Hu Yaobang was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China. He held the top office of the Communist Party of China from 1981 to 1987, first as Chairman from 1981 to 1982 as General Secretary from 1982 to 1987. Hu joined the Chinese Communist Party in the 1930s, rose to prominence as a comrade of Deng Xiaoping in the 1970s. During the Cultural Revolution, Hu was purged and purged again by Mao Zedong. After Deng rose to power, following the death of Mao Zedong, Hu was promoted to a series of high political positions. Throughout the 1980s Hu pursued a series of economic and political reforms under the direction of Deng. Hu's political and economic reforms made him the enemy of several powerful Party elders, who opposed free market reforms and attempts to make China's government more transparent; when widespread student protests occurred across China in 1987, Hu's political opponents blamed Hu for the disruptions, claiming that Hu's "laxness" and "bourgeois liberalization" had either led to, or worsened, the protests.
Hu was forced to resign as Party general secretary in 1987, but was allowed to retain a seat in the Politburo. Hu's position as Party general secretary was taken by Zhao Ziyang, who continued many of Hu's economic and political reforms. A day after Hu's death, in 1989, a small-scale demonstration commemorated him and demanded that the government reassess his legacy. A week the day before Hu's funeral, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square, leading to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989; this was a part of the Chinese Democracy Movement. Following the government's violent suppression of the 1989 protests, the Chinese government censored the details of Hu's life within mainland China, but it rehabilitated his image and lifted its censorship restrictions on the 90th anniversary of Hu's birth, in 2005. Hu Yaobang's ancestors were Hakkas from Jiangxi. During the Ming dynasty they migrated into Hunan. Hu Yaobang was born into a poor peasant family, received little formal education; as a child he never attended school, he taught himself to read.
Hu participated in his first rebellion when he was twelve, left his family to join the Chinese Communist Party when he was only fourteen, became a full member of the Party in 1933. During the factional struggles that polarized the CCP during the 1930s, Hu supported Mao Zedong and opposed the 28 Bolsheviks. Hu was one of the youngest veterans of the Long March. Once Mao was removed from power, shortly before the beginning of the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, Mao's supporters were persecuted, Hu Yaobang was sentenced to death. Just before the beginning of the Long March, he and others were on their way to be beheaded. However, a powerful local communist commander named Tan Yubao intervened at the last minute, saving Hu's life; because of Hu's support of Mao, he was deemed unreliable and ordered to join the Long March so that he could be placed under surveillance. Hu Yaobang was wounded in the battle of Mount Lu, near Zunyi, close to the area where Mao Zedong rose back to power via the Zunyi Conference.
After Hu was wounded the communist field medic teams chose not to help Hu, left him in the battlefield to die on the side of the road. Hu was rescued by a childhood friend of a Chinese Red Army commander, who happened to pass by. Hu called out his friend's nickname to ask for help, the friend helped him catch up with the retreating main force of the Chinese Red Army and get treatment for his wounds. In 1936, Hu joined an expeditionary force led by Zhang Guotao; the objective of Zhang's 21,800+ strong force, was to cross the Yellow River, to expand the communist base west of Shaanxi, to link up with forces from the Soviet Union or with the Xinjiang warlord Sheng Shicai, an ally of the communists and the Soviet Union. Zhang Guotao's forces were soundly defeated by the Ma clique. Hu Yaobang, along with Qin Jiwei, became two of the thousands of prisoners-of-war captured by Ma clique's forces. Hu was one of only 1,500 prisoners-of-war whom Ma Bufang decided to use as forced labor rather than execute.
Ma Bufang sent several Muslim cavalry divisions under General Ma Biao to fight against the Japanese. However Chiang Kai-shek pressured Ma Bufang to contribute more of his troops to fight Japanese invaders, Ma Bufang decided that, instead of using more of his own troops, he would instead send the 1,500 Chinese Red Army prisoners-of-war as conscripts. Since the marching route had to pass the border of the communist base in Shaanxi, Hu Yaobang and Qin Jiwei decided to return to the Communists, secretly organized an escape; the escape took place as planned and was a success: out of the total 1,500 POWs, more than 1,300 returned to Yan'an. Mao welcomed these returning communists, Hu Yaobang returned to communist forces, where he would remain for rest of his life. After Hu arrived in Yan'an, he attended the Anti-Japanese Military School. While studying in Yan'an, Hu met and married his wife, Li Zhao, a student in Yan'an. After his training, Hu worked in the political department, was assigned to work as a member of Peng Dehuai's Third Front Army.
Hu befriended and worked with Deng Xiaoping in the 1930s. In the 1940s, Hu worked under Deng as a political commissar in the Second Field Army. In the final stages of the Chinese Civil War, Hu accompanied Deng to Sichuan, communist forces took control of the province from Nationalist forces in 1949. In 1949, the CCP defeated Nationalist forces on mainland China, the communists founded the People's Republic. In 1952, Hu accompanied Deng to Beijing, Hu became the leader of the Communist Youth
The Egyptian god Hu was one of the minor gods in some respects, but he was one of the most important gods for those serious about Egyptian deities. Hu is the power of the spoken word, he personifies the authority of utterance. Hu is mentioned in the Old Kingdom Pyramid texts as companion of the deceased pharaoh. Together with Sia, he was depicted in the retinue of Thoth, with whom he was occasionally identified. In the Middle Kingdom, all gods participated in Hu and Sia, were associated with Ptah who created the universe by uttering the word of creation. Hu was depicted as a falcon, or as a man with a ram's head. In the New Kingdom, both Hu and Sia together with Heke and Sedjem were members of the fourteen creative powers of Amun-Ra. By the time of Ptolemaic Egypt, Hu had merged with Shu. Wilkinson, R. H. Die Welt der Götter im Alten Ägypten. Glaube - Macht - Mythologie, Stuttgart 2003 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/hu.htm
The Hajvery University is a private university located in Lahore, Pakistan. Hajvery University is chartered by Government of the Punjab; the Higher Education Commission recognizes the university as a "category W" institution. It is named after Muslim Sufi Ali Hujwiri aka Hazrat Data ganj Bakhsh, it has a main campus in the Industrial Area of Lahore. The university has six constituent schools, each focused on a specific field of study: business; the library at the main campus provides support for the courses offered with books, videos and other reference sources. Official website Admissions
Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and of the comarca of Hoya de Huesca. In 2009 it had a population of 52,059 a quarter of the total population of the province; the city is one of the smallest provincial capitals in Spain. Huesca celebrates its main festival Fiestas de San Lorenzo from 9 to 15 August. Huesca dates from pre-Roman times, was once known as Bolskan in the ancient Iberian language, it was once the capital of the Vescetani, in the north of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the road from Tarraco and Ilerda to Caesaraugusta. During Roman times, the city was known as Osca, was a Roman colony under the rule of Quintus Sertorius, who made Osca his base; the city minted its own coinage and was the site of a prestigious school founded by Sertorius to educate young Iberians in Latin and Roman customs. After Sertorius, it is thought, it appears to have been situated on silver mines. Eighteenth-century Spanish historian Enrique Flórez has pointed out the impossibility of one city supplying such vast quantities of minted silver as has been recorded by ancient writers under the terms argentum Oscense, signatum Oscense.
The Romanised city was made a municipium by decree of Augustus in 30 BC. The Arabs conquered the city in the late 8th century, the city came to be called Washqah, falling within the Upper March of the Emirate of Córdoba, it was ruled by a local governor appointed from Córdoba, but was subject to political turmoil and assassination as the Banu Qasi, Banu Amrus and Banu al-Tawil clans, as well as the Arista dynasty of Pamplona, struggled for control and independence from the Emirate. In the mid-10th century, Wasqah was transferred to the Banu Tujibi, who governed the Upper March from Zaragoza, it became part of the Taifa of Zaragoza in 1018 when they freed themselves from the disintegrating Caliphate. In 1094 Sancho Ramirez built the nearby Castle of Montearagón with the intention of laying siege to Wasqah but was killed by a stray arrow as he reached the city's walls, it was conquered in 1096 by Peter I of Aragon. In 1354, King Peter IV of Aragon founded the University of Huesca, which had a faculty of theology.
The school expanded, but by the end of the 16th century was eclipsed by the University of Zaragoza. The university was abolished in 1845. During the Spanish Civil War the "Huesca Front" was the scene of some of the worst fighting between the Republicans and Franco's army; the city didn't fall. Huesca celebrates its most important annual festival in August: the festival of San Lorenzo, a native of Huesca martyred in 268 AD; the anniversary of his martyrdom falls on August 10. The fiesta starts on 9 August and finishes on the 15. Many of the inhabitants dress in white for the duration. San Lorenzo, born in Huesca, was a deacon in Rome and a martyr who, according to legend, was burned on a grille by the Romans; the grille can be seen in a number of decorative works in the city. Huesca is the birthplace of film director Carlos Saura and his brother Antonio Saura, a contemporary artist. There is an international film festival held annually; the writer Oscar Sipan, winner of several literary prizes, was born in Huesca in 1974.
The celebrated illustrator Isidro Ferrer, though born in Madrid, lives in the city. Various streets in the centre of Huesca have been pedestrianised. Huesca lies at an altitude of 488 m above sea level. Close to the city lie the Sierra de Guara mountains, which reach 2,077 m; the geographical coordinates of the city are: 42° 08´ N, 0° 24´ W. Its municipal area is 161.02 km ² and borders the municipalities of Almudévar, Vicién, Monflorite-Lascasas Tierz, Loporzano, Igriés, Banastás, Alerre, Barbués and Albero Bajo. The city lies 71 kilometres from Zaragoza, 160 kilometres from Pamplona, 118 kilometres from Lleida, 380 kilometres from Madrid and 273 kilometres from Barcelona. Huesca has a humid subtropical climate. With semi-arid influences. Winters are cool and summers are hot, with daily maximums reaching up to 35 °C, while the rainiest seasons are autumn and spring; the average precipitation is 480 mm per year. Frost is common and there is sporadic snowfall, with an average of 3 snowy days per year.
A double line of ancient walls can still be seen in present-day Huesca. Nearby, in the territory of Quicena, lie the ruins of the Castle of Montearagón Monastery. Huesca Cathedral is a Gothic style Cathedral, built by king James I of Aragon around 1273 on the ruined foundations of a mosque. Work continued until the fifteenth century, the Cathedral is now one of the architectural gems of northern Spain; the doorway, built between 1300 and 1313, has carvings depicting the Apostles. The interior chapels, it includes a magnificent high altar made from alabaster, carved to represent the crucifixion, built between 1520 and 1533 by Damián Forment. The cloister and the bell-tower were built in the fifteenth century. Monastery of San Pedro el Viejo, erected between 1100 and 1241, is one of the oldest Romanesque structures in the Iberian Peninsula, it was rebuilt in the seve
Huy is a municipality of Belgium. It lies in Province of Liege. Huy lies at the mouth of the small river Hoyoux, it is in the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia, home to about two-thirds of the Walloon population. The Huy municipality includes the sub-municipalities of Ben-Ahin, Neuville-sous-Huy, Tihange; the first village originated around the Roman castrum, an early fortress located on the right bank of the River Meuse. The village was evangelized by Saint Domitian, bishop of Tongeren in the 6th century and the town is mentioned for the first time in a 7th-century testament. In the early Middle Ages, Huy was one of the most prosperous cities on the Meuse, with a flourishing economy based on metallurgy, but on tanning, sculpting and wine-making. In the 10th century, Huy was promoted to county status, but soon became part of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, with which it would share its history for more than eight centuries. Huy was the recipient of the first known charter north of the Alps, confirming it as a city in 1066.
It is around that time that Peter the Hermit harangued the locals and persuaded them to participate in the First Crusade. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the economy boomed thanks to the cloth industry; the castle on a hill right in the middle of town, was used in times of war and strengthened accordingly. By the 15th century, it had become the symbol of the city; the following two centuries, witnessed a gradual decline in the city’s fortunes, due in large part to the strategic value of its location on the Meuse. In the latter part of the 17th century, Louis XIV’s wars caused the city to be attacked and put to the sword, to the point that the frustrated inhabitants dismantled their own castle, source of their miseries, in 1715. A new fortress was built by the Dutch in 1818 at the same strategic location above the town; the 19th century was a period of relative prosperity based on other industries. The decline of heavy industry in the 20th century was felt here, as in other parts of Wallonia. Today, the city has started to prosper again, thanks in part to its tin products and tourist activity.
In 1970 the Tihange Nuclear Power Station was built. Every seven years, a religious procession takes place in the so-called'septennial festivities' in commemoration of the end of a drought in 1656; the last one took place on August 15, 2012. The four'wonders of Huy' are: Li Pontia, the bridge over the River Meuse Li Rondia, the rose window of the Gothic Notre-Dame collegiate church Li Bassinia, the 15th-century fountain that stands in the middle of the Grand Place Li Tchestia or the Citadel of Huy, the 1818 fortress that dominates the city Huy is home to the finish of the La Flèche Wallonne, an important 1-day cycling race held midweek in mid-April; the race traverses, finishes, at the summit of the Mur de Huy, a climb of about 1 kilometer with an average gradient of 10%, with sections of 20%. Huy has been used in the Tour de France four times: 1995, 2001, 2006 and 2015. Huy was used as a location for the first series of the 2014 BBC television drama series The Missing. Renier de Huy, metalworker Joseph Lebeau, politician Anne-Marie Lizin, politician André Malherbe, three-time motocross world champion Meingold of Huy, Roman Catholic saint John Joseph Merlin, inventor of the roller skate Peter the Hermit, instigator of the First Crusade Le Père Pire, recipient of the 1958 Nobel Peace Prize, lived in Huy Alizée Poulicek Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan.
Cavalry commander of Jacobite forces at the Siege of Limerick, General in French Army following "Flight of the Wild Geese" is buried here, in the graveyard of St. Martin's Church. Léon Lhoist, businessman Huy is twinned with: Official web site
Hu Xiansu or Hu Hsien-Hsu, was a Chinese botanist and an influential traditional scholar of his time. He was a founder of a pioneer of modern botany research in the country. Hu Xiansu studied preparatory course at Imperial University of Peking in 1909. In 1912 after the 1911 Revolution he went to America, graduated from University of California, Berkeley in 1916. In 1918, he became a faculty member of National Nanking Higher Normal School and National Southeastern University, he went to America again in 1923 and received a doctor's degree from Harvard University in 1925. His wife died in Nanking in 1926 he resigned from Department of Biology of Southeastern University and became a full-time research fellow at Institute of Biology of China Science Society, he cofounded Fan Memorial Institute of Biology in Peiping in 1928. He founded Lushan Botanical Garden in 1934 and Yunnan Institute of Agriculture and Forest in 1938. Along with his colleagues of the Science Society of China, Hu was a key leader of the first biological research institute in the country, played an important role in founding the Botanical Society of China.
He established the first plantation for botanical research at Mount Lu in Jiangxi, initiated or conducted large-scale survey of flora of China. Between 1940 and 1944, he was the founding president of the National Chung Cheng University. In the 1940s, he played a key role, along with Wan Chun Cheng, in identifying and naming a new living species of Metasequoia known only from fossils, in Sichuan, China. In the 1950s, Hu was critical of Lysenko's anti-Mendelian doctrines in genetics and agricultural practices, despite heavy Soviet influences and political pressures at that time. Science Society of China Bell, Andrew W.. "A Tree Grows in China". Journal of American-East Asian Relations. 23: 257–281. Doi:10.1163/18765610-02303006. THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE “LIVING FOSSIL” METASEQUOIA GLYPTOSTROBOIDES: A REVIEW
Hongik University regarded as the best architecture and art school in South Korea, was founded by an independence activist in 1946. It is located in South Korea with a second campus in Sejong. Hongik University has design in South Korea; however the university offers a comprehensive range of undergraduate and graduate programs, with its fine arts college of 11 departments and architecture department most renowned and prestigious in Korea. As of 2007, the university was home to 14,500 undergraduate students and 2,600 graduate students, the undergraduate school is consisted of College of Fine Arts, College of Education, College of Engineering, College of Liberal Arts, College of Architecture, College of Law, College of Economics and Business Administration; the graduate school provides research-based and practice-based programs in comprehensive fields including liberal arts, fine arts and design, economics, performing arts, urban planning, architecture and photography. The shortened term for Hongik University, "Hongdae," serves as a metonym for the neighborhood.
The main campus of the school is in west central Seoul, the second in Sejong. The neighborhood of the Seoul campus has been renowned for Korean indie music and art culture since the 1980s; until the 2000s, the district remained as an original indie hipster area for young adults, due to the incursion and expansion of corporate brands and real estate development, gentrification has become a serious issue for many years. As an outcome, the neighborhood has expanded to adjacent areas, it is a crowded and commercial district full of young adults who would like to enjoy hip restaurants, bars and night clubs, art galleries including alternative art spaces. The university was established shortly after Korean independence; the Daejongkyo founders, upon returning to Korea following Japanese surrender after years of exile in China, prioritized the establishment of an educational institution. As a result, in 1946, they founded the school named Hongmoon-daehakgwan. Lee Hung Soo, a wealthy Korean independent activist, donated the initial funds from which the university found its beginnings.
In August 1948, Hongik University and Hongik Foundation was approved by the Korean government. By 1950, the school had expanded to accommodate departments in law, liberal arts, political science, science; the school was forced to move to Busan during the Korean War. Upon its return to Seoul in 1953, the university continued its growth. In Seoul, the university continued to expand academic programs, including departments of business and economics, engineering, fine arts, handicrafts, as well as a Graduate School; the foundation established Hongik Junior Technical College, Hongik Junior and Senior High Schools, Hongik Girls' Junior and Senior High Schools, Hongik Elementary School. In 1971 Hongik College attained a new status, merging with Soo-Do Engineering College to form Hongik University, with twenty departments in the College of Business and Economics and Fine Arts, it was in 1971 that the Graduate School of Industrial Arts came into being. Evening classes and the College of Education were added in 1973, respectively.
In 1981-82, the Ministry of Education authorized the establishment of the College of Liberal Arts, the Graduate School of Environmental Studies, the Graduate School of Education. In keeping pace with the growing student enrollment, a program of physical expansion was pursued; the Liberal Arts Building and the Computer Center were completed in 1983 and 1985 and the construction of the Gymnasium was completed at the end of 1985. Two student dormitories were constructed: the first one, a six-story building of 122 square meters, was built in 1988, the other, a six-story building of 263 square meters with two underground floors, was built in 1989. In the same year, the auditorium, damaged by a fire, was remodeled, resulting in a three-story building of 282 square meters. 1989 saw the opening of a second campus at Sejong known as Jochiwon, Chungcheongnam-do. On April 23, 1988, the first phase of construction, including the lecture buildings, gymnasium and dormitories started. Sports facilities for baseball and tennis were added.
All these efforts culminated into 11 buildings as of March 1991. Further expansion took place from 1991 to 1994, with more departments and colleges being added to the university; the years 1986 through 1988 marked a period of further expansion in Hongik's educational programs. The Graduate School of International Business Administration and the College of Law & Economics were established; the Department of Art Science, the Department of Printmaking, the Department of Visual Design were added to the College of Fine Arts. In addition, the Institute of Fine Arts & Design Education was set up to provide continuing education for adults. In keeping pace with the growing student enrollment, a program of physical expansion was pursued; the Liberal Arts Building and the Computer Center were completed in 1983 and 1985 and the construction of the Gymnasium was completed at the end of 1985. Two student dormitories were constructed: the first one, a six-story building of 122 square meters, was built in 1988, the other, a six-story building of 263 square meters with two underground floors, was built in 1989.
In the same year, the auditorium, damaged by a fire, was remodeled, resulting in a three-story building of 282 square meters. In 1989 the College of Industrial Sciences, with eleven departments, was established at the second campus in Sejo