The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia; the Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to 4,862 feet in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they slope down into the associated Allegheny Plateau, which extends into Ohio and Kentucky; the principal settlements of the Alleghenies are Altoona, State College, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The name is derived from the Allegheny River, which drains only a small portion of the Alleghenies in west-central Pennsylvania.
The meaning of the word, which comes from the Lenape Indians, is not definitively known but is translated as "fine river". A Lenape legend tells of an ancient tribe called the "Allegewi" who lived on the river and were defeated by the Lenape. Allegheny is the early French spelling, Allegany is closer to the early English spelling; the word "Allegheny" was once used to refer to the whole of what are now called the Appalachian Mountains. John Norton used it around 1810 to refer to the mountains in Georgia. Around the same time, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In 1861, Arnold Henry Guyot published the first systematic geologic study of the whole mountain range, his map labeled the range as the "Alleghanies", but his book was titled On the Appalachian Mountain System. As late as 1867, John Muir—in his book A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf—used the word "Alleghanies" in referring to the southern Appalachians. There was no general agreement about the "Appalachians" versus the "Alleghanies" until the late 19th century.
From northeast to southwest, the Allegheny Mountains run about 400 miles. From west to east, at their widest, they are about 100 miles. Although there are no official boundaries to the Allegheny Mountains region, it may be defined to the east by the Allegheny Front. To the west, the Alleghenies grade down into the dissected Allegheny Plateau; the westernmost ridges are considered to be the Laurel Highlands and Chestnut Ridge in Pennsylvania, Laurel Mountain and Rich Mountain in West Virginia. The mountains to the south of the Alleghenies—the Appalachians in westernmost Virginia, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee—are the Cumberlands; the Alleghenies and the Cumberlands both constitute part of the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachians. The eastern edge of the Alleghenies is marked by the Allegheny Front, sometimes considered the eastern terminus of the Allegheny Plateau; this great escarpment follows a portion of the Eastern Continental Divide in this area. A number of impressive gorges and valleys drain the Alleghenies: to the east, Smoke Hole Canyon, to the west the New River Gorge and the Blackwater and Cheat Canyons.
Thus, about half the precipitation falling on the Alleghenies makes its way west to the Mississippi and half goes east to Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic seaboard. The highest ridges of the Alleghenies are just west of the Front, which has an east/west elevational change of up to 3,000 feet. Absolute elevations of the Allegheny Highlands reach nearly 5,000 feet, with the highest elevations in the southern part of the range; the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains is Spruce Knob, on Spruce Mountain in West Virginia. Other notable Allegheny highpoints include Thorny Flat on Cheat Mountain, Bald Knob on Back Allegheny Mountain, Mount Porte Crayon, all in West Virginia. There are few sizable cities in the Alleghenies; the four largest are: Altoona, State College and Cumberland. In the 1970s and'80s, the Interstate Highway System was extended into the northern portion of the Alleghenies, the region is now served by a network of federal expressways—Interstates 80, 70/76 and 68. Interstate 64 traverses the southern extremity of the range, but the Central Alleghenies have posed special problems for highway planners owing to the region's rugged terrain and environmental sensitivities This region is still served by a rather sparse secondary highway system and remains lower in population density than surrounding regions.
In the telecommunications field, a unique impediment to development in the central Allegheny region is the United States National Radio Quiet Zone, a large rectangle of land—about 13,000 square miles —that straddles the border area of Virginia and West Virginia. Created in 1958 by the Federal Communications Commission, the NRQZ restricts all omni
Garrett County, Maryland
Garrett County is the westernmost county of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 30,097, making it the third-least populous county in Maryland, its county seat is Oakland. The county was named for president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Created from Allegany County, Maryland in 1872, it was the last Maryland county to be formed. Garrett County has long been part of the media market of Pennsylvania, it is considered to be a part of Western Maryland. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is to the north; the Maryland–Pennsylvania boundary is known as the Mason–Dixon line. The eastern border with Allegany County was defined by the Bauer Report, submitted to Governor Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. on November 9, 1898. The Potomac River and State of West Virginia lie to the west. Garrett County lies in the Allegheny Mountains, which here form the western flank of the Appalachian Mountain Range. Hoye-Crest, a summit along Backbone Mountain, is the highest point in Maryland; the Eastern Continental Divide runs along portions of Backbone Mountain.
The western part of the county, drained by the Youghiogheny River, is the only part of Maryland within the Mississippi River drainage basin. All other parts of the county are in the Chesapeake Bay basin; the National Register of Historic Places listings in Garrett County, Maryland has 20 National Register of Historic Places properties and districts, including Casselman Bridge, National Road a National Historic Landmark. Garrett County is part of Maryland's 6th congressional district; the extreme south of the county lies within the United States National Radio Quiet Zone. In the early 20th century, the railroad and tourism started to decline. Coal mining and timber production continued at a much slower pace. Today, tourism has made a dramatic rebound in the county with logging and farming making up the greatest part of the economic base. Due to a cool climate and lack of any large city, Garrett County has remained a sparsely populated rural area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 656 square miles, of which 647 square miles is land and 8.6 square miles is water.
It is the second-largest county in Maryland by land area. Garrett County is Maryland's westernmost, bordered to the north by the Mason–Dixon line with Pennsylvania, to the south and west by West Virginia, to the east by a land border with Allegany County, Maryland; the county's northwesternmost point is 60 miles southeast of Pittsburgh and its southeasternmost point is 160 miles northwest of Baltimore, Maryland. Garrett County is located within the highland zone of the Appalachian Mountains known variously as the Allegheny Mountains, the Allegheny Plateau, the Appalachian Plateau; the county's highest elevations are located along four flat-topped ridges and range to a height of 3,360 feet at Hoye-Crest along Backbone Mountain, the highest point in the state of Maryland. As is typical in the Allegheny region, broad flats lie below the ridge crests at elevations of 500 feet. River valleys are narrow and deep, with ravines 1,000 to 1,800 feet below surrounding peaks; the county contains over 76,000 acres of parks and publicly accessible forestland.
It is drained by the Potomac and the Youghiogheny. The Savage River, a tributary of the Potomac, drains about a third of the county; the Casselman River, a tributary of the Youghiogheny, flows north from the county's central section into Pennsylvania. The Youghiogheny itself drains the westernmost area of the county and flows north into Pennsylvania, where it empties into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, just south of Pittsburgh; the Glades' 601 acres is of great scientific interest because it is an ombrotrophic system with peat layers up to 9 feet thick, is one of the oldest examples of mountain peatland in the Appalachians. On the western edge of the Savage River State Forest along Maryland Route 495 lies Bittinger, Maryland. Named after Henry Bittinger who first settled in the area, other German settlers moved in and took up the fertile farm land. On the eastern edge of Bittinger is one of the largest glades area of Garrett County. Geographically, this is an area which seems to have been affected by the last great ice sheet of North America.
Two miles southeast of Bittinger, there is a large deposit of peat moss. In the Casselman River valley, 1-mile south of Grantsville and beside Maryland Route 495, one can see remains of geological evidence about the last great ice sheet over North America. A series of low mounds can be seen in the fields on the west side of Maryland Route 495 that are "loess" material; these are the only ones still visible in the northern part of Garrett County. The mounds were formed when a glacier lake existed in the Casselman valley, the ice around the edges of the frozen lake melted. Wind blew fine grains of earth into the water around the edges where it sank to the bottom, the mounds were the result of the deposit of this wind-blown material. See these articles for information on the forests and caves of Garrett County: List of Maryland state forests List of rivers of Maryland Caves of Maryland Garrett County contains over 76,000 acres of parks and publicly accessible forestland. Popular activities in the county include camping, backpacking, rock climbing and cross county skiing, hunting, ice fishing, fly fishing, whitewater c
Roundtop Hill (Maryland)
Roundtop Hill is a mountain in Washington County, southwest of the town of Hancock. The elevation at the summit is 1,358 feet. Unlike surrounding mountains, Roundtop Hill is not part of an extended ridge system, is only about 2 miles in length, it is located just under 1 mile from the crest of Tonoloway Ridge, about 3.5 miles southwest of Hancock. Its presence causes a large bend in the Potomac River. Much of the eastern face is part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park and the canal bed and tow path pass along the narrow bank at its base. Outstanding outcrops of the Silurian Wills Creek Formation and underlying Bloomsburg Formation are exposed along the old railroad grade at Roundtop Hill. Examples of folding, formation of cleavage, thrust faulting, the deformation of bedded rocks are visible. About 500 feet of strata are exposed
Maryland Historical Society
The Maryland Historical Society, founded on March 1, 1844, is the oldest cultural institution in the U. S. state of Maryland. The society "collects and interprets objects and materials reflecting Maryland's diverse heritage". MdHS has a museum, holds educational programs, publishes scholarly works on Maryland; the campus of the Maryland Historical Society is located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland at 201 West Monument Street. This location is the main building of the Maryland Historical Society, housed at the Enoch Pratt House since 1919; the house was built in 1847 and was presented to MdHS in 1916 by Ms. Mary Washington Keyser as a tribute to her husband, H. Irvine Keyser, a member of MdHS from 1873 until his death in 1916. Enoch Pratt is a well known philanthropist who created the Enoch Pratt Free Library and gave substantial contributions to the First Unitarian Church of Baltimore, the Maryland Science Center, the Maryland School for the Deaf; the MdHS has published a quarterly journal.
The Maryland Historical Magazine is a peer-reviewed journal boasting one of the largest readerships among state historical society journals. The society publishes books on Maryland history that are distributed through a partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Press, including Crime and Punishment in Early Maryland written by former MdHS librarian Raphael Semmes. MdHS has over 100 titles in the Library of Congress. Notables in exhibition at the MdHS are the original manuscript of "The Star-Spangled Banner" and the letters and journals of Benjamin Banneker; the MdHS showcases include 231 weapons, 866 pieces of jewelry, 2,200 Native American prehistoric archaeological objects, 15,000 musical scores as well as a remarkable collection of 18th- and 19th-century paintings and silver, maritime artifacts, Maryland painted and inlaid furniture, costumes, ceramics and toys. Exhibits include Maryland in art and furniture in Maryland life; the H. Furlong Baldwin Library's collections are both substantive.
The library enables researchers and students to see for themselves the records of the past, to study and learn from its many treasures. The library’s collections include 60,000 books, 800,000 photographs, 5 million manuscripts, 6,500 prints and broadsides, 1 million pieces of printed ephemera, extensive genealogy indexes, more, reflecting the history of Maryland and its people; these collections are accessible to visitors on-line and at the MdHS campus in Baltimore. On July 9, 2011, Barry Landau and Jason Savedoff were arrested and indicted for the theft of 60 society documents. "Tradition and Generosity". Maryland Historical Magazine. 101, 4. Winter 2006. 467-203. "H. Irvine Keyser". Historical marker database Accessed November 21, 2008. "Enoch Pratt House". Historical marker database. Accessed November 21, 2008. "Publications". Maryland Historical Society. Accessed November 21, 2008. Official website "Maryland Historical Society". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
U.S. Route 219
U. S. Route 219 is a spur of U. S. Route 19, it runs for 535 miles from West Seneca, New York at an interchange with Interstate 90, to Rich Creek, intersecting at U. S. Route 460. U. S. 219 is found in New York, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia. Much of the Route in West Virginia follows the old Indian warpath known as the Seneca Trail. U. S. Route 219 starts in Rich Creek at U. S. Route 460, heads northeast to the West Virginia state line; until the early 1980s, US 219 continued southwest with US 460 from Rich Creek, re-entering West Virginia to end at US 19 in Bluefield. It now only runs 1.3 miles in Virginia. US 219 was added to the state highway system in the early 1920s as State Route 231, it became State Route 216 in the 1928 renumbering and State Route 124 in the 1933 renumbering becoming part of the extended US 219 in the late 1930s. US 219 enters West Virginia in Peterstown at the split of US 219 and WV 12. US 219 heads northeast into Union. US 219 continues through Greenbrier County running through the towns of Ronceverte, where it intersects US 60, Falling Spring.
US 219 continues north through the towns of Hillsboro and Marlinton. US 219 runs north into Randolph County and begins its dual certification with US 250, they both serve the towns of Huttonsville, Mill Creek and Elkins, where US 33 joins the concurrency. US 219 splits from US 250 just north of Elkins. US 219 continues through the town of Montrose. From here, US 219 runs through the towns of Thomas. US 219 heads north into rural Preston County and exits West Virginia into Maryland. US 219 enters Maryland near Backbone Mountain on the West Virginia border, crosses US 50 and enters the town of Oakland, it crosses Maryland Route Maryland Route 39 in Oakland, before passing Deep Creek Lake. After traveling through Accident it intersects Interstate 68 east of Friendsville, providing access to Morgantown, West Virginia and Cumberland. US 219 runs concurrently with I-68 at Exit 14A and exits I-68 at Exit 22. US 219 crosses the Mason -- the Pennsylvania border, south of Salisbury, Pennsylvania. From near Grantsville, Maryland north to Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, US 219 is Corridor N of the Appalachian Development Highway System.
From Somerset, Pennsylvania to just south of Carrolltown, Pennsylvania, US 219 is a limited-access highway. A new 11-mile limited-access segment from Meyersdale to Somerset opened to traffic in the late fall of 2018. On August 9, 2007, Pennsylvania State Transportation Secretary Allen D. Biehler unveiled four signs along US Route 219 that dedicated the route from Maryland to Cambria County, Pennsylvania as the "Flight 93 Memorial Highway". From Carrolltown US 219 runs as a two-lane road to DuBois, through which it runs as Brady Street, returns to a two-lane road after a junction with Interstate 80. US 219 runs directly through the towns of Brockway and Johnsonburg before reaching Wilcox, where PA Route 321 splits and heads for the borough of Kane. US 219 continues north as a two-lane road until reaching Bradford, where it becomes a limited-access highway and remains so until reaching the New York border. US 219 enters Western New York from Pennsylvania south of the Hamlet of Limestone in the Town of Carrollton in Cattaraugus County.
Proceeding northward, the highway splits into the main route and a "business route" that follows the original main route. The main route merges with Interstate 86/New York State Route 17 at Exit 23 north of Limestone and splits from I-86/NY 17 at Exit 21 in the city of Salamanca; the business route crosses the Allegheny River and the Southern Tier Expressway and joins New York State Route 417 to the City of Salamanca. Separating from NY 417, the business route rejoins with the main US 219 and turns northward through the rest of Cattaraugus County, passing through Peth, Great Valley and Ashford Hollow before crossing the Cattaraugus Creek and entering Erie County. About 4 miles south of Springville, New York, US 219 becomes a divided, limited-access highway; as such, it continues north through half of the county, terminating at exit 55 of the New York State Thruway near the west town line of West Seneca south of the City of Buffalo. Before joining the Thruway, US 219 runs parallel to it for about one mile.
The interchange is set up as such that drivers can exit and re-enter the Thruway via US 219 without leaving the expressway. In February 2009, it was reported that a group known as the 219 Association was pursuing the goal of urging several states to transform US 219 into a 1,500-mile-long divided highway which the group hoped would be referred to as Continental 1, it has been proposed that US 219 could spur trade between Canada, the U. S. and the Caribbean region. Virginia US 460 in Rich Creek West Virginia US 60 in Lewisburg I‑64 in Lewisburg US 250 in Huttonsville; the highways travel concurrently to north of Elkins. US 33 in Elkins; the highways travel concurrently to north of Elkins. Maryland US 50 in Red House I‑68 / US 40 in Keysers Ridge; the highways travel concurrently to east-southeast of Grantsville. Pennsylvania US 30 south-southeast of Boswell US 22 southwest of Ebensburg US 422 west of Ebensburg US 322 in Luthersburg; the highways travel concurrently to south-southeast of Sandy. US 119 south of Sandy I‑80 east-northeast of Falls Creek US 6 in Lantz Corners New York I‑86 in Carrollton.
The highways travel concurrently to the City of Salamanca. I‑90 in West Seneca Endpoints of U. S. Highway 219 Continental 1 Trade &
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Savage Mountain is an anticline extending from Bedford County, Pennsylvania southwest into Western Maryland. It is the western side of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, the eastern portion of the ridge forms the border of Garrett and Allegany Counties of Maryland; the anti-cline includes two component ridges in Maryland, Little Savage Mountain and Big Savage Mountain. Portions of Savage Mountain form the Eastern Continental Divide, separating watersheds draining to the Ohio River and those draining to the Potomac. To the northwest of Savage Mountain, waters drain to the Casselman River; the North Branch Potomac River watershed encompasses the southwestern and eastern portions of the ridge. After Nemacolin's Path and the first survey of the Potomac had passed through the area, the Braddock Road over the ridge opened in 1757. By 1767, the Mason–Dixon line survey had placed milestones across the ridge and the National Road was completed through the area by 1818. In 1911, construction began on the Borden and Big Savage Tunnels for the Connellsville subdivision of the Western Maryland Railway.
In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps built a connection road, now the 6.4 mile Monroe Run Trail. The Savage River Dam and Reservoir were constructed just southwest of the ridge in 1952 to control flooding along the Savage River and North Branch Potomac River, as well as to supply water to nearby communities. On August 13, 1976, the freeway that would become Interstate 68 opened through the ridge. Due to severe fog conditions common along this stretch of highway, Maryland's first "fog warning system" was installed after a May 2003 crash that killed two and injured about 100 people. In 2001, the fire history and dendroecology of Savage Mountain oak stands were investigated. About 2,600 trees were planted in the Savage Mountain Demonstration Plot #2 in 2007. In 2006, U. S. WindForce proposed a 40-megawatt wind farm on Savage Mountain at a strip-mining site. A study for the Savage Mountain Transmission Main Project began in 2008. Georges Creek Valley Eastern Continental Divide