Baccarat is a French commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bachâmoises; the commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Baccarat lies in the district of Lunéville in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle. Baccarat is located some 25 km south-east of Lunéville and 30 km north-west of Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in the Meurthe river valley between the Deneuvre plateau and the wooded hills of Grammont. Access to the commune is by the Route nationale N59 from Bertrichamps in the south-east which passes through the heart of the commune east of the town and continues north-west to join the N333 south-east of Lunéville; the D590 goes from Bertrichamps and passes through the town continuing north-west to Azerailles. The D19 goes north from the village to Gélacourt; the D935 goes north-east from the town to Merviller and south-west, changing to the D435 at the departmental border, to Ménil-sur-Belvitte.
A railway passes through the commune with a station near the town and the railway line coming from Azerailles in the north-west continuing to Bertrichamps in the south-east. The commune farmland; the Meurthe river passes though the commune and the town from the south-east flowing north—west to join the Moselle at Custines. The Ruisseau des Bingottes rises east of the commune and joins the Meurthe in the south of the commune. Baccarat was a suburb of the city of Deneuvre which has Roman origins; the name Baccarat comes from Bacchi-ara, the name of a Roman castellum of which there remains a relic called the Tower of Bacha on the heights of Deneuvre. The Castellany belonged to the Diocese of Metz. In 1305 Henri, first lord of Blâmont from the House of Salm, dedicated Deneuvre for the Bishop of Metz and, to ensure its safety, he built the Tower of Voués at the bottom of the spur. A suburb formed at its foot: this was the origin of Baccarat; the name Baccarat appeared for the first time in 1291. In 1459 the city was best known for its drapers as well as wine.
Louis XV authorized the creation of a glassworks in 1764 at the instigation of the Bishop of Metz, anxious to sell the important local production of firewood. A glassworks named; the works became a crystal glassworks in 1817 and was sold to the Compagnie des Cristalleries in 1881 subsequently achieving worldwide fame under the name of Baccarat. The growing number of workers enabled the development of the commune with the construction of housing, shops and small industries but the war marked a halt to this development. On the eve of the First World War the city was home to the 20th Batailion of Foot Chasseurs at the Haxo barracks - some buildings of which remain today; the period between the two world wars was marked by the construction of the church, the bridge, the town hall. During the Second World War there was much damage to the city including the destruction of the church in October 1944. Liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division on 31 October 1944, the city resumed its industrial expansion in 1945.
The reconstruction of the church was done in 1953. The Canton of Baccarat includes 20 communes: Azerailles, Baccarat proper, Brouville, Flin, Fontenoy-la-Joûte, Gélacourt, Hablainville, Merviller, Mignéville, Pettonville, Thiaville-sur-Meurthe, Vacqueville and Veney; the Community of communes of Cristal was created on 1 January 2004 to link Baccarat with the neighbouring communes of Lachapelle and Thiaville-sur-Meurthe. In 2010 Baccarat was awarded the Certification mark of "Ville Internet @@". List of Successive Mayors Baccarat has twinning associations with: Gernsbach since 1962. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The town's celebrated glassworks and crystal factory known as Baccarat, has operated since 1765, its technique was established by Aimé Gabriel d'Artigues. Many of its workers under Mr. Roland-Gosselin in the 1950s were awarded the title of Meilleur Ouvrier de France. Around the time of the Franco-Prussian War, the town was noted for its large export trade of timber, wheels and charcoal.
The commune has many sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Berthelon Gasworks at 28 Rue du 20e Bataillon The Gasworks contains a Gas Meter, registered as an historical object. The Société des Constructions Métalliques de Baccarat at 30 Rue du 20e Bataillon The Hydro-electric Power Plant at Rue des Cristalleries The Gasworks at 49 Rue des Cristalleries The Chateau de la Cristallerie at 6 Rue des Cristalleries was enlarged for Aimé d'Artigues, the recipient of the glassworks in 1816 by the addition of two lateral bodies in 1817, it was used as housing for the administrators of the crystal works from the middle the 19th century. Part of the ground floor has now been converted into a museum of Baccarat crystal products; the park was bisected by an open street in the 1st half of the 19th century and a part was subdivided in the last years of the 19th century for the construction of the Workers' City. There are some private archives; the Saint Anne Glassworks (now C
Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel. In the game, players may choose to place bets on either a single number, various groupings of numbers, the colors red or black, whether the number is odd or or if the numbers are high or low. To determine the winning number and color, a croupier spins a wheel in one direction spins a ball in the opposite direction around a tilted circular track running around the outer edge of the wheel; the ball loses momentum, passes through an area of deflectors, falls onto the wheel and into one of 37 or 38 colored and numbered pockets on the wheel. The first form of roulette was devised in 18th century France. Many historians believe Blaise Pascal introduced a primitive form of roulette in the 17th century in his search for a perpetual motion machine; the roulette mechanism is a hybrid of a gaming wheel invented in the Italian game Biribi. The game has been played in its present form since as early as 1796 in Paris. An early description of the roulette game in its current form is found in a French novel La Roulette, ou le Jour by Jaques Lablee, which describes a roulette wheel in the Palais Royal in Paris in 1796.
The description included the house pockets, "There are two slots reserved for the bank, whence it derives its sole mathematical advantage." It goes on to describe the layout with, "...two betting spaces containing the bank's two numbers and double zero". The book was published in 1801. An earlier reference to a game of this name was published in regulations for New France in 1758, which banned the games of "dice, hoca and roulette"; the roulette wheels used in the casinos of Paris in the late 1790s had red for the single zero and black for the double zero. To avoid confusion, the color green was selected for the zeros in roulette wheels starting in the 1800s. In 1843, in the German spa casino town of Bad Homburg, fellow Frenchmen François and Louis Blanc introduced the single 0 style roulette wheel in order to compete against other casinos offering the traditional wheel with single and double zero house pockets. In some forms of early American roulette wheels, there were numbers 1 through 28, plus a single zero, a double zero, an American Eagle.
The Eagle slot, a symbol of American liberty, was a house slot that brought the casino extra edge. Soon, the tradition vanished and since the wheel features only numbered slots. According to Hoyle "the single 0, the double 0, eagle are never bars. In the 19th century, roulette spread all over Europe and the US, becoming one of the most famous and most popular casino games; when the German government abolished gambling in the 1860s, the Blanc family moved to the last legal remaining casino operation in Europe at Monte Carlo, where they established a gambling mecca for the elite of Europe. It was here that the single zero roulette wheel became the premier game, over the years was exported around the world, except in the United States where the double zero wheel had remained dominant. In the United States, the French double zero wheel made its way up the Mississippi from New Orleans, westward, it was here, because of rampant cheating by both operators and gamblers, that the wheel was placed on top of the table to prevent devices being hidden in the table or wheel, the betting layout was simplified.
This evolved into the American-style roulette game. The American game was developed in the gambling dens across the new territories where makeshift games had been set up, whereas the French game evolved with style and leisure in Monte Carlo. During the first part of the 20th century, the only casino towns of note were Monte Carlo with the traditional single zero French wheel, Las Vegas with the American double zero wheel. In the 1970s, casinos began to flourish around the world. By 2008, there were several hundred casinos worldwide offering roulette games; the double zero wheel is found in the U. S. Canada, South America, the Caribbean, while the single zero wheel is predominant elsewhere. In 2016, The Venetian Las Vegas introduced the first triple-zero wheel, which has since spread to a few additional casinos; the sum of all the numbers on the roulette wheel is 666, the "Number of the Beast". Roulette players have a variety of betting options. Placing inside bets is either selecting the exact number of the pocket the ball will land in, or a small range of pockets based on their proximity on the layout.
Players wishing to bet on the'outside' will select bets on larger positional groupings of pockets, the pocket color, or whether the winning number is odd or even. The payout odds for each type of bet are based on its probability; the roulette table imposes minimum and maximum bets, these rules apply separately for all of a player's inside and outside bets for each spin. For inside bets at roulette tables, some casinos may use separate roulette table chips of various colors to distinguish players at the table. Players can continue to place bets as the ball spins around the wheel until the dealer announces no more bets or rien ne va plus; when a winning number and color is determined by the roulette wheel, the dealer will place a marker known as a dolly, on that winning number on the roulette table layout. When the dolly is on the table, no players may place bets, collect bets, or remove any bets from the table; the dealer will sweep away all other l
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Omaha hold 'em
Omaha hold'em is a community card poker game similar to Texas hold'em, where each player is dealt four cards and must make his or her best hand using two of them, plus three of the five community cards. The exact origin of the game is unknown, but casino executive Robert Turner first brought Omaha into a casino setting when he introduced the game to Bill Boyd, who offered it as a game at the Las Vegas Golden Nugget Casino. Omaha uses a 52-card French deck. Limit Omaha hold'em 8-or-better is the "O" game featured in H. O. R. S. E. Both limit Omaha/8 and pot limit Omaha high are featured in the 8-Game. Omaha hold. In the original Omaha poker game, players were only dealt two hole cards and had to use both to make a hand combined with community cards; this version of Omaha is defined in the glossary of Super/System as being interchangeable with "Tight hold'em". Across all the variations of the game, the requirement of using two hole cards is the only consistent rule; the "Omaha" part of the name represents this aspect of the game.
"Hold'em" refers to a game using community cards that are shared by all players. This is opposed to draw games, where each player's hand is composed only of hole cards, stud games, where each player hand contains a mix of non-community cards that are visible to the other players and concealed hole cards. In North American casinos, the term "Omaha" can refer to several poker games; the original game is commonly known as "Omaha high". A high-low split version called "Omaha Hi-Lo", or sometimes "Omaha eight-or-better" or "Omaha/8", is played. In Europe, "Omaha" still refers to the high version of the game played pot-limit. Pot-limit Omaha is abbreviated as "PLO." Pot-limit and no-limit Omaha eight-or-better can be found in some casinos and online, though no-limit is rarer. It is said that Omaha is a game of "the nuts", i.e. the best possible high or low hand, because it takes "the nuts" to win a showdown. It is a game where between the cards in his hand and the community cards a player may have drawing possibilities to multiple different types of holdings.
For example, a player may have both a draw to a flush and a full house using different combinations of cards. At times seasoned players may need additional time to figure what draws are possible for their hand; the basic differences between Omaha and Texas hold'em are these: first, each player is dealt four hole cards instead of two. The betting rounds and layout of community cards are identical. At showdown, each player's hand is the best five-card hand made from three of the five cards on the board, plus two of the player's own cards. Unlike Texas hold'em, a player cannot play four or five of the cards on the board with fewer than two of his own, nor can a player use three or four hole cards to disguise a strong hand; some specific things to notice about Omaha hands are: As in Texas hold'em, three or more suited cards on the board makes a flush possible, but unlike that game, a player always needs two of that suit in hand to play a flush. For example, with a board of K♠ 9♠ Q♠ Q♥ 5♠, a player with A♠ 2♥ 4♥ 5♣ cannot play a flush using the ace as would be possible in Texas hold'em.
A player with 2♠ 3♠ K♦ J♦ can play the spade flush. The same concept applies to straights. In Omaha, a player can not use four cards on the board to play a straight. For example, with a board of 5♠ 6♥ 7♦ 8♥ A♠, a player with J♦ J♠ 4♦ 9♠ or J♦ J♠ 9♦ 9♠ cannot play a straight, but a player with J♦ J♠ 4♦ 3♠ can play a straight from 3 to 7. For example, with a board of J♠ J♦ 9♦ 5♥ 9♣, a player with a hand of A♠ 2♠ J♥ K♦ cannot play a full house. A player with J♣ 2♣ 9♠ 10♠ can use his J-9 to play the full house J♠ J♦ J♣ 9♠ 9♦. A player with 10♠ 5♣ 5♠ 2♣ can use his 5-5 to play the full house J♠ J♦ 5♥ 5♣ 5♠. With three of a kind on the board, a player must have a pair in hand to make a full house. For example, with a board of J♠ J♦ A♦ J♥ K♣, a player with A♠ 2♠ 3♥ K♦ does not have a full house, the player only has three jacks with an ace-king kicker, will lose to a player with only a pair of deuces; this is the most misread hand in Omaha. In Omaha hi-low split-8 or better, each player makes a separate five-card high hand and five-card ace-to-five low hand, the pot is split between the high and low.
To qualify for low, a player must be able to play lower. A few casinos play with a 9-low qualifier instead; each player can play any two of his four hole cards to make his high hand, any two of his four hole cards to make his low hand. If there is no qualifying low hand, the high hand wins the whole pot; this game is played in the fixed limit version, although pot limit Omaha/8 is becoming more popular. A few low-stakes online tournaments feature no limit Omaha/8; the brief explanation above belies the complexity of the game, so a number of examples will be useful here to clarify it. The table below shows a five-card board of community cards at the end of pl
Texas hold 'em
Texas hold'em is a variation of the card game of poker. Two cards, known as hole cards, are dealt face down to each player, five community cards are dealt face up in three stages; the stages consist of a series of three cards an additional single card, a final card. Each player seeks the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards of the five community cards and their two hole cards. Players have betting options to check, raise, or fold. Rounds of betting take place before the flop is dealt and after each subsequent deal; the player who has the best hand and has not folded by the end of all betting rounds wins all of the money bet for the hand, known as the pot. Texas hold'em is the H game featured in HORSE and in HOSE. In Texas hold'em, as in all variants of poker, individuals compete for an amount of money or chips contributed by the players themselves; because the cards are dealt randomly and outside the control of the players, each player attempts to control the amount of money in the pot based either on the hand they are holding, or on their prediction as to what their opponents may be holding and how they might behave.
The game is divided into a series of hands. A hand may end at the showdown, in which case the remaining players compare their hands and the highest hand is awarded the pot; the other possibility for the conclusion of a hand occurs when all but one player have folded and have thereby abandoned any claim to the pot, in which case the pot is awarded to the player who has not folded. The objective of winning players is not to win every individual hand, but rather to make mathematically and psychologically better decisions regarding when and how much to bet, call—or fold. By making such decisions to place influential bets, one can non-verbally represent or suggest holding or not-holding a certain or possible hand by either betting or not-betting pre-flop, by venturing smaller or larger bets or raises at more advantageous times, throughout the stages of the hand being dealt. One's pattern of betting may encourage opponents to bet or to fold, without verbalizing a discouraging or dishonest word; the winning poker players know how to enhance their opponents' betting and maximize their own expected gain on each round of betting, to thereby increase their long-term winnings.
Although little is known about the invention of Texas hold'em, the Texas Legislature recognizes Robstown, Texas, as the game's birthplace, dating it to the early 1900s. After the game spread throughout Texas, hold'em was introduced to Las Vegas in 1963 at the California Club by Corky McCorquodale; the game became popular and spread to the Golden Nugget and Dunes. In 1967, a group of Texan gamblers and card players, including Crandell Addington, Doyle Brunson, Amarillo Slim were playing in Las Vegas; this is. Addington said the first time he saw the game was in 1959. "They didn't call it Texas hold'em at the time, they just called it hold'em.… I thought that if it were to catch on, it would become the game. Draw poker, you bet only twice; that meant. This was more of a thinking man's game."For several years the Golden Nugget Casino in Downtown Las Vegas was the only casino in Las Vegas to offer the game. At that time, the Golden Nugget's poker room was "truly a'sawdust joint,' with…oiled sawdust covering the floors."
Because of its location and decor, this poker room did not receive many rich drop-in clients, as a result, professional players sought a more prominent location. In 1969, the Las Vegas professionals were invited to play Texas hold'em at the entrance of the now-demolished Dunes Casino on the Las Vegas Strip; this prominent location, the relative inexperience of poker players with Texas hold'em, resulted in a remunerative game for professional players. After a failed attempt to establish a "Gambling Fraternity Convention", Tom Moore added the first poker tournament to the Second Annual Gambling Fraternity Convention held in 1969; this tournament featured. In 1970, Benny and Jack Binion acquired the rights to this convention, renamed it the World Series of Poker, moved it to their casino, Binion's Horseshoe, in Las Vegas. After its first year, a journalist, Tom Thackrey, suggested that the main event of this tournament should be no-limit Texas hold'em; the Binions agreed and since no-limit Texas hold'em has been played as the main event.
Interest in the main event continued to grow over the next two decades. After receiving only eight entrants in 1972, the numbers grew to over one hundred entrants in 1982, over two hundred in 1991. During this time, B & G Publishing Co. Inc. published Doyle Brunson's revolutionary poker strategy guide, Super/System. Despite being self-published and priced at $100 in 1978, the book revolutionized the way poker was played, it was one of the first books to discuss Texas hold'em, is today cited as one of the most important books on this game. In 1983, Al Alvarez published The Biggest Game in Town, a book detailing a 1981 World Series of Poker event; the first book of its kind, it described the world of professional poker players and the World Series of Poker. Alvarez's book is credited with begin
Craps is a dice game in which the players make wagers on the outcome of the roll, or a series of rolls, of a pair of dice. Players may wager money against a bank; because it requires little equipment, "street craps" can be played in informal settings. While shooting craps, players may use slang terminology to place actions. Craps developed in the United States from a simplification of the western European game of hazard; the origins of hazard may date to the Crusades. Hazard was brought from London to New Orleans in 1807 by the returning Bernard Xavier Philippe de Marigny de Mandeville, the young gambler and scion of a family of wealthy colonial Louisiana landowners. Although in hazard the dice shooter may choose any number from five to nine to be the main number, de Marigny simplified the game such that the main number is always seven, the optimal choice among knowledgeable hazard players. Both hazard and its new offshoot were unfamiliar and rejected by Americans of his social class, leading de Marigny to introduce his novelty to the local underclass.
Fieldhands taught their friends, deckhands carried the new game up the Mississippi River. Celebrating the popular success of his novelty, de Marigny gave the name craps to a street in his New Orleans real estate development; the central game, called "pass", from the French word for "pace" or "step", has been supplemented over the decades by many companion games which can be played simultaneously. The entire collection of over one hundred separate and independent possible games is called craps; the name craps was a Louisiana mispronunciation of the word crabs, which in London had been the joint epithet for the numbers two and three, which in hazard are the only permanent instant losing numbers for wagers on Pass. For a century after its invention, craps was abused by casinos using unfair dice. To remedy the problem, in 1907, a Philadelphia dice maker named John H. Winn introduced a layout which featured bets on both Pass and Don't Pass. Most modern casinos use his innovation. Craps exploded in popularity during World War II, which brought most young American men of every social class into the military.
The street version of craps was popular among soldiers, who played it using a blanket as a shooting surface. Their military memories led to craps becoming the dominant game in postwar Las Vegas. Bank craps or casino craps is played by one or more players betting against the casino rather than each other. Both the players and the dealers stand around a large rectangular craps table. Sitting is discouraged by most casinos. Players use casino checks rather than cash to bet on the Craps "layout," a fabric surface which displays the various bets; the bets vary somewhat among casinos in availability and payouts. The tables resemble bathtubs and come in various sizes. Against one long side is the casino's table bank: as many as two thousand casino checks in stacks of 20; the opposite long side is a long mirror. The U-shaped ends of the table have duplicate layouts and standing room for eight players. In the center of the layout is an additional group of bets which are used by players from both ends; the vertical walls at each end are covered with a rubberized target surface covered with small pyramid shapes to randomize the dice which strike them.
The top edges of the table walls have one or two horizontal grooves in which players may store their reserve checks. The table is run by up to four casino employees: a boxman seated behind the casino's bank, who manages the chips, supervises the dealers, handles "coloring up" players; each employee watches for mistakes by the others because of the sometimes large number of bets and frantic pace of the game. In smaller casinos or at quiet times of day, one or more of these employees may be missing, have their job covered by another, or cause player capacity to be reduced; some smaller casinos have introduced "mini-craps" tables. Responsibility of the dealers is adjusted: the stickman continuing to handle the center bets, the base dealer handling the other bets as well as cash and chip exchanges. By contrast, in "street craps", there is no marked table and the game is played with no back-stop against which the dice are to hit; the wagers are made in cash, never in chips, are thrown down onto the ground or floor by the players.
There are no attendants, so the progress of the game, fairness of the throws, the way that the payouts are made for winning bets are self-policed by the players. Each casino may set which bets are offered and different payouts for them, though a core set of bets and payouts is typical. Players take turns rolling two dice and whoever is throwing the dice is called the "shooter". Players can bet on th
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform