Stoke Poges is a green-buffered scattered village and civil parish in the South Bucks district of Buckinghamshire, England. It is centred 2.7 miles north-north-east of Slough, its post town, 1.5 miles southeast of Farnham Common. In the name Stoke Poges, stoke means "stockaded", staked with more than just boundary-marking stakes. In the Domesday Book of 1086, the village was recorded as Stoche. William Fitz-Ansculf, who held the manor in 1086 became known as William Stoches or William of Stoke. Two hundred years after William, Amicia of Stoke, heiress to the manor, married Robert Pogeys, Knight of the Shire, the village became known as Stoke Poges; the spelling appearing as "Stoke Pocheys", if applicable to this village, may suggest the pronunciation of the second part to have a more open "o" sound compared with the word "Stoke". A manor house at Stoke Poges was built before the Norman Conquest and was mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book. In 1555 the owner, Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, pulled down much of the existing fortified house.
He replaced it with a large Tudor brick-built house, with numerous chimneys and gables. In 1599 it was acquired by Sir Edward Coke, said to have entertained Queen Elizabeth I there in 1601. A few decades the married lady of the manor, Frances Coke, Viscountess Purbeck, the daughter of Sir Edward Coke, had a love affair with Robert Howard, a member of parliament; the affair's discovery was received as a scandal upon the three people involved, in 1635 Lady Frances was imprisoned for adultery. She escaped from prison to France, returned and lived at Stoke Poges Manor for a time, she died at Oxford in 1645 at the court of King Charles I. Charles I himself was imprisoned at Stoke Poges Manor in 1647 before his execution; the manor came into the possession of Thomas Penn, a son of William Penn who founded Pennsylvania and was its first proprietor. Thomas Penn held three-fourths of the proprietorship; the manor property remained in his family for at least two generations, as his son John Penn "of Stoke" lived there.
Thomas Gray's 1750 poem "A Long Story" describes the house and its occupants. Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was a frequent visitor to the house and rented it as a studio for some time, his most famous painting, The Monarch of the Glen, is said to have been created at Stoke Poges, with the deer in the park used as models. Stoke Poges has a primary school called The Stoke Poges School. There is a Sikh faith secondary school, Khalsa Secondary Academy, whose curriculum includes horse riding and archery, it is rated'Good' by Ofsted. Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" is believed to have been written in the churchyard of the Church of England parish church of Saint Giles in Stoke Poges known as the Stoke Poges Church. Other churches have claimed the honour, including St Laurence's Church, Upton-cum-Chalvey and St Mary's in Everdon, Northamptonshire. Gray is buried at St Giles'. John Penn "of Stoke" had a large monument built, displaying verses from the Elegy, nearby; the Georgian rectory was built by Thomas Penn of Stoke Park in 1765.
It is now a private residence called Elegy House. Stoke Poges is mentioned in the book Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, where it is the location of a frequently-visited golf course. 1990'Inspector Lynley' crime novel Well-Schooled in Murder by Elizabeth George, its television adaptation, are set in Stoke Poges. The golf course at Stoke Park was the setting of a golf match in the James Bond film Goldfinger, played between the principal characters. Stoke Park is featured in the films Layer Cake, Wimbledon and Prejudice, Bridget Jones' Diary. In the film I Could Go On Singing, Judy Garland's character visits St. Giles' parish church with her son. In 1969, Pinewood film studios hired a chemistry laboratory at Fulmer Research Institute for use as a film set for the film "The Chairman", starring Gregory Peck; the 1981 James Bond film For Your Eyes Only filmed its opening sequence, when Bond visits his wife's grave, in the graveyard at St Giles' Church. Part of the 2007 series Jekyll was filmed on the boardwalk and surrounding area.
In Nick Hancock's Football Nightmares Nick Hancock is trying to hitchhike to the Victoria Ground in Stoke-on-Trent, but keeps getting dropped off in, or just outside, Stoke Poges. In 2010, the BBC drama series Vexed was filmed in the grounds and inside Stoke Court - which had earlier been Bayer Group UK's conference centre. Thomas Penn, son of William Penn and proprietor of Pennsylvania, with three-fourths holding. Jacques Laffite, the French Formula One racing driver who won six Grands Prix for Ligier during the late 1970s and early 1980s, lived in Stoke Poges during some of his racing career. Sir Henry Martin, DCL, Fellow of New College, King's Advocate for James I, 1609, Judge of Admiralty Court is reported to have been born at Stokes Poges. Fulmer Research Institute, A pioneer contract research and development organization. From 1946 to 1990 its headquarters was in Hollybush Hill, Stoke Poges. At the 2001 UK census, the Stoke Poges electoral ward had a population of 4,839; the ethnicity was 93.3% white, 1.3% mixed race, 4.8% Asian, 0.3% black and 0.3% other.
The place of birth of residents was 88.1% United Kingdom, 1.6% Republic of Ireland, 2.5% other Western European countries, 7.8% elsewhere. Religion was recorded as 76.5% Christian, 0.2% Buddhist, 0.7% Hindu, 2.7% Sikh, 0.5% Jewish, 1.1% Muslim. 10.6% were recorded as having no religion, 0.2%
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
West India Regiments
The West India Regiments were infantry units of the British Army recruited from and stationed in the British colonies of the Caribbean between 1795 and 1927. In 1888 the two West India Regiments in existence were reduced to a single unit of two battalions; this regiment differed from similar forces raised in other parts of the British Empire in that it formed an integral part of the regular British Army. In 1958 a new regiment was created following the creation of the Federation of the West Indies with the establishment of three battalions, the regiment's existence was short-lived and it was disbanded in 1962 when its personnel were used to establish other units in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. Throughout their history, the regiments were involved in a number of campaigns in the West Indies and Africa, took part in the First World War, where they served in the Middle East and East Africa. Eight West India Regiments were commissioned between 24 April and 1 September 1795. In addition to incorporating into the 1st West India Regiment the Carolina Corps, in existence since 1779, the original intention was both to recruit free blacks from the West Indian population and to purchase slaves from the West Indian plantations.
Between 1795 and 1808, an estimated 13,400 slaves were purchased for service in the West India Regiments at the cost of about £925,000. This constituted about 7% of the enslaved Africans imported into the British Caribbean during this period; the eighth of the newly raised regiments was disbanded the following year but the quality of the new corps led to a further five West India Regiments being raised in 1798. The revolt of the 8th West India Regiment in 1802 occurred when African slave soldiers took over the Fort Shirley garrison on Dominica for three days in protest over conditions, the fear of being sent to work in the canefields. In 1807 all serving black soldiers recruited as slaves in the West India Regiments of the British Army were freed under the Mutiny Act passed by the British parliament that same year. In 1808 the Abolition Act caused all trading in slaves to be "utterly abolished and declared to be unlawful". In 1812 a West African recruiting depot was established on Bance Island in Sierre Leone to train West African volunteers for the West India Regiments.
By 1816 the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the reduction of the West India regiments to six led to the closure of this depot. Thereafter all recruitment for the various West Indian regiments that fought in World War I and World War II were West Indian volunteers, with officers and some senior NCOs coming from Britain; the WIR soldiers became a valued part of the British forces garrisoning the West Indies, where losses from disease and climate were heavy amongst white troops. The black Caribbean soldiers by contrast proved better adapted to tropical service, they served against locally recruited French units, formed for the same reasons. Free black Caribbeans soldiers played a prominent and distinguished role in the military history of Latin America and the Caribbean; the new West India Regiments saw considerable service during the period of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1800 there were 12 battalion-sized regiments which were seen as valuable for dealing with slave revolt in the West Indies colonies.
Three companies of the First WIR repulsed a French attempt to recapture the island of Marie-Galante in August–September 1808, together with members of the first Corps of Colonial Marines recruited from local refugees from slavery. The Regiments were involved in the War of 1812, both on the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of Mexico, taking part in the British attack on New Orleans. After the Slave Trade Act of 1807, there was a shortfall of around five thousand members at the start of the War of 1812, the war offered hope of new recruitment from slaves fleeing the United States. However, only eight joined the regiments from the Chesapeake Bay area in 1814, a further thirteen on the coast of Georgia early in 1815, the great majority of refugees who offered military service preferring the newly formed Corps of Colonial Marines, who rejected British government orders for transfer to the Regiments. Following the end of the War of 1812, numbers were progressively reduced. Members of two of the disbanded regiments were settled in the eastern part of Trinidad, the 6th in 1817 and the 3rd in 1819, forming the main Muslim population in Trinidad before the first arrival of indentured Indian immigrants in 1845.
During most of the remainder of the nineteenth century there were never less than two West India Regiments. The 1st West India Regiment from Jamaica went to the Gold Coast of Africa to fight in the Ashanti War of 1873-4. In 1888 the 1st and 2nd West India Regiments were merged into a single regiment comprising two battalions. A third battalion was raised in 1897, but was disbanded in 1904. Enlistment for the West India Regiment during this period involved a commitment for twelve years of full-time service; this was in contrast with most other infantry regiments of the British regular army, where recruitment was for seven years "with the colours" followed by five years with the reserves. The regiment served in West Africa throughout the 19th century. In the early part of the twentieth century one battalion was stationed in Sierra Leone and the other was in Jamaica recruiting and training, the battalions exchanging every three years; the regiment fought in the Yoni Expedition. On the outbreak of war in August 1914, the 1st Battalion of the WIR was stationed in Freetown where it had been based for two and a half years.
A detachment of the Regiment's signalers saw service in the German Cameroons, where Private L. Jordon earned a DCM and several other men were mentioned in
Pitsford is a village and civil parish in the Daventry District of the non-metropolitan county of Northamptonshire in the United Kingdom. According to 2001 census, the parish's population was 636 people, increasing to 671 at the 2011 census. Pitsford Water, used for fishing and sailing as well as storing water for the local area, is north-west of the village, but only part of it lies within the parish. Pitsford Airstrip is at Moulton Grange Farm; the Historic England website contains details of a total of 15 entries for listed buildings in the parish of Pitseford, all of which are Grade II except for All Saints’ Church, Grade II*. These include: Church Lane; the church has a Norman doorway. The other parts are later; the Church was restored and the chancel rebuilt in 1867. Griffin Inn, High Street Pitsford Hall, Moulton Road, now used by Pitsford School; the Hall was built before 1785 to the design of John Johnson who designed Kingsthorpe Hall and the County Rooms in Leicester. Pitsford Hall has been altered since 1945.
Ironstone is quarried at Pitsford and was transported by rail. From 1925 to 1965 the quarrying was to obtain iron ore, it began to the south of the road from the A508 to Pitsford and Brampton Station and worked its way eastward to the A508. From 1959 the quarry was on the east side of the A508; the stone was transported to the main railway by a standard gauge branch operated by steam locomotives. From 1925 to 1939 gannister was obtained and this was taken from the western part of the quarry to the standard gauge branch by a short 2 foot gauge tramway with its own steam locomotive; the quarry to the west of the main road was smoothed over as was the route of the branch railway but the quarry to the east of the A508 was reopened for the obtaining of stone for road building, the stone being taken away by lorry. Steam quarrying machines were used at first but diesel machines were introduced from 1927 onwards; the steam machines were scrapped in 1958. Electric machines were used from 1955.20,000 trees have been planted on the quarried area since 2002.
Judy Carne lived here from the late 1980s until her death in 2015. Bishop John Skinner was born in the village on 10 February 1591 Henry Watkin was born in the village in 1824. Information about the parish church Map sources for Pitsford
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership, grasp of strategy, unconventional tactics, which together resulted in a number of decisive British naval victories during the Napoleonic Wars, he was wounded several times in combat, losing the sight in one eye in Corsica at the age of 36, as well as most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife when 40 years of age. He was shot and killed at the age of 47 during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar near the Spanish port city of Cádiz in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a high-ranking naval officer himself, he rose through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command at the age of 20 in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence.
The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. Shortly after the battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where his attack was defeated and he was badly wounded, losing his right arm, was forced to return to England to recuperate; the following year, he won a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile and remained in the Mediterranean to support the Kingdom of Naples against a French invasion. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen, he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle.
After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805. On 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar; the battle was Britain's greatest naval victory, but during the action, aboard HMS Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England. Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures; the significance of the victory and his death during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", being quoted and referenced up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, England, the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and his wife Catherine Suckling, he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton.
His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, in 1749. Nelson's aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich, his naval career began on 1 January 1771, when he reported to the third-rate HMS Raisonnable as an ordinary seaman and coxswain under his maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling, who commanded the vessel. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson began officer training. Early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life.
HMS Raisonnable had been commissioned during a period of tension with Spain, but when this passed, Suckling was transferred to the Nore guardship HMS Triumph and Nelson was dispatched to serve aboard the West Indiamen Mary Ann of the merchant shipping firm of Hibbert and Horton, in order to gain experience at sea. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Suckling's longboat, which carried men and dispatches to and from the shore. Nelson learned of a planned expedition under the command of Constantine Phipps, intended to survey a passage in the Arctic by which it was hoped that India could be reached: the fabled North-East Passage. At his nephew's request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass; the expedition reached within ten degrees of the North Pole, unable to find a way through the dense ice floes, was forced to turn back. By 1800 Lutwidge began to circulate a story that while the ship had been trapped in the ice, Nelson had seen and pursued a polar bear, before being ordered to return to the ship.
Lutwidge's version, in 1809, reported that Nelson and a companion had given chase to the bear, but on bei
Egyptology is the study of ancient Egyptian history, literature, religion and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". In Europe on the Continent, Egyptology is regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is regarded as a branch of archaeology; the first explorers were the ancient Egyptians themselves. Thutmose IV restored the Sphinx and had the dream that inspired his restoration carved on the famous Dream Stele. Less than two centuries Prince Khaemweset, fourth son of Ramesses II, is famed for identifying and restoring historic buildings and temples including the pyramid; some of the first historical accounts of Egypt were given by Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus and the lost work of Manetho, an Egyptian priest, during the reign of Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II in the 3rd century BC. The Ptolemies were much interested in the work of the ancient Egyptians, many of the Egyptian monuments, including the pyramids, were restored by them.
The Romans carried out restoration work in Egypt. Throughout the Middle Ages travelers on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land would deviate to visit sites within Egypt, which would include Cairo and its environs, where the Holy Family was thought to have fled, the great Pyramids, which were thought to be Joseph's Granaries, built by the Hebrew patriarch to store grain during the years of plenty. A number of their accounts have survived and offer insights as to conditions in their respective time periods. Abdul Latif al-Baghdadi, a teacher at Cairo's Al-Azhar University in the 13th century, wrote detailed descriptions on ancient Egyptian monuments; the 15th-century Egyptian historian al-Maqrizi wrote detailed accounts of Egyptian antiquities. European exploration and travel writings of ancient Egypt commenced from the 13th century onward, with only occasional detours into a more scientific approach, notably by Claude Sicard, Benoît de Maillet, Frederic Louis Norden and Richard Pococke. In the early 17th century, John Greaves measured the pyramids, having inspected the broken Obelisk of Domitian in Rome destined for the Earl of Arundel's collection in London.
He went on to publish the illustrated Pyramidographia in 1646, while the Jesuit scientist-priest Athanasius Kircher was the first to hint at the phonetic importance of Egyptian hieroglyphs, demonstrating Coptic as a vestige of early Egyptian, for which he is considered a "founder" of Egyptology. In the late 18th century, with Napoleon's scholars' recording of Egyptian flora and history, the study of many aspects of ancient Egypt became more scientifically oriented; the British gained the Rosetta Stone. Modern Egyptology is perceived as beginning about 1822. Egyptology's modern history begins with the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon Bonaparte; the subsequent publication of Mémoires sur l'Égypte in 1800, Description de l'Égypte between 1809 and 1829 made numerous ancient Egyptian source materials available to Europeans for the first time. Jean-François Champollion, Thomas Young and Ippolito Rosellini were some of the first Egyptologists of wide acclaim; the German Karl Richard Lepsius was an early participant in the investigations of Egypt.
Champollion announced his general decipherment of the system of Egyptian hieroglyphics for the first time, employing the Rosetta Stone as his first aid. The Stone's decipherment was a significant development of Egyptology. With subsequently ever-increasing knowledge of Egyptian writing and language, the study of Ancient Egyptian civilisation was able to proceed with greater academic rigour and with all the added impetus that comprehension of the written sources was able to engender. Egyptology became more professional via work of William Matthew Flinders Petrie, among others. Petrie introduced techniques of field preservation and excavating. Howard Carter's expedition brought much acclaim to the field of Egyptology. Many educated amateurs now travelled to Egypt, including women such as Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. Who both left accounts of their travels, which revealed learned familiarity with all the latest European Egyptology. In the modern era, the Ministry of State for Antiquities controls excavation permits for Egyptologists to conduct their work.
The field can now use geophysical methods and other applications of modern sensing techniques to further Egyptology. Egyptology was established as an academic discipline through the research of Emmanuel de Rougé in France, Samuel Birch in England, Heinrich Brugsch in Germany. In 1880, Flinders Petrie, another British Egyptologist, revolutionised the field of archaeology through controlled and scientifically recorded excavations. Petrie's work determined that Egyptian culture dated back as early as 4500 BC; the British Egypt Exploration Fund founded in 1882 and other Egyptologists promoted Petrie's methods. Other scholars worked on producing a hieroglyphic dictionary, developing a Demotic lexicon, establishing an outline of ancient Egyptian history. In the United States, the founding of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago and the expedition of James Henry Breasted to Egypt and Nubia established Egyptology as a legitimate field of study. In 1924, Breasted started the Epigraphic Survey to make and publish accurate copies of monuments.
In the late 19th