Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland. It was founded in 1889, it works to promote conservation and protection of birds and the wider environment through public awareness campaigns and through the operation of nature reserves throughout the United Kingdom. The RSPB has over 1,300 employees, 18,000 volunteers and more than a million members, making it the largest wildlife conservation charity in Europe; the RSPB maintains 200 nature reserves. The origins of the RSPB lie with two groups of women, both formed in 1889; the Plumage League was founded by Emily Williamson at her house in Didsbury, Manchester, as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. The Fur and Feather Folk was founded in Croydon by Eliza Phillips, Etta Lemon, Catherine Hall and others; the groups gained in popularity and amalgamated in 1891 to form the Society for the Protection of Birds in London.
The Society gained its Royal Charter in 1904. The original members of the RSPB were all women who campaigned against the fashion of the time for women to wear exotic feathers in hats, the consequent encouragement of "plume hunting". To this end the Society had two simple rules: That Members shall discourage the wanton destruction of Birds, interest themselves in their protection That Lady-Members shall refrain from wearing the feathers of any bird not killed for purposes of food, the ostrich only excepted. At the time of founding, the trade in plumage for use in hats was large: in the first quarter of 1884 7,000 bird-of-paradise skins were being imported to Britain, along with 400,000 birds from West India and Brazil, 360,000 birds from East India. In 1890, the society published its first leaflet, entitled Destruction of Ornamental-Plumaged Birds, aimed at saving the egret population by informing wealthy women of the environmental damage wrought by the use of feathers in fashion. A 1897 publication, Bird Food in Winter, aimed to address the use of berries as winter decoration and encouraged the use of synthetic berries to preserve the birds food source.
By 1898 the RSPB had 20,000 members and in 1897 alone had distributed over 16,000 letters and 50,000 leaflets. The Society attracted support from some women of high social standing who belonged to the social classes that popularised the wearing of feathered hats, including the Duchess of Portland and the Ranee of Sarawak; as the organisation began to attract the support of many other influential figures, both male and female, such as the ornithologist Professor Alfred Newton, it gained in popularity and attracted many new members. The society received a Royal Charter in 1904 from Edward VII, just 15 years after its founding, was instrumental in petitioning the Parliament of the United Kingdom to introduce laws banning the use of plumage in clothing. At the time that the Society was founded in Britain, similar societies were founded in other European countries. In 1961, the society acquired The Lodge in Bedfordshire as its new headquarters; the RSPB's logo depicts an Avocet. The first version was designed by Robert Gillmor.
Today, the RSPB works with both the civil service and the Government to advise Government policies on conservation and environmentalism. It is one of several organisations that determine the official conservation status list for all birds found in the UK; the RSPB offer animal rescue services. The RSPB maintains over 200 reserves throughout the United Kingdom, covering a wide range of habitats, from estuaries and mudflats to forests and urban habitats; the reserves have bird hides provided for birdwatchers and many provide visitor centres, which include information about the wildlife that can be seen there. The RSPB confers awards, including the President's Award, for volunteers who make a notable contribution to the work of the society. According to the RSPB: The RSPB Medal is the Society's most prestigious award, it is presented to an individual in recognition of wild bird protection and countryside conservation. It is awarded annually to one or two people; the RSPB has published a members-only magazine for over a century.
Bird Notes and News was first published in April 1903. The title changed to Bird Notes in 1947. In the 1950s, there were four copies per year; each volume covered two years, spread over three calendar years. For example, volume XXV, number one was dated Winter 1951, number eight in the same volume was dated Autumn 1953. From the mid-1950s, many of the covers were by Charles Tunnicliffe. Two of the originals are on long-term loan to the Tunnicliffe gallery at Oriel Ynys Môn, but in 1995 the RSPB sold 114 at a Sotheby's auction, raising £210,000, the most expensive being a picture of a partridge which sold for £6,440. From January 1964, publication increased to six per year. Volumes again covered two years, so vol. 30, covering 1962–63, therefore included nine issues, ending with the "Winter 1963–64" edition instead of eight. The final edition, vol. 31 no. 12, was published in late 1965. Miss M. G. Davies, BA, MBOU John Clegg Jeremy Boswell Bird Notes' successor Birds replaced it with volume 1, number 1 being the January
Orkney known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of the isle of Great Britain. Orkney is 10 miles north of the coast of Caithness and comprises 70 islands, of which 20 are inhabited; the largest island, Mainland, is referred to as "the Mainland", has an area of 523 square kilometres, making it the sixth-largest Scottish island and the tenth-largest island in the British Isles. The largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall. Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a lieutenancy area, a historic county; the local council is Orkney Islands Council, one of only three Councils in Scotland with a majority of elected members who are independents. A form of the name dates to the pre-Roman era and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8,500 years occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes and by the Picts. Orkney was colonized and annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse.
The Scottish Parliament annexed the earldom to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James III's bride Margaret of Denmark. In addition to the Mainland, most of the islands are in two groups, the North and South Isles, all of which have an underlying geological base of Old Red Sandstone; the climate is mild and the soils are fertile, most of the land being farmed. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy; the significant wind and marine energy resources are of growing importance, the island generates more than its total yearly electricity demand using renewables. The local people are known as Orcadians and have a distinctive dialect of the Scots language and a rich inheritance of folklore. Orkney contains some of the oldest and best-preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site and there is an abundance of marine and avian wildlife. Pytheas of Massilia visited Britain – sometime between 322 and 285 BC – and described it as triangular in shape, with a northern tip called Orcas.
This may have referred to Dunnet Head. Writing in the 1st century AD, the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela called the islands Orcades, as did Tacitus in 98 AD, claiming that his father-in-law Agricola had "discovered and subjugated the Orcades hitherto unknown" Etymologists interpret the element orc- as a Pictish tribal name meaning "young pig" or "young boar". Speakers of Old Irish referred to the islands as Insi Orc "island of the pigs"; the archipelago is known as Ynysoedd Erch in modern Welsh and Arcaibh in modern Scottish Gaelic, the -aibh representing a fossilized prepositional case ending. Some earlier sources alternately hypothesize that Orkney comes from whale; the Anglo-Saxon monk Bede refers to the islands as Orcades insulae in his seminal work Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Norwegian settlers arriving from the late ninth century reinterpreted orc as the Old Norse orkn "seal" and added eyjar "islands" to the end so the name became Orkneyjar "Seal Islands"; the plural suffix -jar was removed in English leaving the modern name "Orkney".
According to the Historia Norwegiæ, Orkney was named. The Norse knew Mainland, Orkney as Megenland "Mainland" or as Hrossey "Horse Island"; the island is sometimes referred to as Pomona, a name that stems from a sixteenth-century mistranslation by George Buchanan, used locally. A charred hazelnut shell, recovered in 2007 during excavations in Tankerness on the Mainland has been dated to 6820–6660 BC indicating the presence of Mesolithic nomadic tribes; the earliest known permanent settlement is at Knap of Howar, a Neolithic farmstead on the island of Papa Westray, which dates from 3500 BC. The village of Skara Brae, Europe's best-preserved Neolithic settlement, is believed to have been inhabited from around 3100 BC. Other remains from that era include the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Maeshowe passage grave, the Ring of Brodgar and other standing stones. Many of the Neolithic settlements were abandoned around 2500 BC due to changes in the climate. During the Bronze Age fewer large stone structures were built although the great ceremonial circles continued in use as metalworking was introduced to Britain from Europe over a lengthy period.
There are few Orcadian sites dating from this era although there is the impressive Plumcake Mound near the Ring of Brodgar and various islands sites such as Tofts Ness on Sanday and the remains of two houses on Holm of Faray. Excavations at Quanterness on the Mainland have revealed an Atlantic roundhouse built about 700 BC and similar finds have been made at Bu on the Mainland and Pierowall Quarry on Westray; the most impressive Iron Age structures of Orkney are the ruins of round towers called "brochs" and their associated settlements such as the Broch of Burroughston and Broch of Gurness. The nature and origin of these buildings is a subject of ongoing debate. Other structures from this period include underground storehouses, aisled roundhouses, the latter in association with earlier broch sites. During the Roman invasion of Britain the "King of Orkney" was one of 11 British leaders, said to have submitted to the Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at Colchester. After the Agricolan fleet had come and gone anchoring at Shapinsay, direct Roman influence seems to have been limited to trade rather than conquest.
By the late Iron Age, Orkney was part of the Pictish kingdom, although the archaeological remains from this period are less
William Richard Lethaby was an English architect and architectural historian whose ideas were influential on the late Arts and Crafts and early Modern movements in architecture, in the fields of conservation and art education. Lethaby was born in Barnstaple, the son of a fiercely Liberal craftsman and lay preacher. After an early apprenticeship with a local architect he found work in London in 1879 as Chief Clerk to architect Richard Norman Shaw. Shaw recognized Lethaby's talent as a designer and Lethaby was to contribute significant pieces of work to major Shaw-designed buildings such as Scotland Yard in London and Cragside in Northumberland. While working for Shaw, Lethaby became involved in the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, which campaigned to preserve the integrity and authenticity of older buildings against the Victorian practice of'improving' them to the point of completely rebuilding and redesigning them. Through this he became a personal friend of Arts and Crafts Movement pioneers William Morris and Philip Webb, becoming a significant and influential member of their circle and acting as co-founder of the Art Workers Guild in 1884.
He was a lifelong socialist. The Guild was formed from a nucleus drawn from two separate groups, the St George’s Art Society, a group of architects who had seen service in the offices of Norman Shaw, including Ernest Newton, Mervyn Macartney, Reginald Barratt, Edwin Hardy and Edward Schroeder Prior, the Fifteen, founded by the designer and writer Lewis Day and the illustrator and designer Walter Crane. Prior wrote the prospectus for the Guild, it met in Newton’s chambers by St George’s Church, Bloomsbury. From 1889 Lethaby worked only part-time for Shaw and practiced independently, designing a wide range of products—books and stained glass as well as buildings—exploring the mystical symbolism of medieval and non-European design and architecture: themes he was to elaborate in his first and most famous book Architecture and Myth, published in 1891; this was the first major work of architectural theory to treat architecture as a system of symbols with identifiable philosophical meanings, rather than as abstract systems of aesthetic principles.
Lethaby left Shaw's practice in 1892 after the completion of his first major independent architectural project—the country estate of Avon Tyrrell in Hampshire, built for Lord Manners. The next decade was Lethaby's most productive in terms of built works as his contacts in the Birmingham area, where the ideas of the arts and crafts movement were well received, led to series of commissions for buildings in the Midlands or for Birmingham-based clients, he built Monkwood Cottage, Essex, for his friend, Hubert Llewellyn Smith. In 1894 Lethaby was appointed Art Inspector to the Technical Education Board of the newly formed London County Council. Here he had a pioneering role in developing education in the fine and practical arts, most notably as the founder of the Central School of Arts and Crafts in 1896, his most significant innovations lay in breaking down academic barriers between design and production. Lethaby believed that this was an artificial distinction and sought to have both taught as valuable parts of the process of producing a high quality end-product.
In 1901 Lethaby was appointed the first Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art. This, coupled with his appointments as Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts in 1902 and as Surveyor of Westminster Abbey in 1906 meant that he was devoted to the academic study of the theory and history of architecture and design, he ceased architectural practice around this time, though he remained an immensely influential figure through his writings and teaching. Lethaby's role as a guide and mentor to German Cultural Attaché Hermann Muthesius during his investigations into English architecture was to prove significant in the light of Muthesius's role as an influence on the early pioneers of the Bauhaus. At Westminster Abbey, Lethaby was able to put into practice his belief in sympathetic and accurate restoration, conducting extensive research into the history of its structure and design and setting the template that the restoration and preservation of historic buildings was to follow for the rest of the century.
Lethaby died on 17 July 1931 at Bayswater in Middlesex. He was buried in the churchyard of St Mary's Church at Hartley Wintney in Hampshire. Lethaby turned it down, he is the last person to have done so. Lethaby has traditionally been seen by figures such as Nikolaus Pevsner as significant in his role as a precursor of the early modern movement, he was the acknowledged theorist behind the work of Ernest Gimson and the group of architect-craftsmen who worked with him in Sapperton, intent to found a "school of rational building". Lethaby's emphasis on "good, honest building" is viewed as making explicit the functionalism implicit in the writings and architecture of Pugin and Philip Webb, with his connection to Muthesius as the means through which this idea was to influence the German modernist pioneers. Avon Tyrrell House, near Burley, Hampshire The Hurst, Hartopp Road, Four Oaks, Birmingham - demolished 122-124 Colmore Row, Birmingham Melsetter House, Gatehouse and Chapel, Orkney High Coxlease House, Hampshire All Saints Church, Brock
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.
Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems; the overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately added to molten copper to make bronze alloy; the Bronze Age was a time of developing trade networks. A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik, although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age; the dating of the foil has been disputed. Western Asia and the Near East was the first region to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes and nation states and empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification and civil administration and practiced organized warfare and religion. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and astrology. Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as following: The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant conjectured to have been associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC.
Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. Arzawa was the western neighbor – sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal – of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms; the Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I, around 1400 BC. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa located to its north, it bordered it, may be an alternative term for it. In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king.
Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time; the Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the early part of it; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when the rule of Egypt was divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. These two kingdoms would come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt laste
The common murre or common guillemot is a large auk. It is known as the thin-billed murre in North America, it has a circumpolar distribution, occurring in low-Arctic and boreal waters in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. It spends most of its time at sea, only coming to land to breed on rocky cliff islands. Common murres have fast direct flight but are not agile, they are more manoeuvrable underwater diving to depths of 30–60 m. Depths of up to 180 m have been recorded. Common murres breed in colonies at high densities. Nesting pairs may be in bodily contact with their neighbours, they make no nest. Eggs hatch after ~30 days incubation; the chick can regulate its body temperature after 10 days. Some 20 days after hatching the chick leaves its nesting ledge and heads for the sea, unable to fly, but gliding for some distance with fluttering wings, accompanied by its male parent. Chicks are capable of diving; the female stays at the nest site for some 14 days. Both male and female common murres become flightless for 1 -- 2 months.
In southern populations they return to the nest site throughout the winter. Northern populations spend the winter farther from their colonies; the auks are a family of seabirds related to the terns which contains several genera. The common murre is placed in the guillemot genus Uria, which it shares with the thick-billed murre or Brunnich's guillemot, U. lomvia. These species, together with the razorbill, little auk and the extinct great auk make up the tribe Alcini; this arrangement was based on analyses of auk morphology and ecology. The binomial name derives from Greek ouriaa, a waterbird mentioned by Athenaeus, Danish aalge, "auk"; the English "guillemot" is from French guillemot derived from Guillaume, "William". "Murre" may imitate the call of the common guillemot. The common murre is 38–46 cm in length with a 61–73 cm wingspan. Male and female are indistinguishable in the field and weight ranges between 945 g in the south of their range to 1,044 g in the north. A weight range of 775–1,250 g has been reported.
In breeding plumage, the nominate subspecies is black on the head and wings, has white underparts. It has a small rounded dark tail. After the pre-basic moult, the face is white with a dark spur behind the eye. Birds of the subspecies U. a. albionis are dark brown rather than black, most so in colonies in southern Britain. Legs are grey and the bill is dark grey. Adults are seen with yellow/grey legs. In May 2008, an aberrant adult was photographed with a bright yellow bill; the plumage of first winter birds is the same as the adult basic plumage. However, the first pre-alternate moult occurs in the year; the adult pre-alternate moult is December–February. First year birds can be in basic plumage as late as May, their alternate plumage can retain some white feathers around the throat; some individuals in the North Atlantic, known as "bridled guillemots", have a white ring around the eye extending back as a white line. This is not a distinct subspecies, but a polymorphism that becomes more common the farther north the birds breed—perhaps character displacement with the northerly thick-billed murre, which has a white bill-stripe but no bridled morph.
The white is contrasting in the latter species and would provide an easy means for an individual bird to recognize conspecifics in densely packed breeding colonies. The chicks are downy with blackish feathers on white below. By 12 days old, contour feathers are well developed in areas except for the head. At 15 days, facial feathers show the dark eyestripe against the white cheek; the common murre has a flight speed of 80 km/h. Groups of birds are seen flying together in a line just above the sea surface. However, a high wing loading of 2 g/cm2 means that this species is not agile and take-off is difficult. Common murres become flightless for 45–60 days while moulting their primary feathers; the common murre is a pursuit-diver that forages for food by swimming underwater using its wings for propulsion. Dives last less than one minute, but the bird swims underwater for distances of over 30 m on a regular basis. Diving depths up to 180 m have been recorded and birds can remain underwater for a couple of minutes.
The breeding habitat is islands, rocky shores and sea stacks. The range is: Some birds are permanent residents. Common murres rest on the water in the winter and this may have consequences for their metabolism. In the black-legged kittiwake resting metabolism is 40 % higher on water; the population is large 7.3 million breeding pairs or 18 million individuals. It had been stable, but in 2016 a massive die-off of the birds in the northeast Pacific was reported; the birds seem starving. In general, potential threats include excessive hunting and oil spills; the common murre can venture far from its breeding grounds to forage. The common
The peregrine falcon known as the peregrine, as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, a black head, it is believed to be the fastest bird in the world. According to a National Geographic TV programme, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h; as is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom; the peregrine's breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions high mountains, most tropical rainforests; this makes it the world's most widespread raptor, one of the most found bird species. In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always occurring, but one introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species.
The peregrine is a successful example of urban wildlife in much of its range, taking advantage of tall buildings as nest sites and an abundance of prey such as pigeons and ducks. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean "wandering falcon," referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. Experts recognize 17 to 19 subspecies, which vary in range; the two species' divergence is recent, during the time of the last ice age, therefore the genetic differential between them is tiny. They are only about 0.6–0.8% genetically differentiated. While its diet consists exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or insects. Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures; the peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread use of certain pesticides DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the early 1970s, populations have recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
The peregrine falcon is a well respected falconry bird due to its strong hunting ability, high trainability, – in recent years – availability via captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large; the peregrine falcon has a wingspan from 74 to 120 cm. The male and female have similar markings and plumage, but as in many birds of prey the peregrine falcon displays marked sexual dimorphism in size, with the female measuring up to 30% larger than the male. Males weigh the noticeably larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 g. In most subspecies, males weigh less than 700 g and females weigh more than 800 g, with cases of females weighing about 50% more than their male breeding mates not uncommon; the standard linear measurements of peregrines are: the wing chord measures 26.5 to 39 cm, the tail measures 13 to 19 cm and the tarsus measures 4.5 to 5.6 cm. The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are bluish black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring; the white to rusty underparts are barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black.
The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the end. The top of the head and a "moustache" along the cheeks are black, contrasting with the pale sides of the neck and white throat; the cere is yellow, as are the feet, the beak and claws are black. The upper beak is notched near the tip, an adaptation which enables falcons to kill prey by severing the spinal column at the neck; the immature bird is much browner with streaked, rather than barred and has a pale bluish cere and orbital ring. Falco peregrinus was first described under its current binomial name by English ornithologist Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 work Ornithologia Britannica; the scientific name Falco peregrinus is a Medieval Latin phrase, used by Albertus Magnus in 1225. The specific name is taken from the fact that juvenile birds were taken while journeying to their breeding location rather than from the nest, as falcon nests were difficult to get at.
The Latin term for falcon, falco, is related to falx, meaning "sickle", in reference to the silhouette of the falcon's long, pointed wings in flight. The peregrine falcon belongs to a genus whose lineage includes the hierofalcons and the prairie falcon; this lineage diverged from other falcons towards the end of the Late Miocene or in the Early Pliocene, about 5–8 million years ago. As the peregrine-hierofalcon group includes both Old World and North American species, it is that the lineage originated in western Eurasia or Africa, its relationship to other falcons is not clear, as the issue is complicated by widespread hybridization confounding mtDNA sequence analyses. For example, a genetic lineage of the saker falcon is known which origina