OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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North Yorkshire Police
North Yorkshire Police is the territorial police force covering the non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire and the unitary authority of York in northern England. The force comprises three area command units; as of March 2013 the force had a strength of 1,370 police officers, 158 Special Constables, 173 PCSOs and 1,095 police staff. The force was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, was a successor to the York and North East Yorkshire Police taking part of the old West Riding Constabulary's area; the York and North East Yorkshire Police had covered the North Riding of Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire and the county borough of York. Proposals made by the Home Secretary on 21 March 2006 would have seen the force merge with West Yorkshire Police, South Yorkshire Police and Humberside Police to form a strategic police force for the entire region. However, these proposals were dropped, it was announced in January 2007 that the Chief Constable, Della Cannings, would be retiring from the force on 16 May 2007 due to illness.
Della Cannings made the headlines on a number of occasions. She was not allowed to purchase wine from Tesco in Northallerton in March 2004 until she had taken off her hat and epaulettes, as it was illegal to sell alcohol to on-duty police officers. In October 2006 it was revealed that more than £28,000 had been spent to refurbish a shower in her office. On 19 April 2007, it was announced that Grahame Maxwell was to become the new Chief Constable of North Yorkshire Police. Grahame Maxwell began his career with Cleveland Police and served in all ranks up to Chief Superintendent when he became District Commander in Middlesbrough. After completing the Strategic Command Course in 2000, he was appointed as an Assistant Chief Constable with West Yorkshire Police and during his four years there served as the ACC Specialist Operations and ACC Territorial Operations. Mr Maxwell was promoted to Deputy Chief Constable with South Yorkshire Police in January 2005 and become the Chief Constable of North Yorkshire Police on 17 May 2007.
Dave Jones QPM, was appointed as chief constable in 2013 after serving as Assistant Chief Constable at the Police Service of Northern Ireland, where he had command of the Rural Division. He was awarded the Queen's Police Medal in the 2017 New Year Honours List and retired from the role in 2018. In July 2017, the force's headquarters was moved from Newby Wiske to Alverton Court in Northallerton; the new headquarters is a brand new, purpose-built facility, designed with the police in mind. The previous headquarters at Newby Wiske is a grade II listed building and was becoming difficult to upgrade into the 21st century; the memorial stones commemorating those who have served the police in the region have been moved to the new headquarters from Newby Wiske. These include those who have died in the First and the Second World Wars and those who have died in the line of duty. In August 2018, it was confirmed that Lisa Winward would become the new chief constable with immediate effect. Winward joined the police in 1993 and has been serving in the North Yorkshire police service since 2008.
Police vehicles used include the Ford Focus and Vauxhall Astra. The "Traffic" section use Audi A4 and BMW 530d. Mercedes and Ford Transit police vans present, as are Nissan 4x4s and Land Rover Discoveries in some areas; the traffic section use motorcycles. The force covers over 6,000 miles of road; the Firearms Support Unit use the BMW X5. The force has a new livery from March 2009, consisting of a high visibility panels of yellow and blue on all vehicles, new vehicles include Ford Focus estates and Ford Transit Connect vans. North Yorkshire Police Authority had 9 councillors, 3 justices of the peace, 5 independent members, it was abolished in November 2012 to be replaced by a Crime Commissioner. 1974–1977: Robert Boyes 1977–1979: John Woodcock 1979–1985: Kenneth Henshaw 1985–1989: Peter Nobes 1989–1998: David Burke 1998–2002: David Kenworthy 2002–2007: Della Cannings 2007–2012: Graham Maxwell 2012–2013: Tim Madgwick 2013–2018: Dave Jones 2018–: Lisa Winward The Police Memorial Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty, since its establishment in 1984 has erected over 38 memorials to some of those officers.
The following officers of North Yorkshire Police are listed by the Trust as having died attempting to prevent, stop or solve a crime, since the turn of the 20th century: Acting DC Norman Garnham, 1977 PC David Ian Haigh, 1982 Sgt David Thomas Winter, 1982 Special Constable Glenn Thomas Goodman, 1992 North Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner List of police forces in the United Kingdom Policing in the United Kingdom North Yorkshire Police North Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner Operation Countryman 2 is Launched
United Kingdom census, 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011, it was the first UK census. The Office for National Statistics is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland is responsible for the census in Scotland, the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland; the Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken. The first results from the 2011 census and sex, occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012; the first results for Scotland, the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013; the Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million. From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, major world events affected the structure of the population.
A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history. The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office, OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body. A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities; when related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years; the design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March.
Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups and businesses; the questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical and genealogy research. The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products. People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope.
Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire. There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920; as at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a criminal record. Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing.
The contract is valued at £150 million one third of the total £1 million census budget
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It comprises most of Yorkshire, as well as North East Lincolnshire, it does not include Middlesbrough and Cleveland or other areas of Yorkshire, such as Sedbergh not included in the aforementioned administrative areas. The largest settlements are, Sheffield, Bradford and York; the population in 2011 was 5,284,000. The committees for the regions, including the one for Yorkshire and the Humber, ceased to exist upon the dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010. Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, the Government Offices were abolished in 2011. Scammonden Dam, is the highest dam in UK at 73 metres, Dean Head cutting is the deepest roadway cutting in Europe at 183 ft, at Scammonden Bridge, on the M62. Sutton-under-Whitestonecliffe claims to be longest place name in England. In the Yorkshire and the Humber region, there is a close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.
The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic; the North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age, while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands. The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at 737 metres; the region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire, the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse, which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary; the most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure; the River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York. The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck; the River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.
The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse. The most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole; the River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south westwards through the Vale of Pickering turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh. In the far north of the county, the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough; the smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby. To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds, the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull; the western Pennines are served by the River Ribble, which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes. The lower stretches of the River Trent flow through North Lincolnshire and meet the Ouse at Trent Falls.
The largest freshwater lake in the region is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire. This region of England has cool summers and mild winters, with the upland areas of the North York Moors and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season; the latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather in winter. Between depressions, there are small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude, this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a seasonal basis. Cities such as Sheffield and Bradford are cooler due to their inland and upland location, while York and Wakefield are warmer due to their lowland location.
The temperature is lower at night. Snow is not uncommon in the winter, Yorkshire is hilly/mountainous, the Yorkshire Dales and the Pennines can have extreme snowstorms with high snowdrifts. Inland/upland settlements, such as Skipton or Ilkley, have more snow than coastal towns. Hull and Scarborough have less snow. Climate data for settlements in the region: There are seven cities in Yorkshire and the Humber: Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Ripon, Sheffield and York. Large towns in the area include Barnsley, Grimsby, Harrogate and Scunthorpe. Leeds is the largest settlement and the largest part of an urban area with a population of 1.5 million. Leeds is now one of the largest financial centres in the United Kingdom. Sheffield is a large manufacturing centre. Bradford was a textile manufacturing city; as jobs moved offshore the decline of this industry has resulted in a more diverse economy. Kingston upon Hull is the main port in the region and a notable fishing harbou
Ryedale is a non-metropolitan district of the shire county of North Yorkshire in England. It is in the Vale of a low-lying flat area of land drained by the River Derwent; the Vale's landscape is rural with small market towns. It has been inhabited continuously from the Mesolithic period; the economy is agricultural with light industry and tourism playing an increasing role. Market towns include Helmsley, Malton, Norton-on-Derwent, Pickering. Part of Ryedale lies within the North York Moors National Park. In the 2011 Census, the population of this rural area of 150,659 hectares, the largest district in North Yorkshire, was 51,700; the name refers to the River Rye and was used for the Ryedale wapentake of Yorkshire, which covered the same area. The current district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, was a merger of urban district of Norton and Norton Rural District, from the historic East Riding of Yorkshire, along with the urban districts of Malton and Pickering with Flaxton Rural District, Helmsley Rural District, Kirkbymoorside Rural District, Malton Rural District and Pickering Rural District, all from the North Riding of Yorkshire.
In the Middle Ages, there were markets in several Ryedale villages, Pickering and Helmsley. A monastery was built at Lastingham in 654. Over the centuries, Celts and Anglo Saxons all inhabited the area around Pickering; the district had many ancient Saxon churches and some can still be visited, including St Peter's in Scrayingham, St Martin's in Wharram Percy, St Martins in Bulmer, St Helens in Amotherby, All Saints in Appleton-le-Street, St Peter and St Paul's Church, All Saints in Hovingham, Holy Trinity in Stonegrave, St Gregory's Minster, Kirkdale built around 1055-1065, All Saints in Sinnington and St Andrews in Ailsby/Middleton. The Kirkdale sundial above St Gregory's door dates to the 11th century,Several abbies and priories were built in the 12th century, including Kirkham Priory, the large Byland Abbey, Ampleforth Abbey, now the site of the Catholic Ampleforth College, the finest ruined abbey in Yorkshire Rievaulx Abbey near Helmsley. All can be seen but all except Ampleforth are ruins.
Ryedale has two impressive castles, both now ruins. The traditional style Pickering Castle was a royal hunting lodge with a moat while Helmsley Castle was a fine medieval structure with double earthworks; the latter was extensively damaged during the Civil War, in 1644. Since the last election in 2015 one Conservative seat was lost to the Liberal Party in a by-election. Seven former Conservative councillors have joined the Independents; the Conservatives are nonetheless the largest party on the council. The district is a stronghold for the Liberal Party who are the second largest political party on the council; the district lost about half its population in 1996, when an expanded City of York became a unitary authority the parishes of Clifton Without, Haxby, Heworth Without, Huntington, New Earswick, Rawcliffe, Stockton-on-the-Forest, Strensall and Wigginton. According to the 2001 census, these parishes combined had a population of 50,163, compared to the population of the rump Ryedale district of 50,872.
The market towns of Helmsley, Kirkbymoorside and Malton are the largest centres of population in the Ryedale District with about half of the population living there. The eastern part of the area is dominated by the influence of Scarborough; each of the market towns within the Ryedale District has areas set aside for industrial use and small firms engaged in light industry and the service industries occupy these. The largest employer in the district is the pork processor Karro Food Group, now employing around 1,100 people in this location; the village of Sherburn in eastern Ryedale is home to factories of both Severfield and the Kingspan Group who purchased the local award Brothers steelworks business. The Kingspan factory hosts a 5MW solar array, one of the largest commercial rooftop solar projects in the UK. Georgia Horsley, Miss England 2007 One Night Only, Indie-pop band Richard Buck, UK athlete James Norton, Actor Ryan Swain Television & Radio Presenter For all districts in the Yorkshire and the Humber region, Ryedale has the lowest rate of teenage pregnancy.
Ryedale – Home of Kirkbymoorside Town Brass Band Ryedale.co.uk Promoting Ryedale Ryedale District Council YouTube channel Visit Ryedale – Official Tourist Information for Ryedale, North Yorkshire
The York–Scarborough line runs between the city of York and the town of Scarborough. Towns and villages served along the way are Norton-on-Derwent and Seamer; the line was built by George Hudson's York and North Midland Railway and opened on 7 July 1845. The line was constructed remarkably by the standards of the time, taking just one year and three days to complete the 42-mile route; this feat was possible because the Y&NMR decided against the more costly and time-consuming option of building a tunnel through the Howardian Hills south of Malton. Instead the chosen route meanders with the River Derwent for around four miles, creating a slower but more scenically pleasant experience for passengers The railway line was opened with a ceremony for invited guests who were taken by George Hudson on a train of two engines and 40 first class coaches, which left York at 11.00 am. The line was single track and the journey to Scarborough took three and a half hours. In Scarborough the guests were treated to a lunch.
After a return journey to York, the guests were treated to dinner in the Guildhall, hosted by the Lord Mayor of York. The new railway included a 6-mile branch from Rillington to Pickering that connected with the horse-worked Whitby and Pickering Railway which the Y&NMR proceeded to take over and upgrade for steam traction. Most of the intermediate stations on the line were closed to passengers in September 1930 as the number of excursion and holiday trains going straight through to Scarborough during that period meant that the line was too busy to accommodate local services; the closed stations retained their goods facilities and were maintained for occasional passenger use by excursion trains until the 1960s. There are plans to re-open the stations at Haxby and Strensall due to the growth of population in those areas. There have been suggestions to re-open these stations since 1990 when it was pointed out that if they were inside a metropolitan county they would be re-opened quickly. In January 2009 funding to re-open Haxby station was confirmed but the Strensall plan has yet to come to fruition.
In 2014, work started on replacing the 1840s built bridge that carries the railway over the River Ouse. Network Rail spent £6 million on the entire project and used boats and pontoons floated on the River Ouse to reach the bridge; the new bridge opened to traffic on 23 February 2015. The route has 89 level crossings between Scarborough. All supervised and automatic crossings and the residual seven signal boxes en route will be closed and control handed over to the York Rail Operating Centre by 2025. Services operated along this line are run by TransPennine Express. Services are hourly and operate to and from either York, Manchester or Liverpool with a reduced service on Sundays; this is part of the North TransPennine route. Rolling stock on this line has consisted entirely of Class 185 DMUs since early 2007. East Midlands Trains run occasional summer services; the new Northern franchise run by Arriva Rail North will begin running services over the line from December 2017. Scarborough sees steam-hauled summer specials from York, hauled by various preserved steam locomotives.
There is talk of reinstating the pre-1965 link to Pickering to connect the North Yorkshire Moors Railway to the national network from its southern end, Allowing trains from Malton and beyond to reach Whitby. Such a move has been considered but does not seem for the foreseeable future. On 25 August 1845 the 12.15 train from York came off the rails a quarter of a mile south of Kirkham Abbey, in the vicinity of Crambe, due to subsidence of an embankment beside the River Derwent. Thomas Cabry was on the engine and hurt his foot in the process.. On 3 February 2009, a car hit the back of a train passing over Knapton level crossing; the driver was taken to hospital. There were no casualties on the train; the level crossing is an AHBC – automatic half barrier crossing. Details of proposals to construct halt at Scarborough Mere Passenger Numbers 1900 - 1934
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri