Ray Douglas Bradbury was an American author and screenwriter. He worked in a variety of genres, including fantasy, science fiction and mystery fiction. Known for his dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, his science-fiction and horror-story collections, The Martian Chronicles, The Illustrated Man, I Sing the Body Electric, Bradbury was one of the most celebrated 20th- and 21st-century American writers. While most of his best known work is in speculative fiction, he wrote in other genres, such as the coming-of-age novel Dandelion Wine and the fictionalized memoir Green Shadows, White Whale. Recipient of numerous awards, including a 2007 Pulitzer Citation, Bradbury wrote and consulted on screenplays and television scripts, including Moby Dick and It Came from Outer Space. Many of his works were adapted to comic book and film formats. Upon his death in 2012, The New York Times called Bradbury "the writer most responsible for bringing modern science fiction into the literary mainstream". Bradbury was born on August 22, 1920, in Waukegan, Illinois, to Esther Bradbury, a Swedish immigrant, Leonard Spaulding Bradbury, a power and telephone lineman of English ancestry.
He was given the middle name "Douglas" after the actor Douglas Fairbanks. Bradbury was related to the American Shakespeare scholar Douglas Spaulding and descended from Mary Bradbury, tried at one of the Salem witch trials in 1692. Bradbury was surrounded by an extended family during his early childhood and formative years in Waukegan. An aunt read him short stories; this period provided foundations for his stories. In Bradbury's works of fiction, 1920s Waukegan becomes Illinois; the Bradbury family lived in Tucson, during 1926–1927 and 1932–1933 while their father pursued employment, each time returning to Waukegan. They settled in Los Angeles in 1934 when Bradbury was 14 years old; the family arrived with only US$40, which paid for rent and food until his father found a job making wire at a cable company for $14 a week. This meant that they could stay, Bradbury—who was in love with Hollywood—was ecstatic. Bradbury was active in the drama club, he roller-skated through Hollywood in hopes of meeting celebrities.
Among the creative and talented people Bradbury met were special-effects pioneer Ray Harryhausen and radio star George Burns. Bradbury's first pay as a writer, at age 14, was for a joke he sold to George Burns to use on the Burns and Allen radio show. Throughout his youth, Bradbury was an avid reader and writer and knew at a young age that he was "going into one of the arts." Bradbury began writing his own stories at age 11, during the Great Depression — sometimes writing on the only available paper, butcher paper. In his youth, he spent much time in the Carnegie library in Waukegan, reading such authors as H. G. Wells, Jules Verne, Edgar Allan Poe. At 12, Bradbury began writing traditional horror stories and said he tried to imitate Poe until he was about 18. In addition to comics, he loved Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of Tarzan of the Apes Burroughs' John Carter of Mars series; the Warlord of Mars impressed him so much. The young Bradbury was a cartoonist and loved to illustrate, he drew his own Sunday panels.
He listened to the radio show Chandu the Magician, every night when the show went off the air, he would sit and write the entire script from memory. As a teen in Beverly Hills, he visited his mentor and friend science-fiction writer Bob Olsen, sharing ideas and maintaining contact. In 1936, at a secondhand bookstore in Hollywood, Bradbury discovered a handbill promoting meetings of the Los Angeles Science Fiction Society. Excited to find there were others sharing his interest, Bradbury joined a weekly Thursday-night conclave at age 16. Bradbury cited H. G. Jules Verne as his primary science-fiction influences. Bradbury identified with Verne, saying, "He believes the human being is in a strange situation in a strange world, he believes that we can triumph by behaving morally". Bradbury admitted that he stopped reading science-fiction books in his 20s and embraced a broad field of literature that included Alexander Pope and poet John Donne. Bradbury had just graduated from high school when he met Robert Heinlein 31 years old.
Bradbury recalled, "He was well known, he wrote humanistic science fiction, which influenced me to dare to be human instead of mechanical."In young adulthood Bradbury read stories published in Astounding Science Fiction, read everything by Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, the early writings of Theodore Sturgeon and A. E. van Vogt. The family lived about four blocks from the Fox Uptown Theatre on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, the flagship theater for MGM and Fox. There, Bradbury learned how to sneak in and watched previews every week, he rollerskated there, as well as all over town, as he put it, "hell-bent on getting autographs from glamorous stars. It was glorious." Among stars the young Bradbury was thrilled to encounter were Norma Shearer and Hardy, Ronald Colman. Sometimes, he spent all day in front of Paramount Pictures or Columbia Pictures and skated to the Brown Derby to watch the stars who came and went for meals, he recounted seeing Cary Grant, Marlene Dietrich, Mae West, whom he learned made a regular appearance every Friday night, bodyguard in tow.
Bradbury relates the following meeting with Sergei Bondarchuk, director of Soviet epic film series War and Peace, at a Hollywood award ceremony in Bondarchuk's honor: They forme
The Howling (franchise)
The Howling is a werewolf-themed horror series that includes three novels and eight films. The series began with the 1977 horror novel The Howling by Gary Brandner, in 1981 adapted into the film of the same name, directed by Joe Dante; the novels were authored by American horror writer Gary Phil Brandner. The first book in the series was loosely adapted as a motion picture in 1981. Brandner's second and third Howling novels, published in 1979 and 1985 have no connection to the film series, though he was involved in writing the screenplay for the second Howling film, Howling II: Your Sister Is a Werewolf, he died of esophageal cancer in 2013. The Howling was first published in 1977, republished in 1986 by Fawcett Publications. After a violent act, Karyn Beatty and her husband, Roy, go to the peaceful California village of Drago to escape the savagery of the city, their lives together become more separate; the novel was loosely adapted as a motion picture in 1981, the closest adaptation is the fourth film in the Howling series, Howling IV: The Original Nightmare, though this film too varies to some degree.
The Howling II was first published in 1979, republished by Fawcett Publications in 1982 under the alternative titles The Howling II: The Return, Return of the Howling. The novel addresses the impact of events in the first novel, how life has changed for Karyn Beatty and Chris Halloran within the last three years. Furthermore, the reader soon finds out that Roy and Marcia have survived the destruction of Drago, are now thirsty for vengeance; the Howling III known as The Howling III: Echoes, was published by Fawcett Publications in 1985. In his last installment of the trilogy, Brandner gives readers new characters, a stand-alone plot, a re-imagined mythology which alters the times and events established in the first two books; the Howling III: Echoes is about a sympathetic, teenage werewolf named Malcolm, being recruited by the evil werewolf, who wants him to learn his true heritage: blood. The Howling film series includes eight films; the first Howling film, directed by Joe Dante, stars Dee Wallace, Patrick Macnee, Dennis Dugan, Robert Picardo.
The film is based on the first book in the trilogy. The Howling contains subtle humor, not present in the novel; the second Howling film, directed by Philippe Mora, stars Christopher Lee, Reb Brown, Marsha Hunt, Sybil Danning. The Howling II is the only sequel in the series that features a plot that directly follows the original film's events. Brandner was critical of the original 1981 film, only a loose adaptation of his 1977 novel, some elements of this sequel may have been deliberately divergent from the previous film. After newswoman Karen White's shocking on-screen transformation and violent death, her brother Ben is approached by Stefan Crosscoe, a mysterious gentleman who claims that Karen was a werewolf. Providing videotaped evidence of the transformation, Crosscoe convinces Ben and Jenny to accompany him to Transylvania to battle Stirba, an immortal werewolf queen; the film was directed and written by Philippe Mora, starred Barry Otto, Imogen Annesley, Leigh Biolos. A scientist discovers that there are marsupial werewolves in Australia and one of them works in a horror movie.
John Hough directed Howling IV: The Original Nightmare, which starred Romy Windsor, Michael T. Weiss, Antony Hamiliton; the Original Nightmare is not so much a sequel, but, a more faithful adaptation of Brandner's original novel with subtle alterations. The film focuses on Marie, a successful suspense author, sent to the small town of Drago by her husband after suffering a nervous breakdown and becomes tormented by visions and werewolves; the film was directed by Neal Sundstrom and starred Philip Davis, Victoria Catlin, Elizabeth Shé, Ben Cole. A group of eclectic travelers attend the opening of a long-sealed European castle and are slowly being killed off by a werewolf. Now, to survive they must find out which one of them is the murderer; the film was directed by Hope Perello, starred Brendan Hughes, Bruce Payne, Michele Matheson. Like most movies in the series, The Freaks is based on The Howling trilogy of novels and contains minor elements from The Howling III: Echoes novel: the solitary drifter, cursed as a sympathetic werewolf and recruited by a supernatural being as well as werewolves being used in carnival freak shows.
R. B. Harker, carnival owner, captures Ian, a solitary drifter and werewolf, to work for his carnival, where Ian is put on display with other human oddities. To further complicate matters, Harker too is a supernatural creature, a vampire, with a secret objective to recruit Ian by making him into a killer. Directed by, written by and starring Clive Turner, The Howling: New Moon Rising is the only sequel in the series since Howling II: Your Sister Is a Werewolf to attempt at continuity. Furthermore, the film utilizes footage from the Howling IV: The Original Nightmare, Howling V: The Rebirth, Howling VI: The Freaks, featuring characters from each of those films. After the arrival of a mysterious motorcyclist, the peace of a desert town is shattered by gruesome murders. A detective investigates the case, helped by a priest, certain the killings are the work of a werewolf, leading the two of them to uncover several clues that connect events from a majority of the latter part of the series; the Howling: Reborn was directed by Joe Nimziki.
The film stars Landon Liboiron, Lindsey Shaw and Ivana Miličević. The story is credited to the novel The Howling II. A teenage outcast named Will Kidman discovers he is a werewolf and
The Howling III: Echoes
The Howling III: Echoes is a 1985 horror novel by the American author Gary Brandner. It is the final book in his Howling series of novels. Like its predecessor, The Howling II, the book has not been adapted for the screen and bears no similarity to the Howling III film or any of the other films in The Howling series. Minor elements of the novel were used in the film Howling VI: The Freaks, though this idea was first seen in the 1975 British horror film Legend of the Werewolf. A year after the Californian mountain village of Drago was destroyed by fire, sinister murders begin to occur in the neighboring town of Pinyon. A teenage boy named Malcolm is found living in the woods, is one of the survivors of the Drago fire. Surviving the fire is Derak, the former leader of the Drago community and a werewolf, responsible for the recent deaths. Derak wants to bring Malcolm back to his people, the other survivors of Drago, so that he can learn about his true heritage. Malcolm is hospitalized and placed under the care of resident psychiatric specialist Dr. Holly Lang, who becomes Malcolm's friend.
However, an ambitious and unscrupulous doctor, Wayne Pastory, abducts Malcolm so that he can experiment on him and learn more about werewolves. At a secret clinic, Malcolm is tortured as Pastory conducts cruel experiments on him, but as he is so young, Malcolm is only able to transform into a werewolf. Holly discovers the whereabouts of the clinic and tries to rescue Malcolm, but she is attacked by Pastory's henchman. Just as he is about to rape her, Derak - in werewolf form - kills the henchman. Malcolm is freed by Holly, subsequently rescued herself by the Pinyon sheriff, Gavin Ramsay. However, Malcolm runs away. Over the course of the next year, Malcolm lives as a drifter, he meets a man named Bateman Styles who works for a traveling carnival. Seeing that Malcolm has certain abilities, Styles offers him a job working in the carnival freak show as "Grolo - The Animal Boy". Malcolm, without money or a place to live and the show becomes a minor success. However, publicity leads to Malcolm's picture being published in the press, seen by Holly and she travels to see him.
She offers Malcolm the choice of returning to Pinyon with her. However, the publicity has attracted the attention of Dr. Wayne Pastory, dismissed from the Pinyon Hospital over his dubious activities, but is still keen to resume his experiments, he tries to make a deal with Styles, who refuses. Pastory tries to strangle Styles, who has a heart attack and dies. Malcolm, hiding nearby, transforms into a werewolf and kills Pastory. However, he is surprised to find that Derak has tracked him down and still wants him to join their people. In order to persuade him, Derak has kidnapped Holly; this prompts Sheriff Ramsay from Pinyon to travel to the carnival to find her. He learns from a female Drago survivor named Lupe that Derak is holding Holly hostage in the mountains until Malcolm joins them. Ramsay makes Lupe take him to where they are hiding, though she begins to transform into a werewolf on the way and Ramsay shoots her with a silver bullet. In the mountain lair, Malcolm fights with Derak for Holly.
The two change into werewolves, but end up killing each other just as Ramsay arrives and rescues Holly, while the other members of Derak's group from Drago head off into the forest. Although written by the same author, The Howling III retroactively alters the times and events established in the first two books in favor of a new continuity and features new characters; the characters from the first two books are not mentioned. At the end of the original 1977 novel, the village of Drago is burned down after one of the book's characters throws a lit torch at a group of werewolves and it accidentally ignites the surrounding woodland, sweeping through the area and destroying the town. In The Howling III novel, the fire is started deliberately by the people from the neighbouring village of Pinyon who want to rid the area of werewolves, they lock some of the residents of Drago in a barn and purposely set fire to it, burning the town along with it. The first two books are set in the late 1970s; the Howling III is set in the mid-1980s, which contradicts the established time when Drago was burned down and now moves the event to the 1980s.
The werewolves in the first two novels were described as wolf-like, but the werewolves featured in The Howling III are more anthropomorphic. They are over seven feet tall; the werewolves from the first two novels were only able to change after the sun had gone down, whereas the werewolves in The Howling III can change at any time of the day
Howling IV: The Original Nightmare
Howling IV: The Original Nightmare is a 1988 direct-to-video horror film directed by John Hough from a screenplay by Freddie Rowe and Clive Turner. Starring Romy Windsor, Michael T. Weiss, Antony Hamilton, Susanne Severeid and Lamya Derval; the Original Nightmare is the fourth entry in the series of seven stand-alone films with loose continuity and not so much a sequel, but, a more faithful adaptation of Gary Brandner's source novel The Howling. International Video Entertainment released this film directly to home video in 1988. Platinum Disc Corporation released it on DVD in 2004 and it has been released numerous times since, it was filmed on location in South Africa. After experiencing visions of a nun, author Marie Adams is in the middle of a meeting with her agent, Tom Billings, when she has another vision of a wolf-like creature lunging from a fire, begins to scream hysterically. Marie's husband, discusses her condition with her doctor, agreeing that Marie's overactive imagination is leading her into some dangerous territory.
The doctor advises Richard to take Marie away from the pressures of her life for a few weeks. Richard locates a cottage in the small town of some hours from Los Angeles. Tom drives Marie there, but departs in the face of Richard. Marie declares it to be perfect; the next day and Richard look around Drago, where they meet the mysterious Eleanor, a local artist who owns a shop of antiques and knick-knacks, the Ormsteads, who run the local store. Marie takes her dog for a walk, becomes distressed when he runs off; that night, Marie dreams of wolves, of herself running through the woods, of the same nun of whom she had visions. Richard drives into Los Angeles for a meeting, Marie spends time chatting with Mrs. Ormstead, who tells her about the previous couple to occupy the cottage, that they left town without a word. Marie is walking home through the woods when she sees before her the nun of her visions, she runs after her – but it turns out to be Eleanor in a dark cape. Eleanor points out a shortcut to the cottage.
She discovers a cave on the way, what's left of her dog. In horror, Marie runs through the woods aware that she is being pursued. At the cottage, Richard sees nothing; the next morning, Marie witnesses a strange apparition: an elderly man and woman who appear in her living-room and who warn her to go away. Marie is momentarily distracted by a car pulling up outside, the next instant her ghostly visitors are gone; the newcomer is Janice Hatch, holidaying in the area and is a fan of Marie's writing. Marie invites her in and, mentions the howling that she hears at night. After some hesitation, Janice reveals that she used to be a nun, that her closest friend, Sister Ruth, disappeared over a year ago, only to be found in Drago speaking incoherently of the devil, a bell, the sound of howling. After a long illness, Ruth died without being able to explain what happened to her. Marie is disturbed by the mention of a nun, becomes more so when Janice shows her a photograph of Sister Ruth: it is the nun from her visions.
Meanwhile, becoming frustrated with Marie's instability and visions, becomes drawn to Eleanor and sleeps with her. Marie learns that all the inhabitants of the village are werewolves and Sister Ruth was babbling "Werewolves here" rather than "We're all in fear" as everyone had assumed; when she tells Richard what she's learned, he angrily dismisses her claims and goes for a walk in the woods by their house. As he's walking, he sees Eleanor waiting for him; as the two begin to get intimate, the evil Eleanor transforms into a werewolf, bites Richard, runs off. He tells Marie he saw the werewolf, but that night after being examined by the town doctor, he claims. Richard begins acting strangely and the next night as he's walking in the woods, transforms into a werewolf as the villagers, who are revealed as werewolves look on and attempt to attack Marie. Marie escapes and following the storyline of the original folk tale she lures the inhabitants to the local church using its bell and burns them all alive, including Richard.
The film ends with a burning werewolf lunging at Marie out of the fire just as she had foretold in her vision. Shooting took place in South Africa; the film's theme song "Something Evil, Something Dangerous" was performed by Justin Hayward, lead singer of The Moody Blues. In Horror Films of the 1980s, author John Kenneth Muir rated it 1.5/4 stars. Scott Aaron Stine wrote in The Gorehound's Guide to Splatter Films of the 1980s that the film is "completely generic" and a rehash of the original. Mike Mayo, who wrote The Horror Show Guide: The Ultimate Frightfest of Movies, called it unsuspenseful and said the film's only connection to the series is its title. Craig J. Clark of The A. V. Club wrote the script, low budget, poor special effects prevent the film from becoming suspenseful. Co-writer Clive Turner appears in the film as a tow truck driver. Turner worked on the subsequent Howling V: The Rebirth, Howling VI: The Freaks and wrote and directed the seventh film in the "Howling" series, The Howling: New Moon Rising.
Howling IV: The Original Nightmare on IMDb Howling IV: The Original Nightmare at AllMovie Howli
Howling III is a 1987 Australian horror sequel to The Howling, directed by Philippe Mora and filmed on location in and around Sydney, Australia. Starring Barry Otto, Imogen Annesley and Max Fairchild, Howling III is the only PG-13 rated entry in the Howling series and the last film in the series to be theatrically released. In this sequel, werewolves have evolved, with females having marsupial pouches to nurse their young. Scientists attempt to study them while soldiers try to track and kill them in the Australian Outback. Although Gary Brandner, author of the Howling novel series, approved the director's purchase of the right to the name The Howling and the screen credits claim that it is based on Brandner's novel The Howling III: Echoes, the novel is set in the United States and has a different story to the film with only slight similarities in terms of plot and a sympathetic view of werewolves; this aspect would be revisited in Howling VI: The Freaks. Harry Beckmeyer, an Australian anthropologist, obtains film footage from 1905 which shows Australian Aborigines ceremonially sacrificing a wolf-like creature.
Alarmed by the reports of a werewolf killing a man in Siberia, Beckmeyer tries to warn the US President about widespread werewolf attacks, but the President is dismissive. Jerboa, a young Australian werewolf, flees Thylo. After spending the night on a park bench near the Sydney Opera House, she is spotted by a young American, Donny Martin, who offers her a role in a horror film, Shape Shifters Part 8. Jack Citron, the film's director, hires her immediately. After Jerboa and Donny attend a film which depicts a werewolf transforming, she insists that "it doesn't happen like that" and admits she is a werewolf to an unbelieving Donny. After they have sex, Donny notices that Jerboa's lower abdomen is covered in downy white fur and a large scar. At the wrap party for the film, Jerboa is exposed to strobe lights which make her start transforming, she is hit by a car. At the hospital, doctors find she has a marsupial pouch and striped fur on her back like a thylacine. Doctors discover that Jerboa is pregnant and question Donny about her unusual anatomy.
Beckmeyer's father disappears in the Outback shortly after recording a film of tribal villagers killing a werewolf. Three of Jerboa's sisters track her to Sydney and take her back to the pack's hidden werewolf town, Flow. Beckmeyer and his colleague Professor Sharp spend the evening watching a visiting ballet troupe practice, they witness the prima ballerina, Russian Olga Gorki, transform into a werewolf, to the horror of her troupe. She is captured and taken to a laboratory but escapes, she makes her way to Flow. Jerboa gives birth to a baby werewolf. Donny informs Beckmeyer that his girlfriend is from Flow and they attempt to find her. Jerboa meets him at night, she tells him about the impending danger. The next morning a government task force captures the werewolf pack. Beckmeyer convinces Olga to allow scientists to study Thylo. After Thylo is tortured with strobe lights to make him transform, Beckmeyer frees Olga; the trio escape into the Outback and find Kendi, Donny and the baby. Kendi summons the spirit of a phantom wolf.
Kendi is cremated. Kendi's skeleton attacks the soldiers before being destroyed by a soldier's machine gun. At night, Thylo summons the spirit and is transformed into a huge wolf who attacks the remaining soldiers before being killed by a bazooka blast that destroys the rest of the encampment. Olga and Beckmeyer hide with Jerboa and Donny at an idyllic riverside camp. Jerboa and Donny leave, assuming new identities. Sharp locates Harry and informs him that all lycanthropes have been given amnesty due to the crimes committed against them; the Beckmeyers move back to the city. While teaching a class in Los Angeles, Beckmeyer is approached by a young man who introduces himself as Zack and Donny's son. Zack informs Beckmeyer that his parents are living in Los Angeles under new identities: Jerboa is now the famous actress "Loretta Carson" and Donny is the famous director "Sully Spellingberg"; that night and Beckmeyer watch Jerboa win a best actress award on a television show hosted by Dame Edna Everage.
As Jerboa accepts the award, the flashing cameras and stage lights cause her to change into a werewolf. Olga transforms, to her husband's dismay. Jerboa goes on the attack as her sisters howl in glee; the final shot is of a thylacine, or Tasmanian tiger, a marsupial carnivore, hunted to extinction by Australian farmers to protect their sheep. Barry Otto as Professor Harry Beckmeyer Imogen Annesley as Jerboa Max Fairchild as Thylo Ralph Cotterill as Professor Sharp Leigh Biolos as Donny Martin Frank Thring as Jack Citron Michael Pate as President Barry Humphries as Academy Awards Presenter Carole Skinner as Yara Brian Adams as General Miller Christopher Pate as Agent Dagmar Bláhová as Olga Gork Burnham Burnham as Kendi Steve Shaw as Horror Movie Actor Bob Barrett as Policeman Fred Welsh as Dan Ruggle John Ewing as General Forster Howling III is considered a stand-alone film in the Howling series. Thoug
Gurdeep Roy, known professionally as Deep Roy, is an Anglo-Indian actor and puppeteer. At four feet, four inches tall, he has been cast as diminutive characters, such as the Oompa-Loompas in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Keenser in Star Trek and subsequent films, in television series such as The X-Files, Doctor Who and Eastbound & Down. Roy was born in Kenya, to Indian parents, he made his professional screen acting debut in a 1976 episode of The New Avengers, titled "Target!" as a character named Klokoe. He would make his film debut that same year, in The Pink Panther Strikes Again, as the Italian Assassin. Another early role was as Mr. Sin, the "pig-brained Peking Homunculus", a villain with a distinct appetite for homicide, in the Doctor Who serial The Talons of Weng-Chiang. In 1979, Roy played a genetically engineered life form "Decima" in the first season Blake's 7 episode "The Web", as well as the diminutive chess genius, "The Klute", in the second season Blake's 7 episode "Gambit".
He has played apes in two movies: Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes and again in the Tim Burton remake of Planet of the Apes in two roles, one as a young gorilla boy and as Thade's niece. He has worked for Burton in three other films, Big Fish and the Chocolate Factory, Corpse Bride, where he supplied General Bonesapart's voice, he played all the Oompa-Loompas in the Chocolate Factory. Deep had extensive training for the role in dance and some minor instrument playing, he has performed many other roles in movies and on television, including The X-Files, Flash Gordon, Return to Oz, Jim Henson's The Dark Crystal as a puppeteer extra, The NeverEnding Story as Teeny Weeny, the rider of the "racing snail", Alien from L. A. Howling VI: The Freaks as Mr Toones and Return of the Jedi as Droopy McCool, he appeared in Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen as an Egyptian border guard and in the film Star Trek as Keenser, Scotty's assistant on the ice planet Delta Vega. In one of his more prominent speaking roles, Roy played Aaron, a violent Mumbai-born Mexican criminal, in second season of the HBO comedy, Eastbound & Down.
Deep starred as Sandeep Majumdar in the 2012 short film The Ballad of Sandeep. The Ballad of Sandeep" — official site for the short film Deep Roy on IMDb Deep Roy at AllMovie Official website
Brendan Hughes known as "The Dark", "Darkie" was a leading Irish republican and former Officer Commanding of the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army. He was the leader of the 1980 Irish hunger strike. Hughes was born into an Irish Nationalist Catholic family from the Lower Falls Road area of Belfast, Northern Ireland, he became a member of the Merchant Navy in the late 1960s, believing it would reduce the income burden on his father. He became involved in the Republican movement after the 1969 riots, believing he would be protecting his community from loyalist mobs, he was a cousin of Charles Hughes, the O/C of D Company in the Provisional IRA Belfast Brigade during the Falls Curfew, was shot and killed in March 1971 by the Official Irish Republican Army's Belfast Brigade during a feud between the Provisional and Official IRAs. Hughes joined the Irish Republican Army in 1969, sided with the Provisional faction in the split of 1969–70, was "on the run" in Belfast by 1970.
From 1970 to 1972 Hughes was involved in a number of attacks on British soldiers and bank robberies to raise funds for the republican movement. Hughes was an excellent military strategist and was key to the IRA's early success in Belfast against the British Army in and around the Falls Road area of Belfast, sometimes carrying out along with his unit as many as five military operations a day against either the British Army or RUC. Hughes described his normal day during that period as "you would have had a call house and you might have robbed a bank in the morning, done a float in the afternoon, stuck a bomb and a booby trap out after that, maybe had a gun battle or two that night."After the IRA - British truce of 1972 broke down in July, Hughes was a IRA commander during the infamous Battle of Lenadoon which spread to other parts of Belfast in which a number civilians, British soldiers, both Republican & Loyalist volunteers were killed & injured in. As Officer Commanding of the Provisional IRA Belfast Brigade, he was the main organiser of Bloody Friday, the biggest bombing attack carried out by the organisation in Belfast.
On 21 July 1972, the IRA exploded 22 bombs all over the city leaving nine people dead, including two British soldiers, an Ulster Defence Association member, two teenage boys, a mother of seven. Hughes regarded the operation as a disaster as he explained in the following interview set up by Boston College I was the operational commander of the "Bloody Friday" operation. I remember when the bombs started to go off, I was in Leeson Street, I thought, "There's too much here". I sort of knew there were going to be casualties, either the Brits could not handle so many bombs or they would allow some to go off because it suited them to have casualties. I feel a bit guilty about it. I have a fair deal of regret that'Bloody Friday' took place...a great deal of regret... If I could do it over again I wouldn't do it. On 19 July 1973 Hughes was arrested on the Falls Road along with Tom Cahill, they were interrogated for more than 12 hours at the Springfield Road Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks and at Castlereagh before being transported to Long Kesh.
On 8 December Hughes escaped inside a rolled-up mattress in the back of a dustcart, fled across the border to Dublin. After ten days he had returned to Belfast after assuming a new identity, becoming a travelling toy salesman named "Arthur McAllister". For five months Hughes lived in Myrtlefield Park near Malone Road, was believed to be the new O/C of the IRA in Belfast following the arrest of Ivor Bell in February. On 10 May 1974, Hughes was arrested following a tip-off, the house was found to contain a submachine gun, four rifles, two pistols and several thousand rounds of ammunition. Hughes was subsequently sentenced to fifteen years in prison. Three years after his arrest Hughes was involved in a fracas, received an additional five-year sentence for assaulting a prison officer; as he was convicted after 1 March 1976, Hughes was transferred from the compounds to the H-Blocks and lost his Special Category Status. He joined the blanket protest. Shortly after arriving in the H-Blocks, Hughes became the O/C of the IRA prisoners, in March 1978 ordered the prisoners to begin the dirty protest.
Whilst in prison Hughes formed a friendship with Shankill Butchers and Ulster Volunteer Force member Robert Bates, who foiled a UVF plot to assassinate Hughes. Hughes was the Officer Commanding during the 1980 hunger strike. Against the wishes of the IRA Army Council, on 27 October 1980, Hughes along with six other republican prisoners, including Tom McFeely, John Nixon, Sean McKenna, Tommy McKearney and Raymond McCartney, refused food and started a hunger strike. During the second month of the hunger strike the British Government, led by Margaret Thatcher, sent an intermediary to inform Hughes of a possible compromise, despite having publicly rejected any compromise. Hughes had promised one of the hunger strikers, Sean McKenna, that if McKenna slipped into a coma that Hughes would end the hunger strike and as McKenna was on the verge of death, Hughes found himself in a dilemma. Hughes ended the hunger strike after 53 days. However, when the document arrived at the prison there was disappointment at the final position of the British government.
Bobby Sands had taken over as leader of the republican prisoners in the prison after Hughes began his strike. O