Thursday Island, colloquially known as TI, or in the native language, Waiben, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago located 39 kilometres north of Cape York Peninsula in the Torres Strait, Australia. It has an area of about 3.5 square kilometres. The Muralag peoples are the traditional owners of the land and seas surrounding Thursday Island; the highest point on Thursday Island, standing at 104 metres above sea level, is Milman Hill, a World War II defence facility. At the 2011 census, Thursday Island had a population of 2,610. Thursday Island is within the Shire of Torres, but is the administrative and commercial centre of the Torres Strait Island Region despite not being part of that local government area; the island has been populated for thousands of years by the Torres Strait Islanders, though archeological evidence on Badu, further north in Torres Strait, suggests that the area has been inhabited from before the end of the last Ice Age. The archeology from Badhu, Pulu and Mer shows that Melanesian occupation started around 2,600 years ago.
The original place of permanent European settlement in Torres Strait was Somerset, south-east of the tip of Cape York Peninsula, established in 1864. However, the channel between Albany Island and Somerset proved to be hazardous for a port and in 1875 it was jointly decided by the Queensland and British governments to transfer the port to the deep anchorage on the south side of Thursday Island; the new port was called Port Kennedy, after Edmund Kennedy, the explorer of Cape York Peninsula, was established in 1867. In 1877, an administrative centre for the Torres Strait Islands was set up on the island by the Queensland Government and by 1883 over 200 pearling vessels were based on the island. A lucrative pearling industry was founded on the island in 1884, attracting workers from around Asia, including Japan and India, seeking their fortune; the Japanese community was in part indentured divers and boat hands who returned to Japan after a period of service and some longer term residents who were active in boat building and in the ownership of luggers for hire -, illegal but bypassed by leases through third parties back to other Japanese, a practice called "dummying."
Additionally, many south Pacific Islanders worked in the industry, some imported against their will. While the pearling industry has declined in importance, the mix of cultures is evident to this day; the pearling industry centred on the harvesting of pearl shell, used to make shirt buttons. The local pearl oyster is Pinctada maxima. Trochus shell was gathered by boats that specialised in this. Most shell was exported as the raw material - to a London-based market. Pearls themselves were rare and a bonus for the crew; the boats used were graceful two-masted luggers. In shallow water free diving was used while in deeper water diver's dress, or an abbreviated form of it, with a surface air supply was used. In good times there were three divers to a lugger, a stern diver, one midships, one diver off the bow. A manual air compressor was used, it looked. For part of the fleet that operated further from Thursday Island, larger vessels schooners were used as mother ships to the luggers. Shell was opened on the mother vessels rather than on the luggers, in order to secure any pearls found.
The waters of the Straits are murky and visibility was very poor. Though dive depths were not great, except at the Darnley Deep, 40 fathoms, attacks of the bends were common and deaths frequent. On 25 August 1887, The Paterson Telegraph Station on the West Coast of Cape York was opened, it connected the Cape York Telegraph Line with Thursday Island, via an undersea cable. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries Thursday Island was a regular stop for vessels trading between the east coast of Australia and Southeast Asia. A shipping disaster to a vessel in this service occurred in 1890 when RMS Quetta struck an uncharted reef in the Strait and sank in five minutes with the loss of over 130 lives; the Anglican Church on Thursday Island built shortly afterwards was named the Quetta All Souls Memorial Cathedral in memory of the event. Today the church is called All St Bartholomew Church. Cyclone Mahina, which hit Bathurst Bay, southeast of Thursday Island in 1899, wrecked the pearling fleet sheltering there, with huge losses of vessels and lives.
The fear of Russian invasion as a result of the deterioration of relations between the Russian Empire and the British Empire led to a fort on Battery Point being built in 1892 to protect the island. The fort is today a heritage feature of the island. Local pearling declined up to the Second World War through competition from a Japanese-based fleet which did not use local resources or personnel. In the 1950s plastic buttons imitating pearl supplanted much of the demand for shell. Before the decline, pearl fishing was taken by the island-based fleet to the Aru Islands in what was the Dutch East Indies. During World War II, Thursday Island became the military headquarters for the Torres Strait and was a base for Australian and United States forces. January 1942 saw the evacuation of civilians from the island. Residents of Japanese origin or descent were interned; the residents did not return until after the end of the war and many ethnic Japanese were forcibly repatriated. The island was spared from bombing in World War II, due, it was thought, to it being the burial place of many Japanese pearl shell divers, or the
Chillagoe is a town and locality in northern Queensland, Australia. It is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba, it was once a thriving mining town for a range of minerals, but is now reduced to a small zinc mine and some marble quarries. In the 2011 census, Chillagoe had a population of 192 people. Just out of town is the Chillagoe-Mungana Caves National Park containing limestone caves. There are between 1,000 caves in the Chillagoe-Mungana area; the caves, the spectacular karst landscape and the mining and smelting history are the main tourist attractions to the region. It has been stated by leading geologist Professor Ian Plimer that the Chillagoe region has the most diverse geology in the world. Chillagoe was named by William Atherton in 1888; the name is taken from the refrain of a sea shanty: "Hikey, Psyche, Chillagoe, Walabadorie". James Mulligan had explored the area in 1873 and Atherton backed up his reports of rich copper outcrops in the area. Mining pioneer John Moffat sent prospectors to the field in 1888 and monopolised the field.
A receiving office opened in 1891 but closed in 1893. A post office opened in 1900 with F. Donner as the postmaster; the Chillagoe Railway and Mining Company's line opened from Mareeba in 1901 and a Town Reserve was proclaimed 27 October 1910. Chillagoe is sometimes remembered for its involvement in the Mungana affair, a mining scandal which brought down the government. In 1919, after fluctuating fortunes and closures, ownership of the smelter was transferred to the Queensland Government; this acquisition by the Labor Government brought allegations of political corruption which persisted for many years. Closures plagued the smelter again in the late 1920s; when the Labor Party lost power in 1929, the new government ordered a Royal Commission into the incident. The political careers of two former Queensland Premiers,'Red' Ted Theodore and William McCormack, were ruined by the Commission’s report. Read the famous book by Frank Hardy: "Power without Glory"; the Chillagoe Public Library opened in 2002.
Chillagoe State School opened on 1 April 1902. At the 2006 census, Chillagoe had a population of 227. Chillagoe has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Chillagoe smelters Mungana Archaeological Area Woothakata is a property on beautiful Chillagoe creek named after the early Tableland shire which Chillagoe was a part of. Woothakata is an Aboriginal word which describes the way Aborigines traveled to Ngarrabullgan/Mount Mulligan, an important meeting place; the heritage-listed Chillagoe smelters, the cemetery and the many old mines attract history buffs to the area. The Mareeba Shire Council operates a public library in Chillagoe at 21-23 Queen Street. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Chillagoe and Chillagoe Shire
Kowanyama is a town on the Gulf of Carpentaria side of Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Kowanyama had a population of 1,017; the town resides within the Kowanyama Local Government Area which covers a land area of 2,516.1km². The aboriginal people who live in this community include Kokominjena and Kunjen groups, amongst others. In their overarching Yir-Yoront language, Kowanyama means "The place of many waters." The community is situated on the banks of the Magnificent Creek, a tributary of the Mitchell River, 20 kilometres inland from the coastline of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Kowanyama is accessed by an all-weather airstrip, as well as unsealed roads in the dry season from Pormpuraaw to the north, Normanton to the south and Cairns to the east. In 1905, Trubanamen Mission was established inland on Topsy Creek, now known as the old mission. Aboriginal peoples of the region were drawn from their ancestral lands into the mission settlement. In 1916, Mitchell River Mission was founded on the present site of Kowanyama and the Trubanamen site abandoned.
Some peoples continued to occupy their traditional lands, moving into Kowanyama as late as the 1940s. More than 1000 people now live in Kowanyama, making it one of the largest communities on the Cape York Peninsula. Kowanyama's Aboriginal people continue to identify with their ancestral countries and with the languages, songs and histories associated with those countries. Language groups associated with countries in the Kowanyama region are Yir Yoront, Yirrk Thangalkl, Koko Bera, Uw Oykangand, Olkola. In 1964, a cyclone destroyed the mission; the Queensland government funded the rebuilding. Kowanyama Post Office opened by 1967. In 1967 the Anglican church were no longer able to sustain their activities in the area as a Church Mission; the Department of Aboriginal and Islander Affairs, a government department, under the Act continued running the affairs of the community. In July 1987, the State Government of Queensland implemented legislation for a DOGIT over the lands in the Mitchell River delta, an area of 250 km².
The deed covered the traditional lands of the people of Kowanyama. Like other DOGIT communities of the time, Kowanyama had a town Council elected by Aboriginal people living in the community; the newly formed Kowanyama Council assumed responsibility for implementing certain conditions of the DOGIT. Seven elected aboriginal residents hold three-year terms in office. Since the 1990s, many Kowanyama people have been returning to their ancestral lands through the Homelands Movement. Homelands within the Kowanyama DOGIT include Scrubby Bore, Red Lilly, Ten Mile, Stewart Place, Old Rodeo Ground, Duck Hole, Wonya Bore, Kokomenjen Island, Wallaby Island, Joe's Lagoon, Yangr Bore, Fish Hole, Robert Demaine great elder and Thilpi. Other homelands, including the Oriners Pastoral Lease and the Sefton Pastoral Lease, were independently purchased by the Kowanyama Council and are located outside the DOGIT boundary. A Community Justice Group operates within Kowanyama; this group is made up of respected members in the community.
They meet to make recommendations to Council. The community has a Council of Elders, who are consulted by the Kowanyama Council when making community decisions; the elders operate in conjunction with the Lands Office. The Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resources Management Office works to promote and facilitate aboriginal management of the natural and cultural resources of Kowanyama country by the people of Kowanyama. Through community consultation and direction, KALNRMO has developed a community development agenda for the Kowanyama region, including: Homelands development Land and Fisheries Management'Tourism and Visitor management Kowanyama Ranger Service Native Title Claims Cultural Resource documentationThrough the initiatives of KALNRMO, the Kowanyama community is regarded as a leader in indigenous land management issues. Since 1987, Kowanyama has effected substantial local control over fishing in the Mitchell River Delta, including the closure of some waters to non-Aboriginal fishing under state fisheries legislation.
This action, funded through the enterprise income of the Kowanyama Aboriginal Council, has provided Aboriginal people access to the River’s fish stocks for their cultural and economic needs. In this way, Aboriginal people can fish and hunt. KALNRMO employs four field rangers; the Kowanyama Rangers implement land management strategies in many areas of the DOGIT, and, in addition to tourism and visitor management, patrol closed and open waters. The Rangers observe fisheries regulations for illegal commercial or recreational fishing in closed waters. Beginning in 2007, the Rangers monitor threatened turtle populations and participate in the Carpentaria Ghost Nets Programme to remove debris discarded into the Gulf of Carpentaria by commercial fishermen from Australia and Indonesia; the Kowanyama State School has 210 students from pre-prep to year 10. Since the beginning of 2014, the school has started to enrol students in a year 11 and 12 pathways program; the Kowanyama State School opened in January 1904.
Kowanyama has a small supermarket that sells fresh foods and frozen foods, hardware items. The store is similar to a medium-sized IGA store; the store is operated by Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships, the manager is able to obtain any goods that are not kept for sale. The store prices are somewhat higher than provincial towns, which reflect the high costs of transport and storage; the "Coffee Shop" does
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Yungaburra is a town located on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, not far from Cairns. In the 2011 census, Yungaburra had a population of 1,116 people; the name'Yungaburra' comes from the local Yidiny word janggaburru, denoting the Queensland silver ash. The landscape around Yungaburra has been shaped by millennia of volcanic activity; the most recent eruptions were 10,000 years ago. Notable geological features nearby include: Seven Sisters and Mount Quincan are volcanic cones. Lake Eacham and Lake Barrine are lakes inside volcanic craters. Mount Hypipamee Crater is a diatreme. Tinaroo Dam submerged the old town of Kulara is visible, on whose cricket-pitch, when drought conditions drastically lower the water-level, locals play cricket matches. Prior to European settlement the area around Yungaburra was inhabited by about sixteen different indigenous groups, among them the Ngatjan, with the custodians being Yidinji people and neighbouring Ngajanji people; the Queensland police and native troops carried out extensive massacres in the area to rid it of blacks.
In one incident in 1884, at Skull Pocket just north of the town, a group of Yidinji were surrounded at night, at dawn mowed down after they fled on hearing the first shot. The children were stabbed to death by native troopers. In the early 1880s the area around Allumbah Pocket was used as an overnight stop for miners travelling west from the coast. In 1886 the land was surveyed, in 1891 settlers moved in. In 1910 the railway arrived, the town was renamed Yungaburra, to avoid confusion with another town called Allumbah. By 1911 indigenous numbers had fallen to 20% of the pre-settlement population due to disease, conflict with settlers and loss of habitat. At the 2006 census, Yungaburra had a population of 932; the population of Yungaburra is 1,034 persons as of 30 June 2009. In 2006, The Atherton Tableland region was damaged by the Category 4 Cyclone Larry. Of the 19 heritage listed sites in Yungaburra, only the roofs of the community hall, police station and one of the bush cottages were badly damaged, as were the front of the Yungaburra Butchery and Gem Gallery sign.
The town was restored quickly. Yungaburra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 27 Atherton Road: Bank of New South Wales 6-10 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Court House 7-9 Cedar Street: 7-9 Cedar Street, Yungaburra 12 Cedar Street: Residence 15-17 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Post Office 16-20 Cedar Street: Williams' House 19 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Community Centre 32 Cedar: Billy Madrid's House 34 Cedar Street: Barber's Shop, Yungaburra Curtain Fig Tree Road: Curtain Fig Tree 7 Eacham Road: St Marks Anglican Church 25-33 Eacham Road: Cairns Plywood Pty Ltd Sawmill Complex 20 Gillies Highway: Eden House Restaurant 2 Kehoe Place: Butchers Shop 6-8 Kehoe Place: Lake Eacham Hotel 7 Mulgrave Road: Allumbah 4 Oak Street: Residence 1 Penda Street: St Patricks Catholic Church on the shores of Lake Tinaroo, the Afghanistan Avenue of Honour Yungaburra's economy today revolves around tourism, the town contains a primary school, post office, library/telecentre and a range of businesses and services for the use of residents and visitors.
Other facilities include a bowling club. The town has 18 Heritage Listed buildings, is the largest National Trust village in Queensland; the Yungaburra Markets, held on the fourth Saturday of each month, are one of the largest in Far North Queensland, each year around the end of October, Yungaburra holds the two-day Yungaburra Folk Festival, featuring concerts from Australian folk musicians. Yungaburra is the site of the war memorial to soldiers lost, opened 22 June 2013. There is a network of walking tracks around the town including Peterson's Creek. Allumbah Pocket is a picnic area on Peterson's Creek, it is the centre for a series of walking tracks along the creek. Tracks lead to Frawley's Pool, a popular swimming hole and picnic area further to Yungaburra's historical train bridge. In the opposite direction there is a track to the platypus viewing deck. Aside from this all of the tracks are easy and short enough for anyone to do; the site is dedicated to Geoff Tracy, a local renowned environmentalist who died in 2004.
Yungaburra has access to the southern arm of Lake Tinaroo, popular for fishing, sailing, water-skiing and camping. The other main places to get to Tinaroo are the township of Tinaroo; the Curtain Fig Tree, just out of Yungaburra, is a giant rainforest fig tree with roots hanging down, giving it the appearance of curtains. There is a short boardwalk around the tree. Lake Barrine and Lake Eacham are crater lakes, formed from volcanoes. Lake Eacham is popular for swimming and Lake Barrine has a teahouse and gift shop as well as cruises around the lake however is unsuitable for swimming due to the cruise boats. Both lakes have walking tracks around them. Lake Barrine's track is Lake Eacham's is 3 kilometres. There are a number of places to dine, from takeaway to fine dining. Yungaburra State School is a government primary school at 4 Maple Street. In 2017 the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 13 non-teaching staff; the nearest public secondary school is Atherton State High School. Yungaburra has a library at Maud Kehoe Park operated by the Tablelands Regional Council.
The Yungaburra branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall on the corner of Cedar Street and the Gillies Highway. Notable people from or who have lived in Yungaburra include: George Alfred
Mission Beach, Queensland
Mission Beach is a small town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. In the 2016 census Mission Beach and surrounding villages had a total population of 3,597 people. Mission Beach is bounded on the east by the Coral Sea; the popular tourist destination of Dunk Island lies 4 kilometres offshore. Today, what were once separate villages have now grown such that they are considered one town, Mission Beach; the villages are, from south to north, South Mission Beach, Wongaling Beach, Mission Beach, Bingil Bay, Brooks Beach and Carmoo. Development is continuing at Garners Beach to the north. Clump Point is the northern end of a sandy beach 13 kilometres long facing the Coral Sea which runs south to Tam O'Shanter Point in South Mission Beach at the southern end. Clump Point was descriptively named by Captain Owen Stanley of the Royal Navy survey ship HMS Rattlesnake. In 1872 it was alleged by two sailors, that the captain and some of the crew of the ill-fated Maria, wrecked in a "typhoon", were killed and eaten by natives north of Tam O'Shanter Point.
Survivor Thomas Ingham attests that the aborigines were friendly with his party until joined by another group of unfriendly natives. A group of vigilantes raided the area now called South Mission Beach and attacked a local aboriginal camp. In 1916 Ingham wrote: "Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave short-shrift to the cannibals, who had eaten the captains party, the brutes who had speared me and taken my belt was seen to be wearing it around his head like a crown; that sealed his fate. This belt saved my life, it made him a king when he bought about his demise. Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave it back to me, I have kept it since." The river Louisa was renamed Maria Creek after the wreck. Johnstone River was named after Sub Inspector Johnstone. In the early 20th century Chinese banana farmers used Aborigines as labourers in the Tully River region. Opium addiction and conflict with European settlers resulted in the Queensland government creating an Aboriginal internment centre at the present Mission Beach. Superintendent John Martin Kenny started the necessary work on 1 September 1914.
There was no mission in the religious sense. The settlement had characteristics of a penal settlement; the Hull River detention centre and superintendent's residence were destroyed in the cyclone of 10 March 1918 and were not rebuilt. Superintendent Kenny and his daughter were killed by debris; the surviving Aborigines were forcefully moved to Queensland. The first white settlers, the Cutten brothers, came to Mission Beach area in 1882 and settled at Bingil Bay, where they farmed mangoes, pineapples, citrus fruit and coconuts, they manufactured their own coffee. Produce was shipped south on cargo-boats. Before this the only white people to enter this area were the timber-getters who sometimes camped on the beach and retrieved timber from the adjacent rain forests, they employed local Aborigines for their assistance in their timber hauling, paying the Aboriginal labourers with tobacco and tools. After the Cutten brothers, the Unsworths settled at Narragon Beach, the Garners came and settled at Garners Beach, the Porter brothers settled at what the locals refer to as Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach.
Mission Beach Post Office opened on 15 December 1949. In the 2006 census Mission Beach had a population of 515. Mission Beach State School is located at Webb Road Wongaling Beach, it is a Prep to Year 6 school and details of the curriculum and resources can be found on the Mission Beach State School Website. In early October there is the evolve music festival than shows local musicians and a few bands from around Australia. There is a market there that has food, clothes and other festival stuff. Rugby League plays a big part in the town, with Tully Tigers the main club. Mission Beach is now a thriving tourist town, able to maintain its small town feel. One reason for this is that the town is spread out along a thin strip of land between the ocean and the hills and farmland behind; this has spread out a large tourism market, the village doesn't feel as busy as one might expect. The beach is flanked by green mountains rising just a short distance inland, provides views out to the Family Islands. Close to shore at Mission Beach lies a shallow reef.
The reef runs from the mouth of Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach to Clump Point, a popular fishing spot, the main departure and arrival point for the Dunk Island Ferry. Surrounded by World Heritage rainforest on one side and the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef on the other, Mission Beach is home to many wildlife species, most notable is the cassowary; this large flightless bird can be found in the rainforest surrounding the area but appears to be thriving in spite of land clearing and predators such as wild dogs and feral pigs. Much of the area is part of the Coastal Wet Tropics Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of lowland tropical rainforest birds. Mission Beach is the mainland gateway to Dunk Island, with water taxis and ferries shuttling guests and day-trippers out to the island and its resort
Normanton is a small cattle town and locality in the Shire of Carpentaria in Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Normanton had a population of 1,210 people of whom 743 were Indigenous Australians; the town is one terminus of the isolated Normanton to Croydon railway line, built during gold rush days in the 1890s. The Gulflander motor train operates once a week. Normanton is the administrative centre of Shire of Carpentaria. Among Normanton's most notable features is a statue of an 8.64 m long saltwater crocodile named Krys, the largest taken, shot by Krystina Pawlowska in July 1957 in the Norman River. Barramundi and Threadfin Salmon may be caught in the river; the Big Barramundi, 6 m long is located in the town. Normanton is in the Gulf Country region of northwest Queensland, just south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, on the Norman River. An unusual feature 106 km southwest of Normanton is Bang Bang Jump Up, one of the few hills located in the middle of an expansive, flat grassland; the town takes its name from the Norman River, named in honour of William Henry Norman of the Victorian Naval Force, who commanded a ship in the search for the explorers Burke and Wills and conducted hydrographic surveys of the Gulf of Carpentaria and the Torres Strait to identify reefs and other marine hazards.
The site for the town was selected because Burketown was abandoned owing to flooding. Settlers moved into the town in 1867. Normanton attracted people including Chinese drawn to the gold fields. Norman River Post Office opened on 13 June 1868 and was renamed Normanton by 1872; the town contains operating Burns Philp store in Queensland. The general mercantile store and agency office was opened in 1884; the population reached 1,251 by 1891. The gold boom was short-lived. By 1947 the town's population had declined to 234. In the early years there was a large Aboriginal population as well; some Aboriginal people were moved to Mornington Doomadgee in the early 20th century. The Normanton library was opened in 2004. In 2006 census, the town's population was 60 per cent of whom were Indigenous Australians. Normanton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Burke and Wills Access Road: Burke and Wills Camp B/CXIX Burke Developmental Road: Normanton Cemetery 27 Haigh Street: Normanton Gaol cnr Landsborough Street and Caroline Street: Burns Philp Building Landsborough Street: Westpac Bank Building Matilda Street: Normanton railway station Normanton to Croydon: Normanton to Croydon railway line Like other Gulf communities the prawning industry makes an important economic contribution to the town.
Tourism has become an important part of the economy of Normanton, with Gulflander a significant draw-card. Normanton has a sports centre, golf course, bowling green, gun club, rodeo ground, an aerodrome. Normanton public library and visitor information services are located in the historic Burns Philp Building at the corner of Caroline and Landsborough Streets; the Normanton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its rooms in Landsborough Street. Normanton State School opened on 8 September 1882; the school celebrated its centenary in 1982. Six kilometres south of the town is the start of the Gulf Developmental Road, part of the Savannah Way tourist drive. A 151km remnant of historical railway operates weekly to Croydon; the Normanton railway station features a large steel frame with an open canopy to provide shade. Normanton has a tropical savanna climate with two distinct seasons. There is a hot and uncomfortable wet season from December to March and a hot and rainless dry season extending from April to November.
During the wet season most roads in the area are closed by heavy rainfall, which on several occasions has exceeded 650 millimetres in a month or 250 millimetres in a day from tropical cyclones. On occasions, as with all of Queensland, the wet season may fail and deliver as little as 240 millimetres between December 1934 and March 1935Temperatures are uniformly hot, ranging from 36.8 °C in November just before the wet season begins to 29 °C at the height of the dry season in July. In the wet season, temperatures are marginally lower, but high humidity means conditions are uncomfortable and wet bulb temperatures averages 25 °C and can reach 28 °C. In the dry season, lower humidity, cloudless days and cool nights provides for more pleasant conditions. Normanton Airport "Normanton". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. 1911. P. 765. University of Queensland: Queensland Places:Normanton Normanton Normanton page from Carpentaria Shire Council website Town map of Normanton, 1983