern competition-oriented hybrid martial arts that developed in parallel with Japanese and American kickboxing: Dutch Kickboxing — incorporate styles of Muay Thai and Kyokushin style of Karate. Any style of Full contact Karate Sanda – The applicable component of wushu/kung fu of which takedowns and throws are legal in competition as well as all other sorts of striking. Shoot boxing – A Japanese form of kickboxing which allows throwing and submission while standing, similar to Sanda. Since kickboxing is a broad term, understanding the history can be somewhat difficult; some of the earliest forms of kickboxing included the various Indochinese martial arts muay boran, which developed into modern Muay Thai.
However, in terms of modern competition, it was during the 1950s that a Japanese karateka named Tatsuo Yamada first established an outline of a new sport that combined karate and Muay Thai. This was further explored during the early 1960s, when competitions between karate and Muay Thai began, which allowed for rule modifications to take place. By the middle of the decade the first true kickboxing events were being held in Osaka. By the 1970s and 1980s, the sport had expanded beyond Japan and had reached North America and Europe, it was during this time. In Japan the sport was popular and was broadcast on television before going into a dark period during the 1980s. In North America the sport had unclear rules so kickboxing and full contact karate were the same sport. In Europe the sport did not thrive until the 1990s. Since the 1990s the sport has been dominated by the Japanese K-1 promotion, with some competition coming
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
The Herald Sun is a morning newspaper based in Melbourne, published by The Herald and Weekly Times, a subsidiary of News Corp Australia, itself a subsidiary of News Corp. The Herald Sun serves Victoria and shares many articles with other News Corporation daily newspapers those from Australia, it is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales such as the Riverina and NSW South Coast, is available digitally through its website and apps. In 2017, the paper had a daily circulation of 350,000 from Monday to Friday; the Herald Sun newspaper is the product of a merger in 1990 of two newspapers owned by The Herald and Weekly Times Limited: the morning tabloid paper The Sun News-Pictorial and the afternoon broadsheet paper The Herald. It was first published on 8 October 1990 as the Herald-Sun; the hyphen in its title was dropped after 1 May 1993 as part of an effort to drop the overt reminder of the paper's two predecessors that the hyphen implied and by the fact that by 1993 most of the columns and features inherited from The Herald and The Sun News-Pictorial had either been discontinued or subsumed in new sections.
The Herald was founded on 3 January 1840 by George Cavenagh as the Port Phillip Herald. In 1849, it became The Melbourne Morning Herald. At the beginning of 1855, it became The Melbourne Herald before settling on The Herald from 8 September 1855 - the name it would hold for the next 135 years. From 1869, it was an evening newspaper. Colonel William Thomas Reay was sometime literary editor and associate editor, before becoming managing editor in 1904; when The Argus newspaper closed in 1957, The Herald and Weekly Times bought out and continued various Argus media assets. In 1986, The Herald's Saturday edition - The Weekend Herald - which had adopted a tabloid format, in order to distinguish it from the Monday to Friday editions' broadsheet format - was closed; the Sun News-Pictorial was founded on 11 September 1922, bought by The Herald and Weekly Times in 1925. In its prime, The Herald had a circulation of 600,000, but by the time of its 150th anniversary in 1990, with the impact of evening television news and a higher proportion of people using cars to get home from work rather than public transport, The Herald's circulation had fallen below 200,000.
This was much less than that of the morning Sun. With the only alternative option being to close The Herald, The Herald and Weekly Times decided to merge the two newspapers, so after one hundred and fifty years, ten months and two days of publication, The Herald was published for the last time as a separate newspaper on 5 October 1990; the next day, The Sun News-Pictorial published its last edition. The Sunday editions of the two newspapers, The Sunday Herald and The Sunday Sun, were merged to form the Sunday Herald Sun; the resulting newspaper had both the style of The Sun News-Pictorial. Bruce Baskett, the last Editor of The Herald, was the first Editor of the Herald Sun. After a progressive decline in circulation the afternoon edition was cancelled, the last edition being published on 21 December 2001; the News Corp Australia-produced mX had filled part of that gap, being distributed of an afternoon from stands throughout the Melbourne CBD until 12 June 2015, though not available outside that area.
Recent editors include Simon Pristel, Phil Gardner and Bruce Guthrie. The Herald Sun is the highest-circulating daily newspaper in Australia, with a weekday circulation of 350 thousand and claimed readership of 1.26 million. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Herald Sun's website is the 74th and 125th most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 15th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 6.6 million visitors per month. Over the years, the Herald Sun has had a range of magazines and memorabilia that could be obtained by either getting it out of the newspaper, or using a token from the newspaper to collect or purchase the item. Items that have been a part of this scheme include: William Ellis Green official VFL/AFL Premiership posters The 2000 Olympic Torch Relay Pin, collection includes 15 place pins and one State Pin of Victoria Australian Football League trading cards – every year, near the start of the AFL season The Simpsons pins Socceroos medallions Celebrate 50 Years of TV – in conjunction with Nine Network The Ashes series pins Family Encyclopedia CD-ROM Collection – in conjunction with publishing company Dorling Kindersley The Greatest – a 14-part magazine series Amazing Pictures – a 4-part magazine series Discovery Atlas DVD Collection Harry Potter The Ultimate Collection Shortly before the 2004 election, the Herald Sun published an article entitled "Greens back illegal drugs" written by Gerard McManus which made a number of claims about the Australian Greens based on their harm minimisation and decriminalisation policies posted on their website at the time.
The Greens complained to the Australian Press Council. The text of their adjudication reads: In the context of an approaching election, the potential damage was considerable; the actual electoral impact cannot be known but readers were misled. The claims made in the original article were inaccurate and breached the Council's guiding principles of checking the accuracy of what is reported, taking prompt measures to counter the effects of harmfully inaccurate reporting, ensuring that the facts are not distorted, being fair and balanced in reports on matters o
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism is the essential element of many news media organizations. While the sports department within some newspapers has been mockingly called the toy department, because sports journalists do not concern themselves with the'serious' topics covered by the news desk, sports coverage has grown in importance as sport has grown in wealth and influence; some media organizations are devoted to sports reporting — newspapers and magazines such as L'Equipe in France, La Gazzetta dello Sport in Italy, Marca in Spain, the defunct Sporting Life in Britain, American Sports Illustrated and Sporting News. Sports. Major League Baseball gave print journalists a special role in its games, they were named official scorers and kept statistics that were considered part of the official record of league. Active sportswriters were removed from this role in 1980. Although their statistical judgment calls could not affect the outcome of a game in progress, the awarding of errors and wins/saves were seen as powerful influences on pitching staff selections and play lists when coach decisions seemed unusual.
The removal of writers, who could benefit fiscally from sensational sports stories, was done to remove this perception of a conflict of interest, to increase statistics volume and accuracy. Sports stories transcend the games themselves and take on socio-political significance: Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier in baseball is an example of this. Modern controversies regarding the hyper-compensation of top athletes, the use of anabolic steroids and other, banned performance-enhancing drugs, the cost to local and national governments to build sports venues and related infrastructure for Olympic Games demonstrates how sports can intrude on to the news pages. Sportswriters face more deadline pressure than other reporters because sporting events tend to occur late in the day and closer to the deadlines many organizations must observe, yet they are expected to use the same tools as news journalists, to uphold the same professional and ethical standards. They must take care not to show bias for any team.
The tradition of sports reporting attracting some of the finest writers in journalism can be traced to the coverage of sport in Victorian England, where several modern sports – such as association football, cricket and rugby – were first organized and codified into something resembling what we would recognize today. Andrew Warwick has suggested that The Boat Race provided the first mass spectator event for journalistic coverage; the Race, an annual rowing event between the University of Cambridge and University of Oxford, has been held annually from 1856. Cricket because of its esteemed place in society, has attracted the most elegant of writers; the Manchester Guardian, in the first half of the 20th century, employed Neville Cardus as its cricket correspondent as well as its music critic. Cardus was knighted for his services to journalism. One of his successors, John Arlott, who became a worldwide favorite because of his radio commentaries on the BBC, was known for his poetry; the first London Olympic Games in 1908 attracted such widespread public interest that many newspapers assigned their best-known writers to the event.
The Daily Mail had Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at the White City Stadium to cover the finish of the Marathon. Such was the drama of that race, in which Dorando Pietri collapsed within sight of the finishing line when leading, that Conan Doyle led a public subscription campaign to see the gallant Italian, having been denied the gold medal through his disqualification, awarded a special silver cup, presented by Queen Alexandra, and the public imagination was so well caught by the event that annual races in Boston and London, at future Olympics, were henceforward staged over the same, 26-mile, 385-yard distance used for the 1908 Olympic Marathon, the official length of the event worldwide to this day. The London race, called the Polytechnic Marathon and staged over the 1908 Olympic route from outside the royal residence at Windsor Castle to White City, was first sponsored by the Sporting Life, which in those Edwardian times was a daily newspaper which sought to cover all sporting events, rather than just a betting paper for horse racing and greyhounds that it became in the years after the Second World War.
The rise of the radio made sports journalism more focused on the live coverage of the sporting events. The first sports reporter in Great Britain, one of the first sports reporters in the World, was an English writer Edgar Wallace, who made a report on The Derby on June 6, 1923 for the British Broadcasting Company. In France, L'Auto, the predecessor of L'Equipe, had played an influential part in the sporting fabric of society when it announced in 1903 that it would stage an annual bicycle race around the country; the Tour de France was born, sports journalism's role in its foundation is still reflected today in the leading rider wearing a yellow jersey - the color of the paper on which L'Auto was published. After the Second World War, the sports sections of British national daily and Sunday newspapers continued to expand, to the point where many paper