The Cassiar Mountains are the most northerly group of the Northern Interior Mountains in the Canadian province of British Columbia and extend into the southernmost Yukon Territory. They lie north and west of the Omineca Mountains, west of the northernmost Rockies and the Rocky Mountain Trench, north of the Hazelton Mountains and east of the Boundary Ranges, they form a section of the Continental Divide, that, in this region, separates water drainage between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Yukon-Tanana Uplands province, which in turn are part of the larger Intermontane Plateaus physiographic division. In the western Cassiar Mountains lie the remnants of a prehistoric shield volcano called the Maitland Volcano which formed between 5 and 4 million years ago during the Pliocene period; the highest mountain in the Cassiar Mountains is Thudaka Peak, at 2,748 m. Dease Plateau Horseranch Range Kechika Ranges Mount Skook Davidson Sifton Ranges Cormier Range Ruby Range Stikine Ranges Beady Range Nisutlin Plateau Skree Range Three Sisters Range Thudaka Range Thudaka Peak Tuya Range Ash Mountain "Cassiar Mountains".
BC Geographical Names. Holland, S.. Landforms of British Columbia. Province of British Columbia
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
The Hazelton Mountains are a grouping of mountain ranges on the inland lee of the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains in northwestern British Columbia, spanning the area of Hazelton south to the Nechako Reservoir. Defined by the British Columbia geographic names office, they span from the Nass River to the Nechako Plateau, between the Coast Mountains and the Bulkley River, they are considered by geographers to be part of the Interior Mountains complex, though in local perspective they are considered to be part of the Coast Mountains, they are neighboured on the west by the Kitimat Ranges and on the east by the southernmost section of the Skeena Mountains. To their southeast is the Nechako Plateau, including the Quanchus Range on the near-island between Ootsa and Eutsuk Lakes of the Nechako Reservoir; the Hazelton Mountains consist of several subranges:North of the Skeena River: Nass Ranges, between the Kitsumkalum and Kitwanga Rivers. The Nass Ranges include an active volcano which killed 2,000 Nisga'a people.
Kispiox Range, east of the Kitwanga River to the Skeena River. The town of Hazelton, British Columbia is at the range's southeast corner. South of the Skeena River and west of the Bulkley River: Bulkley Ranges, the highest summit is Seven Sisters Peaks, 2,786 m, southwest of Kitwanga, and, the highest summit of the Hazelton Mountains, they include the: Bornite Range Howson Range, the highest summit of, Howson Peak, 2,759 m O. K. Range Rocher Déboulé Range Telkwa Range Tahtsa Ranges, including the: Chikamin Range Kasalka Range Morice Range Sibola Range Tochquonyalla Range Whitesail Range Pattullo Range
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
This article is about a certain group of mountain ranges in the Northern Interior of British Columbia and southern Yukon, as defined by a government-commissioned geographic study which forms the basis for the provincial gazette. For other mountain ranges of the British Columbia Interior and southern Yukon see Rocky Mountains, Columbia Mountains, Cascade Mountains and the subranges listed on the Interior Plateau article. For the region of British Columbia known as "The Interior", see British Columbia Interior; the Interior Mountains called the Northern Interior Mountains and Interior Ranges, are the semi-official names for a huge area that comprises much of the northern two thirds of the Canadian province of British Columbia and a large area of southern Yukon. There are four main groupings, the Skeena and Omineca Mountains to the north of the Interior Plateau between the Coast Mountains to the west and the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Hazelton Mountains along the Interior Plateau's northwestern flank against the Coast Mountains, extending from the Bulkley Ranges south to the Bella Coola River.
Included within the Interior Mountains system is the Stikine Plateau, which contains a number of sub-plateaus and various mountain ranges and is located west of the Cassiars, north of the Skeenas, to the east of the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains. Most of the thousands of summits in the Interior Mountains are unnamed, they are uninhabited and undeveloped. Notable summits and features, if any, are included. Horseranch Range Cormier Range Ruby Range Beady Range Nisutlin Plateau Skree Range Three Sisters Range Thudaka Range Thudaka Peak Tuya Range Ash Mountain Tuya Butte Tseax Cone Kispiox Mountain Bornite Range Howson Range Howson Peak O. K. Range Rocher Déboulé Range Telkwa Range Chikamin Range Kasalka Range Morice Range Sibola Range Tochquonyalla Range Whitesail Range Butler Range Russel Range Axelgold Range Cariboo Heart Range Connelly Range Mitchell Range Sikanni Range Sitlika Range Vital Range Espee Range Fishing Range Germansen Range Ingenika Range Kwanika Range Kwun Yotasi Range Lay Range McConnell Range Osilinka Ranges Peak Range Tenakihi Range Tucha Range Wolverine Range Wrede Range Atna Range Shedin Peak Babine Range Bait Range Driftwood Range Klappan Range Oweegee Range Sicintine Range Slamgeesh Range Strata Range Takla Range Heart Peaks Level Mountain Level Mountain Range Meszah Peak Eaglenest Range NB sometimes defined as part of the Coast MountainsBennett Range Sloko Range White Range NB sometimes defined as part of the Coast MountainsSpectrum Range Mount Edziza Eve Cone Grand Canyon of the Stikine NB sometimes defined as part of the Yukon PlateauChutine Range Menatatuline Range French Range Hotailuh Range Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site Atlin Provincial Park and Recreation Area Babine Lake Marine Provincial Park Babine Mountains Provincial Park Babine River Corridor Provincial Park Bear Glacier Provincial Park Boya Lake Provincial Park Bulkley Junction Provincial Park Call Lake Provincial Park Chase Provincial Park Chukachida River Protected Area Damdochax Protected Area Denetiah Provincial Park Driftwood Canyon Provincial Park Dune Za Keyih Provincial Park and Protected Area Ed Bird-Estella Provincial Park Finlay-Russel Provincial Park and Protected Area Iskut River Hot Springs Provincial Park Kinaskan Lake Provincial Park Little Andrews Bay Marine Provincial Park Meziadin Lake Provincial Park Mount Blanchet Provincial Park Mount Edziza Provincial Park and Recreation Area Nation Lakes Provincial Park Netalzul Meadows Provincial Park Nilkitkwa Lake Provincial Park Ningunsaw Provincial Park Omineca Provincial Park and Protected Area Pitman River Protected Area Rainbow Alley Provincial Park Ross Lake Provincial Park Rubyrock Lake Provincial Park Seeley Lake Provincial Park Seven Sisters Provincial Park and Protected Area Spatsizi Headwaters Provincial Park Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness Provincial Park Sustut Provincial Park and Protected Area Swan Lake/Kispiox River Provincial Park Tatlatui Provincial Park Todagin South Slope Provincial Park Tuya Mountains Provincial Park Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park Tyhee Lake Provincial Park Wistaria Provincial Park Sacred Headwaters Interior Plateau S. Holland, Landforms of British Columbia, Province of British Columbia, 1976