Neighborhoods of Minneapolis
The city of Minneapolis, Minnesota is defined by the Minneapolis City Council as divided into eleven communities, each containing multiple official neighborhoods. Informally, there are city areas with colloquial labels. Residents may group themselves by their city street suffixes, Northeast, South and Southwest; the City Council, made up of one representative from each of the city's 13 wards, has legislative authority to define neighborhood boundaries. Community and neighborhood boundaries are not the same as the Ward boundaries, which are adjusted after each decennial census. Common conceptions of Minneapolis neighborhoods do not always align with official city maps since much of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area's population now lives outside of the two major cities. Twin Cities residents and visitors use generalized names based on geography, such as "North Minneapolis." What most people would consider North Minneapolis is a combination of the Near North and Camden communities, each of, made up of several neighborhoods.
The local community defines several general areas based on the directional suffixes added to streets in the city. These city areas do not correlate with official community or neighborhood definitions. Downtown Minneapolis refers to the street grid area aligned on a diagonal with the Mississippi River bend, as opposed to the true north-south grid orientation; the area north of downtown on the west bank of the Mississippi River is considered North Minneapolis. The part of Minneapolis on the east bank of the Mississippi River is divided by East Hennepin Avenue into Northeast and Southeast aligned with the communities of Northeast and University, respectively; the entire area south of downtown is referred to as South Minneapolis. The westerly portion surrounding the city's famed Chain of Lakes is loosely labeled Southwest Minneapolis, bounded on the east by I-35W and on the north by 36th St W, which extends west from Bde Maka Ska to the city limits. Minneapolis consists of 11 communities, each of which are subdivided into anywhere between 4 and 13 neighborhoods.
The official neighborhoods have a variety of origins. The division of the city into official neighborhoods and communities occurred as part of the Neighborhood Revitalization Program in the early 1990s, they remain associated with this community-based funding program, are used for statistical purposes. For purposes of the NRP, some of the 81 official neighborhoods have combined forces, leading to a total of 67 NRP Neighborhood action plans. Neighborhoods defined themselves around schools and commercial hubs, many trace neighborhood identity back into community organizations formed in the early part of the 20th century; the oldest, the Prospect Park East River Road Association formed in 1901 to oppose city plans to level Tower Hill. In other neighborhoods, the current official neighborhood association was formed in the 1970s and 1980s. Many of the major business districts of the city sit on major thoroughfares, since these thoroughfares form the boundaries of official neighborhoods, local identity may not correspond with these official neighborhoods.
Lake Street, running the entire width of the city in south Minneapolis is a string of commercial districts which includes Uptown, Lyn-Lake and Midtown, while forming the border of 12 neighborhoods. Other streets with similar linking and bordering qualities include Nicollet Avenue, stringing together Nicollet Mall, Eat Street south of Franklin Avenue, smaller districts south of Lake Street. Uptown is the most well-known business district in Minneapolis besides downtown, centered at the intersection of West Lake Street and Hennepin Avenue, but it is not recognized as it includes parts of four neighborhoods: CARAG, ECCO, East Isles, Lowry Hill East; the Uptown Business Association is focused on the area within a few blocks of Lake and Hennepin, but the "Uptown" identity can stretch as far north as Franklin Avenue, as far east as Lyndale Avenue, where it now merges into Lyn-Lake. Eat Street is the newest of Minneapolis's commercial district, formed in the late 1990s to promote the international variety of restaurants along Nicollet Avenue South within three blocks of 26th Street.
Nicollet was the "Main Street" of the Whittier neighborhood, but was cut off from Lake Street by construction of a K-Mart. The named district was an effort to give the neighborhood a fresh identity; the Old St. Anthony district known as Northeast, straddles the neighborhoods of Marcy-Holmes, Nicollet Island/East Bank, both of which are part of the University community, rather than Northeast, it was the downtown for the city of St. Anthony before it joined Minneapolis in 1872. Dinkytown is the coined name for an area just north of the University of Minnesota within the official Marcy-Holmes neighborhood populated by students. A row of historic fraternity houses along University Avenue is referred to as "fraternity row."
North Loop, Minneapolis
The North Loop is a neighborhood of the Central community of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The neighborhood is known as the Warehouse District from the city's shipping hub years, it includes the Minneapolis Warehouse Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The North Loop is located just northwest of the central business district between downtown Minneapolis and the Mississippi River. Streets in the North Loop are oriented to be parallel to the river, which means that they run at a 45-degree angle relative to the grid of the rest of the city. Although the extent of the neighborhood technically extends further to the south, the main residential and commercial area of the North Loop is a rectangle bounded by Hennepin Avenue, Plymouth Avenue, the elevated 4th street freeway entrance/exit in the southwest, the Mississippi River in the northeast. Washington Avenue is the main thoroughfare through the neighborhood; the James I. Rice Park, in the northeast portion of the neighborhood along the river, is popular with residents during the summer months.
The bike trail and West River Parkway that runs through the park are part of the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway. The park added a playground in 2010 located. For most of its history, the North Loop was an industrial area, it was home to numerous warehouses and factories. Much of the warehouse district is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the warehouses that characterize the district are six to eight stories high, about 62 structures on seven square blocks contribute to the district. The predominant form of design is the Chicago Commercial style, but many other styles were built, including Italianate, Queen Anne style, Richardsonian Romanesque, Classical Revival, early 20th century commercial styles; the warehouse district was in turn associated with the railroad transportation network, under development at the time, which connected Minneapolis with the rest of the Midwest and the rest of the country. These warehouses were used for storage of goods related to milling and manufacturing.
The nomination for the National Register of Historic Places states that the district, as a whole, comprises a cohesive district of buildings with a common physical appearance, as well as a common age and original use. In the 1980s, the Warehouse district was the epicenter of the Minneapolis art scene until the area's buildings became more commercially desirable in the 1990s. At its peak, the Wyman Building, 400 First Avenue North, was home to more than twenty contemporary art galleries. No Name Gallery was located in the eastern part of the neighborhood, before it moved out of the district and became the Soap Factory. While some industrial tenants remain, many of the old factories and warehouses have been converted to commercial space or loft condominiums and apartments; the area still retains some feel of its industrial past, as many newer buildings have attempted to replicate the style of the old warehouses. Since the mid-1990s, when the gentrification of the neighborhood accelerated, thousands of people have moved into the North Loop.
The neighborhood is popular with people who work in downtown Minneapolis, whose proximity allows residents to walk, bike, or take a short bus or METRO ride to work. Coffee shops, bars, art galleries, small retail stores have moved into the neighborhood in recent years; the Tony-award-winning Theatre de la Jeune Lune and the Traffic Zone Center for Visual Art, a prominent artist cooperative and gallery space, are located in the eastern part of the neighborhood. The largest employer is the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, located at the southwest end of the Hennepin Avenue Bridge. In September 2006, the North Loop Neighborhood Association received funding to build a dog park for North Loop residents. A temporary dog park has been built on 7th Ave. Target Field, home of the Minnesota Twins, opened in 2010, is on the southwest edge of the neighborhood. Plans call for the construction of condominiums and apartments for several thousand new residents near the stadium; the area is served by Target Field, the new terminus for the Northstar Commuter Rail, Metro Transit Blue and future light rail lines.
Interstate 335 Neighborhoods of Minneapolis North Minneapolis Encyclopedia Stein LLC Neighborhood Retail Design Firm North Loop Neighborhood Association Warehouse District Business Association Theatre de la Jeune Lune Traffic Zone Center for Visual Art Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission map of the Warehouse District
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
Downtown East, Minneapolis
Downtown East is an official neighborhood in Minneapolis, United States part of the larger Central community. Its boundaries are the Mississippi River to the north, Interstate 35W to the east, 5th Street South to the south, Portland Avenue to the west, it is bounded by the Downtown West, Elliot Park, Cedar-Riverside neighborhoods. The Marcy-Holmes neighborhood is on the other side of the river, but there is no direct automobile connection between the two neighborhoods. There is a bicycle connection via the Stone Arch Bridge. Downtown East was home to the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, where the Minnesota Twins, Minnesota Vikings, Minnesota Gophers have all played home games; as of 2009, the Minnesota Golden Gophers moved into the new TCF Bank Stadium on the University of Minnesota Campus. Additionally, the Minnesota Twins moved into new Target Field at the start of the 2010 season. In 2016, U. S. Bank Stadium opened on the Metrodome's former site. Within Downtown East is the Mill District, which contains a number of former industrial properties left over from the days when Minneapolis was the flour milling capital of the world.
Many old mills and factories are being converted to housing, bringing a residential population to a neighborhood that beforehand didn't have many residents. The neighborhood is home to the Mill City Museum, Mill Ruins Park, the new Guthrie Theater complex, which abandoned its old location near Loring Park during the summer of 2006; the neighborhood is served by U. S. Bank Stadium Station of the METRO light rail system. Minneapolis Neighborhood Profile - Downtown East 7th Ward, City of Minneapolis Downtown Minneapolis Neighborhood Association
Julia Ward Howe
Julia Ward Howe was an American poet and author, best known for writing "The Battle Hymn of the Republic". She was an advocate for abolitionism and was a social activist for women's suffrage. Howe was born in New York City, she was the fourth of seven children. Her father Samuel Ward III was a Wall Street stockbroker and strict Calvinist, her mother was the poet Julia Rush Cutler, related to Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox" of the American Revolution. She died of tuberculosis. Howe was educated by private schools for young ladies until she was sixteen, her eldest brother, Samuel Cutler Ward, brought home a private library. She had access to these books, she became well-read, though social as well as scholarly. She met because of her father's status as a successful banker, Charles Dickens, Charles Sumner, Margaret Fuller, her brother, married into the Astor family, allowing him great social freedom that he shared with his sister. The siblings were cast into mourning time with the death of their father in 1839, the death of their brother and the deaths of Samuel's wife and their newborn child.
In Boston, Howe met Samuel Gridley Howe, a physician and reformer who had founded the Perkins School for the Blind. Howe had courted her. In 1843, they married despite their eighteen-year age difference, she gave birth to their first child while honeymooning in Europe. She bore their last child in December 1859 at the age of forty, they had six children: Julia Romana Howe, Florence Marion Howe, Henry Marion Howe, Laura Elizabeth Howe, Maud Howe, Samuel Gridley Howe, Jr.. Howe was an aunt of novelist Francis Marion Crawford. Howe raised her children in South Boston, she hid her unhappiness with their marriage earning the nickname "the family champagne" from her children. She made frequent visits to Gardiner, Maine where she stayed at "The Yellow House," a home built in 1814 and home to her daughter Laura. In 1852, the Howes bought a "country home" with 4.7 acres of land in Portsmouth, Rhode Island which they called "Oak Glen." They continued to maintain homes in Boston and Newport, but spent several months each year at Oak Glen.
She attended lectures, studied foreign languages, wrote plays and dramas. Howe had published essays on Goethe and Lamartine before her marriage in the New York Review and Theological Review. Passion-Flowers was published anonymously in 1853; the book collected personal poems and was written without the knowledge of her husband, editing the Free Soil newspaper The Commonwealth. Her second anonymous collection, Words for the Hour, appeared in 1857, she went on to write plays such as Leonora, The World's Own, Hippolytus. These works all contained allusions to her stultifying marriage, she went on trips including several for missions. In 1860, she published, A Trip to Cuba, it had generated outrage from William Lloyd Garrison, an abolitionist, for its derogatory view of Blacks. Howe believed it did not believe in racial equality. Several letters on High Newport society were published in the New York Tribune in 1860, as well. Howe's being a published author troubled her husband especially due to the fact that her poems many times had to do with critiques of women's roles as wives, her own marriage, women's place in society.
Their marriage problems escalated to the point where they separated in 1852. Samuel, when he became her husband, had taken complete control of her estate income. Upon her husband's death in 1876, she had found that through a series of bad investments, most of her money had been spent. Howe's writing and social activism were shaped by her upbringing and married life. Much study has gone into her difficult marriage and how it influenced her work, both written and active, she was inspired to write "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" after she and her husband visited Washington, D. C. and met Abraham Lincoln at the White House in November 1861. During the trip, her friend James Freeman Clarke suggested she write new words to the song "John Brown's Body", which she did on November 19; the song was set to William Steffe's already-existing music and Howe's version was first published in the Atlantic Monthly in February 1862. It became one of the most popular songs of the Union during the American Civil War.
Now that Howe was in the public eye, she produced eleven issues of the literary magazine, Northern Lights, in 1867. That same year she wrote about her travels to Europe in From the Oak to the Olive. After the war she focused her activities on women's suffrage. By 1868, Julia's husband no longer opposed her involvement in public life, so Julia decided to become active in reform, she helped found the New England Woman Suffrage Association. She served as president for nine years beginning in 1868. In 1869, she became co-leader with Lucy Stone of the American Woman Suffrage Association. In 1870, she became president of the New England Women's Club. After her husband's death in 1876, she focused more on her interests in reform, she was the founder and from 1876 to 1897 president of the Association of American Women, which advocated for women's education. She served as president of organizations like the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association and the New England Suffrage Association. In 1872 she became the editor of Woman's Journal, a widely-read suffragist magazine founded in 1870 by Lucy Stone and Henry B.
The Central community in Minneapolis is located in the central part of the city, consisting of 6 smaller official neighborhoods, includes Downtown Minneapolis, the central business district. It includes some high-density residential areas surrounding it, excluding areas east of the Mississippi River. Businesses based in the Central area include the corporate headquarters of Target, US Bank, the broadcast facilities of Minnesota CBS station WCCO-TV. Downtown East Downtown West where most of the high-rise office buildings are located Elliot Park Loring Park North Loop referred to as the Warehouse District Stevens Square/Loring Heights Neighborhoods of Minneapolis
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate