Teddington is a town in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Until 1965, it was in the county of Middlesex. Teddington is on the bank of the Thames, just after the start of a long meander. Teddingtons centre is mid-rise urban development, Teddington is bisected by an almost continuous road of shops and other facilities running from the river to Bushy Park. There are two clusters of offices on this route, on the edge of Bushy Park the NPL, NMO, around Teddington Station and the town centre are a number of offices in industries such as direct marketing and IT, which include Tearfund and BMT Limited. Several riverside businesses and houses were redeveloped in the last quarter of the 20th century as blocks of riverside flats, as of 2016 the riverside side of the former Teddington Studios is being developed to provide modern apartment blocks and other smaller houses. The first/last lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock, which is just within Hams boundary, is accessible via the Teddington Lock Footbridges, in 2001 the RNLI opened the Teddington Lifeboat Station, one of the four Thames lifeboat stations, below the lock on the Teddington side.
The station became operational in January 2002 and is the only station on the river. The name Teddington comes from the name of an Old English tribal leader, the place was known in Saxon and Norman times as Todyngton and Tutington. There have been isolated findings of flint and bone tools from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in Bushy Park, the first permanent settlement in Teddington was probably in Saxon times. Teddington was not mentioned in Domesday Book as it was included under the Hampton entry, Teddington Manor was first owned by Benedictine monks in Staines and it is believed they built a chapel dedicated to St. Mary on the same site as todays St. Marys Church. In 971, a charter gave the land in Teddington to the Abbey of Westminster, in 1540 some common land of Teddington was enclosed to form Bushy Park and acted as more hunting grounds. Bushy House was built in 1663, and its residents included British Prime Minister Lord North who lived there for over twenty years. A large minority of the lay in largely communal open fields.
These were inclosed in two phases, in 1800 and 1818, the facilities were converted into the National Physical Laboratory. In subsequent centuries, Teddington enjoyed a life due to the proximity of royalty. But the Little Ice Age had made farming much less profitable and this change resulted in great economic change in the 19th century. The first major event was the construction of Teddington Lock in 1811 with its weir across the river and this was the first of five locks built at the time by the City of London Corporation
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom. As of 2017 the British Army comprises just over 80,000 trained Regular, or full-time and just over 26,500 trained Reserve, or part-time personnel. Therefore, the UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, day to day the Army comes under administration of the Ministry of Defence and is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. Repeatedly emerging victorious from these decisive wars allowed Britain to influence world events with its policies and establish itself as one of the leading military. In 1660 the English and Irish monarchies were restored under Charles II, Charles favoured the foundation of a new army under royal control and began work towards its establishment by August 1660. The Royal Scots Army and the Irish Army were financed by the Parliament of Scotland, the order of seniority of the most senior line regiments in the British Army is based on the order of seniority in the English army.
At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, after William and Marys accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Marys father, James II. Spain, in the two centuries, had been the dominant global power, and the chief threat to Englands early transatlantic ambitions. The territorial ambitions of the French, led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. From the time of the end of the Seven Years War in 1763, Great Britain was the naval power. As had its predecessor, the English Army, the British Army fought the Kingdoms of Spain and the Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the Army conquered New France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years War, the British Army suffered defeat in the American War of Independence, losing the Thirteen Colonies but holding on to Canada. The British Army was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars and served in campaigns across Europe.
The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world and at its peak, in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A Coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian Armies under the Duke of Wellington, the English had been involved, both politically and militarily, in Ireland since being given the Lordship of Ireland by the Pope in 1171. The campaign of the English republican Protector, Oliver Cromwell, involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War, the English Army stayed in Ireland primarily to suppress numerous Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. Having learnt from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution, the British Army found itself fighting Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, primarily in Ulster and Leinster in the 1798 rebellion. The Haldane Reforms of 1907 formally created the Territorial Force as the Armys volunteer reserve component by merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Great Britains dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers, in the 20th century, most notably Germany
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action. They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems and control arrangements and it may be used to protect naval and air forces in any location. However, for most countries the main effort has tended to be homeland defence, NATO refers to airborne air defence as counter-air and naval air defence as anti-aircraft warfare. Missile defence is an extension of air defence as are initiatives to adapt air defence to the task of intercepting any projectile in flight, a surface-based air defence capability can be deployed offensively to deny the use of airspace to an opponent. Until the 1950s, guns firing ballistic munitions ranging from 20 mm to 150 mm were the weapons, guided missiles became dominant. The term air defence was probably first used by Britain when Air Defence of Great Britain was created as a Royal Air Force command in 1925.
However, arrangements in the UK were called anti-aircraft, abbreviated as AA, after the First World War it was sometimes prefixed by Light or Heavy to classify a type of gun or unit. Nicknames for anti-aircraft guns include AA, AAA or triple-A, an abbreviation of anti-aircraft artillery, ack-ack, NATO defines anti-aircraft warfare as measures taken to defend a maritime force against attacks by airborne weapons launched from aircraft, ships and land-based sites. In some armies the term All-Arms Air Defence is used for air defence by nonspecialist troops, other terms from the late 20th century include GBAD with related terms SHORAD and MANPADS. Anti-aircraft missiles are variously called surface-to-air missile and pronounced SAM, non-English terms for air defence include the German FlaK, whence English flak, and the Russian term Protivovozdushnaya oborona, a literal translation of anti-air defence, abbreviated as PVO. In Russian the AA systems are called zenitnye systems, in French, air defence is called DCA.
The maximum distance at which a gun or missile can engage an aircraft is an important figure, many different definitions are used but unless the same definition is used, performance of different guns or missiles cannot be compared. For AA guns only the part of the trajectory can be usefully used. By the late 1930s the British definition was that height at which an approaching target at 400 mph can be engaged for 20 seconds before the gun reaches 70 degrees elevation. However, effective ceiling for heavy AA guns was affected by nonballistic factors, The maximum running time of the fuse, the capability of fire control instruments to determine target height at long range. The essence of air defence is to detect aircraft and destroy them. The critical issue is to hit a target moving in three-dimensional space, Air defence evolution covered the areas of sensors and technical fire control and command and control. At the start of the 20th century these were very primitive or non-existent
By September 1940—two months into the battle—faulty German intelligence suggested that the Royal Air Force was close to defeat at the hands of the Luftwaffe. The German air fleets were ordered to attack London, thereby drawing up the last remnants of RAF Fighter Command into a battle of annihilation, Adolf Hitler and commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, sanctioned the change in emphasis on 6 September 1940. From 7 September 1940, one year into the war, London was systematically bombed by the Luftwaffe for 56 out of the following 57 days, on 15 September 1940, a large daylight attack against London was repulsed with significant German losses. Thereafter, the Luftwaffe gradually decreased daylight operations in favour of nocturnal attacks and industrial centres outside London were attacked. The main Atlantic sea port of Liverpool was bombed, the North Sea port of Hull, a convenient and easily found target or secondary target for bombers unable to locate their primary targets, was subjected to raids in the Hull Blitz during the war.
More than one million London houses were destroyed or damaged and more than 40,000 civilians were killed, by May 1941, the threat of an invasion of Britain had ended, and Hitlers attention turned to Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. The bombing failed to demoralise the British into surrender or significantly damage the war economy, the eight months of bombing never seriously hampered British production and the war industries continued to operate and expand. The German offensives greatest effect was forcing the dispersal of aircraft production, British wartime studies concluded that cities generally took 10 to 15 days to recover when hit severely but exceptions like Birmingham took three months. The German air offensive failed for several reasons, discussions in OKL revolved around tactics rather than strategy. Poor intelligence on British industry and economic efficiency was a factor, in the 1920s and 1930s, air power theorists Giulio Douhet and Billy Mitchell espoused the idea that air forces could win wars, without a need for land and sea fighting.
It was thought there was no defence against air attack, particularly at night, enemy industry, seats of government and communications could be destroyed, taking away their means to resist. It was thought the bombing of residential centres would cause a collapse of civilian will, where the populace was allowed to show overt disapproval of the state, were thought particularly vulnerable. This thinking was prevalent in both the RAF and the United States Army Air Corps, the policy of RAF Bomber Command became an attempt to achieve victory through the destruction of civilian will and industry. In the Luftwaffe, there was a view of strategic bombing. OKL did not believe that air power alone could be decisive, contrary to popular belief, evidence suggests that the Luftwaffe did not adopt an official bombing policy in which civilians became the primary target until 1942. The vital industries and transport centres that would be targeted for shutdown were valid military targets and it could be claimed civilians were not to be targeted directly, but the breakdown of production would affect their morale and will to fight.
German legal scholars of the 1930s carefully worked out guidelines for what type of bombing was permissible under international law. Wever outlined five points of air strategy, To destroy the air force by bombing its bases and aircraft factories
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 514,414 as of 2013. It lies within the United Kingdoms second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.55 million, Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council and it was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated during the 20th century. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a township but began to expand at an astonishing rate around the turn of the 19th century. Manchesters unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation.
The city centre was devastated in a bombing in 1996, but it led to extensive investment, in 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK and it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the worlds first inter-city passenger railway station and in the city scientists first split the atom, the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, both meanings are preserved in languages derived from Common Brittonic, mam meaning breast in Irish and mother in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
Central Manchester has been settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell, much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral, the premises of the college house Chethams School of Music. The library, which opened in 1653 and is open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282, around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the regions textile industry
Sir David Paradine Frost, OBE was an English journalist, writer, media personality and television host. After graduating from Gonville and Caius College, Frost rose to prominence in the UK when he was chosen to host the satirical programme That Was the Week That Was in 1962 and his success on this show led to work as a host on US television. Frost was one of the Famous Five who were behind the launch of ITV breakfast station TV-am in 1983, for the BBC, he hosted the Sunday morning interview programme Breakfast with Frost from 1993 to 2005. He spent two decades as host of Through the Keyhole, from 2006 to 2012 he hosted the weekly programme Frost Over the World on Al Jazeera English and from 2012, the weekly programme The Frost Interview. Frost died on 31 August 2013, aged 74, on board the cruise ship MS Queen Elizabeth, in March 2014, his memorial stone was unveiled in Poets Corner, Westminster Abbey for his contribution to British culture. Frost attended Barnsole Road Primary School in Gillingham, St Hughs School, Woodhall Spa, Gillingham Grammar School, throughout his school years he was an avid football and cricket player, and was offered a contract with Nottingham Forest F. C.
For two years going to university he was a lay preacher following his witnessing of an event presided over by the Christian evangelist Billy Graham. Frost studied at Gonville & Caius College, from 1958 and he was editor of both the universitys student paper and the literary magazine Granta. He was secretary of the Footlights Drama Society, which included such as Peter Cook. During this period, Frost appeared on television for the first time in an edition of Anglia Televisions Town And Gown, the first time I stepped into a television studio, he once remembered, it felt like home. Talking to the camera seemed the most natural thing in the world, according to some accounts, Frost was the victim of snobbery from the group with which he associated at Cambridge, which has been confirmed by Barry Humphries. Christopher Booker, while asserting that Frosts one defining characteristic was ambition, after leaving university, Frost became a trainee at Associated-Rediffusion. Meanwhile, having gained an agent, Frost performed in cabaret at the Blue Angel nightclub in Berkeley Square.
The series, which ran for less than 18 months during 1962–63, was part of the boom in early 1960s Britain. The involvement of Frost in TW3 led to an intensification of the rivalry with Peter Cook who accused him of stealing material, the new satirical magazine Private Eye mocked him at this time. Frost visited the United States during the break between the two series of TW3 in the summer of 1963 and stayed with the producer of the New York production of Beyond The Fringe. Frost was unable to swim, but still jumped into the pool, at the memorial service for Cook in 1995, Alan Bennett recalled that rescuing Frost was the one regret Cook frequently expressed. For the first three editions of the series in 1963, the BBC attempted to limit the team by scheduling repeats of The Third Man television series after the programme
Monmouthshire, known as the County of Monmouth, is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county. It corresponds approximately to the present principal areas of Monmouthshire, Blaenau Gwent and Torfaen, the eastern part of the county is mainly agricultural, while the western valleys had rich mineral resources. This led to the area becoming highly industrialised coal mining. The county or shire of Monmouth was formed parts of the Welsh Marches by the Laws in Wales Act 1535. The historic boundaries are the River Wye on the east, dividing it from Gloucestershire, the boundaries with Herefordshire to the northeast and Brecknockshire to the north were less well-defined. The parish of Welsh Bicknor, was an exclave of Monmouthshire, Usk continued as an unreformed borough until its final abolition in 1886. New forms of government were established in the urban areas of the county with the setting of local boards under the Public Health Act 1848. The Public Health Act 1875 divided the areas into rural sanitary districts.
An administrative county of Monmouthshire, governed by a county council, was formed in 1889 under the terms of the Local Government Act 1888. The administrative county had similar boundaries, but included the Beaufort, Llechryd, the county council was based in Newport, rather than the historic county town of Monmouth. In the same year the parish of Fwthog was transferred to both the administrative and geographic county of Monmouthshire, under the Local Government Act 1894, the administrative county was divided into urban and rural districts, based on existing sanitary districts. In 1899 Abergavenny was incorporated as a borough, two further urban districts were formed, Mynyddislwyn in 1903, and Bedwas and Machen in 1912. The County of Monmouth Review Order 1935 revised the number and boundaries of the urban, the last major boundary change to affect the administrative county was in 1938 when the Monmouthshire parish of Rumney was incorporated into the city and county borough of Cardiff. However, maps continued to show the Monmouthshire/Glamorgan and England/Wales border as the Rhymney River, the administrative county of Monmouth and county borough of Newport were abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972.
The successor authority, with boundary changes, was titled Gwent. Some border parishes became part of the new Rhymney Valley district of Mid Glamorgan, successor districts of Gwent were Blaenau Gwent, Monmouth and Torfaen. Monmouthshires status was somewhat ambiguous between the 16th and 20th centuries, with it considered by some as part of England, between about the 5th and 10th centuries the Welsh Kingdom of Gwent covered a variable area roughly contiguous with Monmouthshire. It became part of Morgannwg, and shortly before the Norman conquest had become part of the unified Welsh realm of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a commercial TV network in the United Kingdom. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990 its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the analogue channels at the time, namely BBC1, BBC2. ITV is a network of channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of companies have merged so currently the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies. With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV, STV Group plc, uses the STV brand for its two franchises of central and northern Scotland. The origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, the act created the Independent Television Authority to heavily regulate the industry and to award franchises. The first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands, the first ITV network to launch was Londons Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively.
Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the country was covered by fourteen regional stations. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. The ITV Network is not owned or operated by one company, since 2016 the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc. The network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom who is responsible for awarding the broadcast licences, the last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. However, due to amalgamation of several of companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, all licensees have the right to opt out of network programming, however many do not due to pressures from the parent company or because of limited resources.
The network needs to produce accessible output containing subtitles, signing, in exchange for this programming, the ITV network is available on all platforms free to air and can be found at the top of the EPG of all providers. Since the launch of the platform in 1998, all of the ITV licensees have received gifted capacity on the terrestrial television platform. At present, the companies are able to broadcast additional channels and all choose to broadcast the ITV plc owned ITV2, ITV3, ITV4 and CITV in their region. UTV and STV previously broadcast their own services – UTV2 in Northern Ireland and S2 in central and northern Scotland – until 2002, the broadcasters all make use of the Digital 3&4 multiplex, shared with Channel 4
Associated-Rediffusion, London, was the British ITV contractor for London and parts of the surrounding counties, on weekdays between 1954 and 29 July 1968. Transmissions started on 22 September 1955 and the company is credited with being the first Independent Television company to launch, the company was originally a partnership between British Electric Traction, its subsidiary Broadcast Relay Services Ltd. and Associated Newspapers, owner of the Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers, realising the potential of ITV, was a significant investor in the ITV franchise contractor for southern and south-east England, to this end, the station had a heraldic-style on-air clock, referred to as Mitch by staff. Associated Rediffusion took over the former Wembley Film Studio at Wembley Park in north-west London, Associated-Rediffusion officially began broadcasting on 22 September 1955 at 19,15 GMT, with actress Marjie Lawrence uttering the first words. This was seen as a ploy to keep viewers and listeners away from the new station, britains first female newsreader Barbara Mandell appeared during the first full day of transmissions on 23 September 1955.
The London weekend contractor ATV launched two days and this strategy was intended to allay fears that the new service would be aimed at the bottom of the market. Associated-Rediffusion sought to make ITV respectable, boris Ford became Associated-Rediffusions first head of schools broadcasting, during which time he persuaded Benjamin Britten to compose his church opera Noyes Fludde for a series of programmes. Ford was dismissed before the opera was produced, allegedly for administrative shortcomings, however, A-R continued its association with Britten, producing a highly successful telecast of his opera The Turn of the Screw in 1959. Associated-Rediffusion added new television studios at Wembley Park in 1960 and their size and unique design attracted worldwide attention. During the 1960s the studios were home to some of the most popular programmes on the ITV network, including The Rat Catchers, Blackmail, At Last, The 1948 Show, the Beatles appeared at the studios on more than one occasion.
However, the new Rediffusion did not survive for long - in October 1967 the Independent Television Authority announced that there was no place for Rediffusion in the redrawn franchise pattern. To preserve the sizeable ABC, the ITA proposed ABC and Rediffusion should form a new company and this was not a merger or shot gun marriage as is commonly stated and is an urban myth. ABPC, the parent company of ABC and BET, the parent company of Rediffusion, Thames would use the resources and staff of ABCs Teddington Studios and Rediffusions Television House. Rediffusions parent company, BET, took a 49% stake in Thames, when Rediffusion objected to this, the ITA replied that either Thames took the new contract, or ABC took over. Rediffusion chose the former, and went off the air on 29 July 1968, employees based at Wembley went to work for London Weekend Television whilst those at Television House were employed by Thames. Some managerial and presentation staff re-located to the new Yorkshire Television in Leeds, the vast majority of Rediffusions programme library was either lost or destroyed following the creation of Thames.
Surviving titles from the Rediffusion archive are held by the BFI National Archive at Berkhamsted, most titles are the intellectual property of Archbuild Limited, with the exception of some of Rediffusions musical output such as Ready Steady Go. which is owned by Dave Clark International. Some Rediffusion shows have been rediscovered in recent years, in the late 1980s, a series of five At Last the 1948 Show compilations was found in the archives of Swedish broadcaster, SVT
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS was a British evolutionary biologist and internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a figure in the mid-twentieth century modern evolutionary synthesis. He was secretary of the Zoological Society of London, the first Director of UNESCO, a member of the World Wildlife Fund. Huxley was well known for his presentation of science in books and articles and he directed an Oscar-winning wildlife film. He was awarded UNESCOs Kalinga Prize for the popularisation of science in 1953, the Darwin Medal of the Royal Society in 1956, and the Darwin–Wallace Medal of the Linnaean Society in 1958. He was knighted in that year,1958, a hundred years after Charles Darwin. In 1959 he received a Special Award of the Lasker Foundation in the category Planned Parenthood – World Population, Huxley was a prominent member of the British Eugenics Society and its president from 1959–1962. There is a house named after Sir Julian in Selsdon, Surrey. Huxley came from the distinguished Huxley family and his maternal grandfather was the academic Tom Arnold, his great-uncle was poet Matthew Arnold and his great-grandfather was Thomas Arnold of Rugby School.
Huxley was born on 22 June 1887, at the London house of his aunt, Huxley grew up at the family home in Surrey, where he showed an early interest in nature, as he was given lessons by his grandfather, Thomas Henry Huxley. When he heard his grandfather talking at dinner about the lack of care in fish, Julian piped up with What about the stickleback. Also, according to Julian himself, his grandfather took him to visit J. D. Hooker at Kew, at Eton he developed an interest in ornithology, guided by science master W. D. Piggy Hill. Piggy was a genius as a teacher… I have always been grateful to him, in 1905 Huxley won a scholarship in Zoology to Balliol College, Oxford. In 1906, after a summer in Germany, Huxley took his place in Oxford, in the autumn term of his final year,1908, his mother died from cancer at only 46, a terrible blow for her husband, three sons, and eight-year-old daughter Margaret. That same year he won the Newdigate Prize for his poem Holyrood, in 1909 he graduated with first class honours, and spent that July at the international gathering for the centenary of Darwins birth, held at the University of Cambridge.
Also, it was the anniversary of the publication of the Origin of species. Huxley was awarded a scholarship to spend a year at the Naples Marine Biological Station where he developed his interest in biology by investigating sea squirts. Bird watching in childhood had given Huxley his interest in ornithology and his particular interest was bird behaviour, especially the courtship of water birds