Timothy Francis Leary was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions. As a clinical psychologist at Harvard University, Leary conducted experiments under the Harvard Psilocybin Project in 1960–62, resulting in the Concord Prison Experiment and the Marsh Chapel Experiment; the scientific legitimacy and ethics of his research were questioned by other Harvard faculty because he took psychedelics together with research subjects and pressured students in his class to take psychedelics in the research studies. Leary and his colleague, Richard Alpert, were fired from Harvard University in May 1963. National illumination as to the effects of psychedelics did not occur until after the Harvard scandal. Leary believed, he used LSD himself and developed a philosophy of mind expansion and personal truth through LSD. After leaving Harvard, he continued to publicly promote the use of psychedelic drugs and became a well-known figure of the counterculture of the 1960s.
He popularized catchphrases that promoted his philosophy, such as "turn on, tune in, drop out", "set and setting", "think for yourself and question authority". He wrote and spoke about transhumanist concepts involving space migration, intelligence increase, life extension, developed the eight-circuit model of consciousness in his book Exo-Psychology, he gave lectures billing himself as a "performing philosopher". During the 1960s and 1970s, he was arrested enough to see the inside of 36 prisons worldwide. President Richard Nixon once described Leary as "the most dangerous man in America". Leary was born in Springfield, the only child in an Irish Catholic household, his father, Timothy "Tote" Leary, was a dentist who left his wife Abigail Ferris when Leary was 14. He graduated from Classical High School in the western Massachusetts city, he attended the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts from September 1938 to June 1940. Under pressure from his father, he accepted an appointment as a cadet in the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
In the first months as a "plebe", he was given numerous demerits for rule infractions and got into serious trouble for failing to report infractions by other cadets when on supervisory duty. He was alleged to have failed to "come clean" about it, he was asked by the Honor Committee to resign for violating the Academy's honor code. He refused and was "silenced"—that is, shunned and ignored by his fellow cadets as a tactic to pressure him to resign, he was acquitted by a court-martial, but the silencing measures continued in full force, as well as the onslaught of demerits for small rule infractions. The treatment continued in his sophomore year, his mother appealed to a family friend, United States Senator David I. Walsh, head of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee, who conducted a personal investigation. Behind the scenes, the Honor Committee revised its position and announced that it would abide by the court-martial verdict. Leary resigned and was honorably discharged by the Army. 50 years he said that it was "the only fair trial I've had in a court of law".
To the chagrin of his family, Leary elected to transfer to the University of Alabama in late 1941 because of the institution's expeditious response to his application. He enrolled in the university's ROTC program, maintained top grades, began to cultivate academic interests in psychology and biology, but he was expelled a year for spending a night in the female dormitory, losing his student deferment in the midst of World War II. Leary was drafted into the United States Army and reported for basic training at Fort Eustis in January 1943, he remained in the non-commissioned track while enrolled in the psychology subsection of the Army Specialized Training Program, including three months of study at Georgetown University and six months at Ohio State University. With no urgent need for officers at the late juncture in the war, Leary was assigned as a private first class to the Pacific War-bound 2d Combat Cargo Group at Syracuse Army Air Base in Mattydale, New York. After a fateful reunion with Ramsdell in Buffalo, New York, he was promptly promoted to corporal and reassigned to his mentor's command as a staff psychometrician.
He remained in Deshon's deaf rehabilitation clinic for the remainder of the war. While stationed in Butler, Leary began to court Marianne Busch. Leary was formally discharged at the rank of sergeant in January 1946, having earned the Good Conduct Medal, the American Defense Service Medal, the American Campaign Medal, the World War II Victory Medal. Following retroactive suspension, Leary was reinstated at the University of Alabama and received credit for his Ohio State psychology coursework, he completed his degree via correspondence courses and graduated on August 23, 1945. Upon receiving his undergraduate degree, Leary decided to pursue an academic career. In 1946, he received an M. S. in psychology at Washington State University, where he studied under noted educational psychologist Lee Cronbach. His M. S. thesis was a study of the clinical applications of the We
Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U. S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years from 1892 until 1954. Ellis Island was opened January 1, 1892; the island was expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and a naval magazine; the island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965 and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990 through 1995. It was long considered part of New York, but a 1998 United States Supreme Court decision found that most of the island is in New Jersey; the south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is closed to the general public although there are tours of the hospital itself. Ellis Island is in Upper New York Bay, east of Liberty State Park and north of Liberty Island, in Jersey City, New Jersey, with a small section, part of New York City. Created through land reclamation, the island has a land area of 27.5 acres, most of, part of New Jersey.
The 2.74-acre natural island and contiguous areas comprise the 3.3 acres. The island has been owned and administered by the federal government of the United States since 1808 and operated by the National Park Service since 1965. Since the September 11 attacks in 2001, the island is guarded by patrols of the United States Park Police Marine Patrol Unit. Public access is by ferry from either Communipaw Terminal in Liberty State Park or from the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan; the ferry operator, Hornblower Cruises and Events provides service to the nearby Statue of Liberty. A bridge built for transporting materials and personnel during restoration projects connects Ellis Island with Liberty State Park but is not open to the public; the city of New York and the private ferry operator at the time opposed proposals to use it or replace it with a pedestrian bridge. Much of the island, including the entire south side, has been closed to the public since 1954; the renovated area on the north side was again closed to the public after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
The island was re-opened to the public and the museum re-opened on October 28, 2013, after major renovations. Much of the west shore of Upper New York Bay consisted of large tidal flats which hosted vast oyster banks, a major source of food for the Lenape population who lived in the area prior to the arrival of Dutch settlers. There were several islands which were not submerged at high tide. Three of them were given the name Oyster Islands by the settlers of New Netherland, the first European colony in the region; the oyster beds remained a major source of food for nearly three centuries. Ellis Island was a popular spot for hosting oyster roasts and clambakes because of its rich oyster beds. Landfilling to build the railyards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey obliterated the oyster beds, engulfed one island, brought the shoreline much closer to the others. During the colonial period, Little Oyster Island was known as Dyre's Bucking Island. In the 1760s, after some pirates were hanged from one of the island's scrubby trees, it became known as Gibbet Island.
It was acquired by Samuel Ellis, a colonial New Yorker and merchant from Wales, around the time of the American Revolution. In 1785, he unsuccessfully attempted to sell the island: TO BE no. 1, Greenwich Street, at the north river near the Bear Market, That pleasant situated Island called Oyster Island, lying in New York Bay, near Powle's Hook, together with all its improvements which are considerable. The State of New York leased the island in 1794 and started to fortify it in 1795. Ownership was in question and legislation was passed for acquisition by condemnation in 1807 and ceded to the United States in 1808. Shortly thereafter the War Department established a circular stone 14-gun battery, a mortar battery and barracks; this was part of what was called the second system of U. S. fortifications. From 1808 until 1814 it was a federal arsenal; the fort was called Crown Fort, but by the end of the War of 1812 the battery was named Fort Gibson, after Colonel James Gibson of the 4th Regiment of Riflemen, killed in the Siege of Fort Erie during the war.
Parts of the wall foundations of the fort were uncovered while excavating for the Immigrant Wall of Honor, they are preserved with an interpretive plaque. The island remained a military post for nearly 80 years before it was selected to be a federal immigration station. In the 35 years before Ellis Island opened, more than eight million immigrants arriving in New York City had been processed by officials at Castle Garden Immigration Depot in Lower Manhattan, just across the bay; the federal government assumed control of immigration on April 18, 1890, Congress appropriated $75,000 to construct America's first federal immigration station on Ellis Island. Artesian wells were dug, fill material was hauled in from incoming ships' ballast and from construction of New York City's subway tunnels, which doubled the size of Ellis Island to over six acres. While the building was under construction, the Barge Office nearby at the Battery was used for immigrant processing; the first station was a three-story-tall structure with outbuildings, built of Georgia Pine, containing the amenities thought to be necessary.
It opened with fanfare on January 1, 1892. Three large ships landed on the first day, 700 immigrants passed over the docks. 450,000 immigrants were processed at the sta
William M. Feehan
William M. Feehan was a member of the Fire Department of New York who died during the collapse of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks. Feehan graduated from Saint John's University in 1952. Before his appointment to the FDNY, he served in the United States Army in Korea during the Korean War, during which he was decorated with the Combat Infantry Badge, Korean Service Medal, UN Service Medal and National Defense Service Medal. Feehan held every rank within the fire department, starting with Probationary Firefighter upon his appointment on October 10, 1959, was the first firefighter to do so, he was promoted to Lieutenant in 1964 and to Chief of Department in 1991. In 1992, he was appointed Deputy Fire Commissioner. Upon the resignation of Fire Commissioner Carlos M. Rivera, he served as Acting Fire Commissioner through the end of Mayor David N. Dinkins administration from August 31, 1993 until December 31, 1993. After incoming Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani picked Howard Safir to become Fire Commissioner of the City of New York, Feehan returned to his previous position of First Deputy Fire Commissioner of the City of New York.
Although high-ranking members of the FDNY and other city departments ordinarily are asked to step aside for incoming mayors to make their own appointments, according to an FDNY spokesman, nobody thought of asking Feehan to do so, because he was so knowledgeable that he "was thought to know the location of every fire hydrant in the city." He served in that position until his death in the line of duty during the collapse of the North Tower of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, at the age of 71. Along with FDNY Chief of department Peter Ganci, Commissioner Feehan was found by the FDNY's Search and Rescue K-9 "Bear." Feehan was survived by his daughters, Elizabeth Feehan and Tara Davan, sons, William Feehan and firefighter John Feehan, who had worked in Squad Company 252 and is Captain of Engine 249. He was survived by six grandchildren. At the National 9/11 Memorial, Feehan is memorialized at the South Pool, on Panel S-18. In 2015 the FDNY acquired a fireboat named after Feehan; the vessel is a fast response fireboat, capable of pumping 8,000 gallons per minute, with a top speed of 40 knots.
It was made by using scrap metal from the Twin Towers. Media related to William M. Feehan at Wikimedia Commons William M Feehan at Find a Grave
Russians are a nation and an East Slavic ethnic group native to European Russia in Eastern Europe. Outside Russia, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Moldova and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany and Canada; the Russians share many cultural traits with other East Slavic ethnic groups Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion; the Russian language is official in Russia, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as "Russians". One is "русский", which most means "ethnic Russians". Another is "россияне", which means "citizens of Russia"; the former word refers to ethnic Russians, regardless of what country they live in and irrespective of whether or not they hold Russian citizenship. Under certain circumstances this term may or may not extend to denote members of other Russian-speaking ethnic groups from Russia, or from the former Soviet Union.
The latter word refers to all people holding citizenship of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity, does not include ethnic Russians living outside Russia. Translations into other languages do not distinguish these two groups; the name of the Russians derives from the Rus' people. According to the most prevalent theory, the name Rus', like the Finnish name for Sweden, is derived from an Old Norse term for "the men who row" as rowing was the main method of navigating the rivers of Eastern Europe, that it could be linked to the Swedish coastal area of Roslagen or Roden, as it was known in earlier times; the name Rus' would have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden: Ruotsi and Rootsi. According to other theories the name Rus' is derived from Proto-Slavic *roud-s-ь, connected with red color or from Indo-Iranian; until the 1917 revolution, Russian authorities never called them "Russians", calling them "Great Russians" instead, a part of "Russians". The modern Russians formed from two groups of East Slavic tribes: Northern and Southern.
The tribes involved included the Krivichs, Ilmen Slavs, Radimichs and Severians. Genetic studies show that modern Russians do not differ from Belarusians and Ukrainians; some ethnographers, like Dmitry Konstantinovich Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians and to Ukrainians than southern Russians are to northern Russians. Russians in northern European Russia share moderate genetic similarities with Uralic peoples, who lived in modern north-central European Russia and were assimilated by the Slavs as the Slavs migrated northeastwards; such Uralic peoples included the Muromians. The territory of Russia has been inhabited since 2nd Millennium BCE by Indo-European, Ural-Altaic, various other peoples. Outside archaeological remains, little is known about the predecessors to Russians in general prior to 859 AD when the Primary Chronicle starts its records, it is thought that by 600 AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern and eastern branches. The eastern branch settled between the Dnieper Rivers in present-day Ukraine.
Both Belarusians and South Russians formed on this ethnic linguistic ground. From the 6th century onwards, another group of Slavs moved from Pomerania to the northeast of the Baltic Sea, where they encountered the Varangians of the Rus' Khaganate and established the important regional center of Novgorod; the same Slavic ethnic population settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero. With the Uralic substratum, they formed the tribes of the Ilmen Slavs. Kievan Rus' was a loose federation of states. Modern Russians derive their name and cultural ancestry from Kievan Rus'. In 2010, the world's Russian population was 129 million people of which 86% were in Russia, 11.5% in the CIS and Baltic countries, with a further 2.5% living in other countries. 111 million ethnic Russians live in Russia, 80% of whom live in the European part of Russia, 20% in the Asian part of the country. After the Dissolution of the Soviet Union an estimated 25 million Russians began living outside of the Russian Federation, most of them in the former Soviet Republics.
Ethnic Russians migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by the Tsarist and Soviet government. On some occasions ethnic Russian communities, such as Lipovans who settled in the Danube delta or Doukhobors in Canada, emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing the central authority. After the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in 1917, many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, millions became refugees. Many white émigrés were participants in the White movement, although the term is broadly applied to anyone who may have left the country due to the change in regime. Today the largest ethnic Russian diasporas outside Russia live in former
New York City Police Department
The City of New York Police Department, more known as the New York Police Department and its initials NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York, New York in the United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, is the largest police force in the United States; the NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, provide for a safe environment." The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani. In June 2004, there were about 45,000 sworn officers plus several thousand civilian employees; as of December 2011, that figure increased to over 36,600, helped by the graduation of a class of 1,500 from the New York City Police Academy.
As of Fiscal Year 2018, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 38,422. There are approximately 4,500 Auxiliary Police Officers, 5,000 School Safety Agents, 2,300 Traffic Enforcement Agents, 370 Traffic Enforcement Supervisors employed by the department; the Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York, the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the Emergency Service Unit, K9, harbor patrol, air support, bomb squad, counter-terrorism, criminal intelligence, anti-gang, anti-organized crime, public transportation, public housing; the NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in 11 cities internationally. In the 1990s the department developed a CompStat system of management which has since been established in other cities; the NYPD has extensive crime scene investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units which assist with computer crime investigations.
The NYPD runs a "Real Time Crime Center" a large search engine and data warehouse operated by detectives to assist officers in the field with their investigations. A Domain Awareness System, a joint project of Microsoft and the NYPD, links 6,000 closed-circuit television cameras, license plate readers, other surveillance devices into an integrated system. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have been portrayed in novels, television, motion pictures, video games; the Municipal Police were established in 1845. Mayor William Havemeyer shepherded the NYPD together, originating the phrase "New York Finest." In 1857, it was tumultuously replaced by a Metropolitan force. Twentieth-century trends struggles against corruption. Officers begin service with the rank of "probationary police officer," referred to as "recruit officer". After successful completion of five and a half to six months, sometimes longer of Police Academy training in various academic and tactical training, officers graduate from the Police Academy.
While retaining the title of "probationary police officer,"" graduates are referred to as a "police officer," or informally as a "rookie", until they have completed an additional 18 month probationary period. There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory and specialist; the supervisory track consists of nine sworn titles, referred to as ranks. Promotion to the ranks of sergeant and captain are made via competitive civil service examinations. After reaching the civil service rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief and chief of department is made at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to detective is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty; the entry level appointment to detective is third specialist. The commissioner may grant discretionary grades of second and first; these grades offer compensation equivalent to that of supervisors.
A second grade detective's pay corresponds to a sergeant's and a first grade detective's pay corresponds to a lieutenant's. Detectives are police officers who perform investigatory duties but have no official supervisory authority. A "detective first grade" still falls above. Just like detectives and lieutenants can receive pay grade increases within their respective ranks. ^ †: Uniform rank that has no police powers There are two basic types of detective in the NYPD: "detective-investigators" and "detective-specialists". Detective-investigators are the type most people associate with the term "detective" and are the ones most portrayed on television and in the movies. Most police officers gain their detective title by working in the Narcotics Division of the Detective Bureau. Detectives assigned to squads are co-located within each precinct and are responsible for investigating murders, robberies and other crimes within that precinct's boundaries. Other detective-investigators are assigned to specialized units at either the major command or citywide level, investigating terrorist groups, organized crime, narcotics dealing, ext
John F. Kennedy School of Government
The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University in Cambridge, United States; the school offers master's degrees in public policy, public administration, international development, grants several doctoral degrees, many executive education programs. It conducts research in subjects relating to politics, international affairs, economics. Since 1970 the school has graduated 17 heads of the most of any educational institution; the School's primary campus is located on John F. Kennedy Street in Cambridge; the main buildings overlook the Charles River, southwest of Harvard Yard and Harvard Square, on the site of a former MBTA Red Line trainyard. The School is adjacent to the public riverfront John F. Kennedy Memorial Park. In 2015, Douglas Elmendorf, the former director of the U. S. Congressional Budget Office who had served as a Harvard faculty member, was named Dean of the Harvard Kennedy School and Don K. Price Professor of Public Policy.
From 2004 to 2015, the School's Dean was David T. Ellwood, the Scott M. Black Professor of Political Economy at HKS. Ellwood was an assistant secretary in the Department of Health and Human Services in the Clinton Administration. A major $120m expansion and renovation of the campus began in 2015; the project was completed in late 2017 with an official opening in December 2017. Harvard Kennedy School was the Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration, was founded in 1936 with a $2 million gift from Lucius N. Littauer, a graduate of Harvard College, its shield was designed to express the national purpose of the school and was modeled after the U. S. shield. The School drew its initial faculty from Harvard's existing government and economics departments, welcomed its first students in 1937; the School's original home was in the Littauer Center north of Harvard Yard, now the home of the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences Economics Department. The first students at the Graduate School were so-called "Littauer Fellows", participating in a one-year course listing which developed into the school's mid-career Master in Public Administration program.
In the 1960s, the School began to develop today's public policy degree and course curriculum in the Master in Public Policy program. In 1966, the School was renamed for President John F. Kennedy. By 1978, the faculty—notably presidential scholar and adviser Richard Neustadt, foreign policy scholar and dean of the School Graham Allison, Richard Zeckhauser, Edith Stokey—had orchestrated the consolidation of the School's programs and research centers in the present campus. Under the terms of Littauer's original grant, the current HKS campus features a building called Littauer. In addition to playing a critical role in the development of the School's modern era, who at the time served as the Assistant Dean, was the founding Director of the Harvard Institute of Politics, created in 1966 in honor of President Kennedy; the IOP has been housed on the Kennedy School campus since 1978, today the Institute puts on a series of programs and study groups for Harvard undergraduates and graduate students. The John F. Kennedy, Jr. Forum in the new Littauer building is both the site of IOP forum events as well as a major social gathering place between HKS courses.
In 2012 the school announced a $500m fundraising campaign of which over $120m was to be used to expand the campus adding 91,000 square feet of space that will include six new classrooms, a new kitchen, dining facility and meeting spaces, a new student lounge and study space, more collaboration and active learning spaces as well as a redesigned central courtyard. Groundbreaking commenced on May 7, 2015 and the project was completed in late 2017, it was opened in December 2017. Harvard Kennedy School offers four master's degree programs; the two-year Master in Public Policy program focuses on policy analysis, management, ethics and negotiations in the public sector. There are three separate Master in Public Administration programs: a one-year Mid-Career Program, intended for professionals more than seven years after college graduation. Among the members of the Mid-Career MPA class are the Mason Fellows, who are public and private executives from developing countries. Mason Fellows constitute about 50% of the incoming class of Mid Career MPA candidates.
The Mason cohort is the most diverse at Harvard in terms of nationalities and ethnicities represented, it is named after late Harvard Professor and Dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration, now known as the John F. Kennedy School of Government, from 1947 to 1958 Edward Sagendorph Mason who thought of bringing the developing world leaders to Harvard to stand on the cutting edge of development knowledge aiming for a better world. In addition to the master's programs, HKS administers four doctoral programs. PhD degrees are awarded in political economy and Government, Public Policy, social policy, in conjunction with the Departments of government and sociology in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, as well as in health policy, in conjunction with FAS and the Harvard School of Public Health; the Harvard Kennedy School has a number of joint and concurrent degree programs, within Harvard and with other leadin
Hofstra University is a private, non-profit, nonsectarian university in Hempstead, New York. Long Island's largest private university, Hofstra originated in 1935 as an extension of New York University under the name Nassau College – Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island, it became independent Hofstra College in 1939 and gained university status in 1963. Comprising ten schools, including the Northwell School of Medicine and Deane School of Law, Hofstra is noted for a series of prominent Presidential conferences and hosting several United States presidential debates; the college – established as an extension of New York University – was founded on the estate of a wealthy couple, a lumber entrepreneur of Dutch ancestry, William S. Hofstra and his second wife, Kate Mason; the extension had been proposed by a Hempstead resident, Truesdel Peck Calkins, superintendent of schools for Hempstead. In her will, Kate Mason provided the bulk of their property and estate to be used for a charitable, scientific or humanitarian purpose, to be named in honor of her husband.
Two friends, Howard Brower and James Barnard, were asked to decide what to do with the estate. Calkins remarked to Brower that he had been looking for a site to start an institution of higher education, the three men agreed it would be an appropriate use of the estate. Calkins approached the administration at New York University, they expressed interest; the college was founded as a coeducational, commuter institution with day and evening classes. The first day of classes was September 23, 1935, the first class of students was made up of 159 day and 621 evening students; the tuition fee for the year was $375. The college obtained provisional charter status, its official name was changed to Hofstra College on January 16, 1937. Hofstra College separated from New York University in 1939 and was granted an absolute charter on February 16, 1940. Hofstra's original logo was a seal created by Professor of Art Constant van de Wall in 1937; the insignia was derived from the official seal of the reigning house of the Netherlands, the House of Orange-Nassau.
Used with the permission of the monarch of the Netherlands, the seal included the Dutch national motto Je Maintiendrai, meaning “I stand steadfast” in French. In 1939, Hofstra celebrated its first four-year commencement, graduating a class of 83 students; the first graduates had strong feelings for the new institution. When they were allowed to choose whether they would receive degrees from New York University or Hofstra, they overwhelmingly chose Hofstra degrees. Academic recognition of Hofstra was affirmed when the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools accepted Hofstra for membership on November 22, 1940. Early in 1941 the college was elected to membership in the American Association of Colleges. In 1950, Calkins Gymnasium was the site of the first Shakespeare Festival, it was performed on a five-sixths-sized replica of the Globe Theatre. The festival is now performed on the Globe Stage, the most accurate Globe Theatre replica in the United States. With the approval of the New York State Board of Regents, Hofstra became Long Island's first private university on March 1, 1963.
In that year, the Board of Trustees resolved to make Hofstra architecturally barrier-free for individuals with physical disabilities, stating that all students should have access to higher education. This became federal law, Hofstra was subsequently recognized as a pioneer. Other forward-thinking programs and events followed, including the New Opportunities at Hofstra program, established the following year. NOAH is Hofstra's Arthur O. Eve Higher Education Opportunity Program. In 1963, Mitchel Air Force Base was closed by the military and declared surplus property; the university asked for part of the area to be used for educational purposes, was subsequently granted 110 acres. Remnants of the concrete runways from the Air Force base are now parking lots for Hofstra's North Campus; the Hofstra University Museum was established that year. Hofstra Stadium served as the site of the first-ever NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship game in 1971; the university reorganized its divisions into “schools” in the 1960s.
Hofstra was authorized by the Board of Regents to offer its first doctoral degrees in 1966. In 1968, the Hofstra Stadium became the first to install Astroturf outdoors in the East, the New York Jets began holding their summer training camp to the North Campus, until 2008, when the Jets moved to Florham Park, New Jersey; the Arboretum and Bird Sanctuary at Hofstra University has a collection of diverse trees and reflecting its Dutch origin, displays an array of rare and colorful tulips in the Spring. There are 3,381 faculty members, 6,913 undergraduates, with a total of 11,240 students overall, including all full and part-time undergraduates, graduates and medical students; the campus has 117 buildings on 244 acres. The part of the campus located south of Hempstead Turnpike and west of California Avenue is located in the Village of Hempstead; the part of the campus north of Hempstead Turnpike and east of California Avenue is located in Uniondale and East Garden City. Hofstra offers an MBA program as well as other classes in New York City from a center in Manhattan.
The campus is 7 miles from the Borough of Queens in New York City, you can see the entire New York City skyline from the 10th floor of the library. The Campus is located across the street from the "Nassau Hub" and Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, home of the New York Islanders, Long Island Nets, New York Riptide, New York Open. Ho