In archeology, cliff dwellings are dwellings formed by using niches or caves in high cliffs, with more or less excavation or with additions in the way of masonry. Two special sorts of cliff dwelling are distinguished by archaeologists: the cliff-house, built on levels in the cliff, the cavate, dug out, by using natural recesses or openings. Rock-cut architecture refers to rather grander temples, but tombs, cut into living rock, although for example the Ajanta Caves in India, of the 2nd century BCE to 5th century CE housed several hundred Buddhist monks and are cut into a cliff, as are the Mogao Caves in China; some of the most famous cliff dwellings are those in North America among the canyons of the southwest, in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Chihuahua in Mexico, some of which are still used by Native Americans. There has been considerable discussion as to their antiquity, but modern research finds no definite justification for assigning them to a distinct primitive race, or farther back than the ancestors of the modern Pueblo people.
The area in which they occur coincides with that in which other traces of the Pueblo tribes have been found. The niches that were used are of considerable size, occurring in cliffs up to a thousand feet in height, approached by rock steps or log ladders. Ancestral Puebloan dwellings Bandiagara Escarpment Moki steps White Canyon Water glyphs Timeline of dendrochronology timestamp events Noble, David Grant. "Ancient Ruins of the Southwest. Northland Publishing, Arizona 1995. ISBN 0-87358-530-5 Oppelt, Norman T. "Guide to Prehistoric Ruins of the Southwest". Pruett Publishing, Colorado, 1989. ISBN 0-87108-783-9; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cliff-dwellings". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 507. Media related to Cliff dwellings at Wikimedia Commons
Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in North America. It extends from central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and northern Costa Rica, within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In the 16th century, European diseases like smallpox and measles caused the deaths of upwards of 90% of the indigenous people, it is one of five areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico in present-day Peru, in the northern coastal region. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. Beginning as early as 7000 BCE, the domestication of cacao, beans, avocado, vanilla and chili, as well as the turkey and dog, caused a transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer tribal grouping to the organization of sedentary agricultural villages. In the subsequent Formative period and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious tradition, a vigesimal numeric system, a complex calendric system, a tradition of ball playing, a distinct architectural style, were diffused through the area.
In this period, villages began to become stratified and develop into chiefdoms with the development of large ceremonial centers, interconnected by a network of trade routes for the exchange of luxury goods, such as obsidian, cacao, Spondylus shells and ceramics. While Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important. Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf Coast of Mexico and extended inland and southwards across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Frequent contact and cultural interchange between the early Olmec and other cultures in Chiapas and Oaxaca laid the basis for the Mesoamerican cultural area. All this was facilitated by considerable regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica along the Pacific coast; this formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of centers such as El Mirador and Tikal, the Zapotec at Monte Albán.
During this period, the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures, the Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya hieroglyphic script. Mesoamerica is one of only three regions of the world where writing is known to have independently developed. In Central Mexico, the height of the Classic period saw the ascendancy of the city of Teotihuacan, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area and northward. Upon the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 AD, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico, such as Xochicalco and Cholula, ensued. At this time during the Epi-Classic period, the Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages. During the early post-Classic period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán.
Towards the end of the post-Classic period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica. The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Over the next centuries, Mesoamerican indigenous cultures were subjected to Spanish colonial rule. Aspects of the Mesoamerican cultural heritage still survive among the indigenous peoples who inhabit Mesoamerica, many of whom continue to speak their ancestral languages, maintain many practices harking back to their Mesoamerican roots; the term Mesoamerica means "middle America" in Greek. Middle America refers to a larger area in the Americas, but it has previously been used more narrowly to refer to Mesoamerica. An example is the title of the 16 volumes of The Handbook of Middle American Indians. "Mesoamerica" is broadly defined as the area, home to the Mesoamerican civilization, which comprises a group of peoples with close cultural and historical ties. The exact geographic extent of Mesoamerica has varied through time, as the civilization extended North and South from its heartland in southern Mexico.
The term was first used by the German ethnologist Paul Kirchhoff, who noted that similarities existed among the various pre-Columbian cultures within the region that included southern Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, western Honduras, the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. In the tradition of cultural history, the prevalent archaeological theory of the early to middle 20th century, Kirchhoff defined this zone as a cultural area based on a suite of interrelated cultural similarities brought about by millennia of inter- and intra-regional interaction. Mesoamerica is recognized as a near-prototypical cultural area, the term is now integrated in the standard terminology of pre-Columbian anthropological studies. Conversely, the sister terms Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica, which refer to northern Mexico and the western United States have not entered into widespread usage; some of the significant cultural traits defining the Mesoamerican cultural tradition are: sedentism based on maize agricultu
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, east to eastern Tibet in the Old World, in the mountains of Central America; the highest-known juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 ft in southeastern Tibet and the northern Himalayas, creating one of the highest tree-lines on earth. Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low-spreading shrubs with long, trailing branches, they are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either dioecious; the female seed cones are distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with one to 12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species, these "berries" are red-brown or orange; the seed maturation time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination.
The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with six to 20 scales. In zones 7 through 10, junipers can release pollen several times each year. A few species of junipers bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring. Many junipers have two types of leaves; when juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing'whip' shoots are intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is with no scale leaves. In some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed; the needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Bucculatrix inusitata and juniper carpet, is eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera species such as Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, juniper pug, pine beauty.
Junipers are gymnosperms, which means they have no flowers or fruits. Depending on the species, the seeds they produce take 1 -- 3 years; the impermeable coat of the seed keeps water from getting in and protects the embryo when being dispersed. It can result in a long dormancy, broken by physically damaging the seed coat. Dispersal can occur from being swallowed whole by mammals; the resistance of the seed coat allows it to be passed down through the digestive system and out without being destroyed along the way. These seeds last a long time, as they can be dispersed long distances over the course of a few years; the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving different totals, Farjon accepting 52 species, Adams accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going; the section Juniperus is an obvious monophyletic group though. Juniperus sect. Juniperus: Needle-leaf junipers.
The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, jointed at the base. Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus communis – Common juniper Juniperus communis subsp. Alpina – Alpine juniper Juniperus conferta – Shore juniper Juniperus rigida – Temple juniper or needle juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus brevifolia – Azores juniper Juniperus cedrus – Canary Islands juniper Juniperus deltoides – Eastern prickly juniper Juniperus formosana – Chinese prickly juniper Juniperus lutchuensis – Ryukyu juniper Juniperus navicularis – Portuguese prickly juniper Juniperus oxycedrus – Western prickly juniper or cade juniper Juniperus macrocarpa – Large-berry juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus: Cones with 3 seeds fused together. Juniperus drupacea – Syrian juniperJuniperus sect. Sabina: Scale-leaf junipers; the adult leaves are scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base.
Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here. Old World species Juniperus chinensis – Chinese juniper Juniperus convallium – Mekong juniper Juniperus excelsa – Greek juniper Juniperus excelsa polycarpos – Persian juniper Juniperus foetidissima – Stinking juniper Juniperus indica – Black juniper Juniperus komarovii – Komarov's juniper Juniperus phoenicea – Phoenicean juniper Juniperus pingii – Ping juniper Juniperus procera – East African juniper Juniperus procumbens – Ibuki juniper Juniperu
The Bandiagara Escarpment is an escarpment in the Dogon country of Mali. The sandstone cliff rises about 500 meters above the lower sandy flats to the south, it has a length of 150 kilometers. The area of the escarpment is inhabited today by the Dogon people. Before the Dogon, the escarpment was inhabited by the Toloy peoples. Many structures remain from the Tellem; the Bandiagara Escarpment was listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1989. The Cliffs of Bandiagara are a sandstone chain ranging from south to northeast over 200 km and extending to the Grandamia massif; the end of the massif is marked by Mali's highest peak at 1,115 meters. Because of its archaeological and geological characteristics, the entire site is one of the most imposing in West Africa; the cave-dwelling Tellem, an ethnic group pushed out by the arrival of the Dogons, used to live in the slopes of the cliff. The Tellem legacy is evident in the caves they carved into the cliffs so that they could bury their dead high up, far from the frequent flash floods of the area.
Dozens of villages are located along the cliff, such as Kani Bonzon. It was near this village that the Dogons arrived in the 14th century, from there they spread over the plateau, the escarpment and the plains of the Seno-Gondo. According to local oral history, the Dogon were undisturbed by French colonial powers due to natural tunnels weaving through the Bandiagara Escarpment. Only the Dogon knew of the tunnels, were able to use them to ambush and repel aggressors. Today, local guides escort tourist groups along the escarpment to visit Dogon villages. A series of trails runs along the cliffs, hostels in each village provide food and lodging; the host villages receive income from the tourist tax. Large increases in tourism to the area are expected, as a new highway is constructed, putting pressure on local, traditional cultures. In addition, The Independent reports that looting of ancient artifacts is widespread in the area, poorly policed. To call attention to the issue of uncontrolled tourist visitation, the World Monuments Fund included the Bandiagara Escarpment in the 2004 World Monuments Watch.
In 2005, WMF provided a grant from American Express to the Mission Culturelle de Bandiagara for the development of a management plan. Beyond the protection of traditional buildings, the management plan calls for the regulation of new construction through the establishment of strict building guidelines, such as those that govern new development in historic districts around the world. After the 2012 war in Mali, central areas of the country, including the Dogon Plateau and Bandiagara Escarpment, have become dangerous. Terrorist groups operate in the area, violence between local ethnicities occurs on a daily basis; as of 2018 it is inadvisable to travel to this area for tourism, Malian security forces have been known to turn back those who attempt to do so. In March, 2018 an armed group attacked a hotel frequented by UN staff in the town of Bandiagara killing several people. Bandiagara UNESCO - Cliff of Bandiagara Thierry Joffroy and Lassana Cissé, "Culture at a Crossroads: For Mali’s Bandiagara Escarpment, extraordinary geology and human genius have conspired to create one of the world’s great cultural landscapes.
For the Dogon cliff-dwellers who live there, the future hangs in the balance." ICON Magazine, Fall 2005, p. 38-45
The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado. The Ancestral Puebloans are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture, they lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, cliff-sited dwellings for defense. The Ancestral Puebloans possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado Plateau linking hundreds of communities and population centers, they held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences. The kiva, a congregational space, used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient people's community structure. In contemporary times, the people and their archaeological culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes; the Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term.
Reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean "ancient enemies". Contemporary Puebloans do not want this term to be used. Archaeologists continue to debate; the current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, during the archaeologically designated Early Basketmaker II Era. Beginning with the earliest explorations and excavations, researchers identified Ancestral Puebloans as the forerunners of contemporary Pueblo peoples. Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Spanish explorers who used it to refer to the people's particular style of dwelling; the Navajo people, who now reside in parts of former Pueblo territory, referred to the ancient people as Anaasází, an exonym meaning "ancestors of our enemies", referring to their competition with the Pueblo peoples.
The Navajo now use the term in the sense of referring to "ancient people" or "ancient ones". Hopi people used the term Hisatsinom, to describe the Ancestral Puebloans; the Ancestral Puebloans were one of four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest. This area is sometimes referred to as Oasisamerica in the region defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America; the others are the Mogollon and Patayan. In relation to neighboring cultures, the Ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeast quadrant of the area; the Ancestral Puebloan homeland centers on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico on the east to southern Nevada on the west. Areas of southern Nevada and Colorado form a loose northern boundary, while the southern edge is defined by the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Arizona and the Rio Puerco and Rio Grande in New Mexico. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture has been found extending east onto the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers and in the Galisteo Basin.
Terrain and resources within this large region vary greatly. The plateau regions have high elevations ranging from 4,500 to 8,500 feet. Extensive horizontal mesas are capped by sedimentary formations and support woodlands of junipers and ponderosa pines, each favoring different elevations. Wind and water erosion have created steep-walled canyons, sculpted windows and bridges out of the sandstone landscape. In areas where resistant strata, such as sandstone or limestone, overlie more eroded strata such as shale, rock overhangs formed; the Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive building sites. All areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought, wind and water erosion. Summer rains could be unreliable and arrived as destructive thunderstorms. While the amount of winter snowfall varied the Ancestral Puebloans depended on the snow for most of their water. Snow melt allowed the germination of seeds, both cultivated, in the spring.
Where sandstone layers overlay shale, snow melt could accumulate and create seeps and springs, which the Ancestral Puebloans used as water sources. Snow fed the smaller, more predictable tributaries, such as the Chinle, Animas and Taos Rivers; the larger rivers were less directly important to the ancient culture, as smaller streams were more diverted or controlled for irrigation. The Ancestral Puebloan culture is best known for the stone and earth dwellings its people built along cliff walls during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III eras, from about 900 to 1350 AD in total; the best-preserved examples of the stone dwellings are now protected within United States' national parks, such as Navajo National Monument, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Bandelier National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Canyon de Chelly National Monument. These villages, called pueblos by Spanish colonists, were accessible only by rope or through rock climbing.
These astonishing building achievements had modest beginnings. The first Ancestral Puebloan homes and villages were based on the pit-house, a common feature in the Basketmaker periods. Ancestral Puebloans are known for their pottery. In general, pottery used for cooking or storage in the region was unpainted gray, either smooth or textured. Pottery used for more formal purposes was more richly adorned. In the n
Cuarenta Casas is an archaeological site in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. Construction of the site is attributed to the Mogollon culture. Located in Vallecito in the municipality of Casas Grandes, Forty Houses is believed to be the southernmost site related to the period of Mogollon influence; the site consists of a series of cliff dwellings built in natural caves in the cliffs of Huapoca Canyon. The best known is the Cueva de las Ventanas. Early Spanish explorers named the site Cuarenta Casas based on their speculation of the total number of structures; the area consists of five main cave communities: Cueva del Puente, Cueva de la Serpiente, Nido del Aguila and Cueva Grande. The zone is located 45 kilometers north of the Maderas Municipality, in the Sierra Madre Occidental and some 250 kilometers northwest of Chihuahua City. There are five Paquimé Culture archaeological sites in this area, accessible from the Madera municipality, are: Located 36 kilometers west of Madera, by a dirt road.
The Ancestral Pueblo caves consist of the Eagle Nest caves. They are considered the most impressive built on cliffs. Have complete structures. There are wonderful views of the Huapoca Canyon, it has 14 adobe houses, over 1,000 years old. It only has one house, built on the edge of a sheer cliff under a rocky overhang, provides a meaning to its name. Located 66 kilometers west of Madera, on a dirt road. Cueva Grande hides behind branches of trees; the mouth of the cave is obscured by a waterfall from the top of the cave to a stream. There are double-story houses that are good examples of the native construction techniques. There is a round grain storage area behind the structure. Cave complex, 50 kilometers south of Madera. Has an extended archaeological remain area at the base of the Sirupa canyon. 45 kilometers north of Madera During the early 16th century, explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca wrote, "And here by the side of the mountain, we forged our way inland more than 50 leagues and there found forty houses."
The current inhabitation of Chihuahua initiated throughout the Western Mountain Range, when native hunter-gatherer groups moved from the north looking for areas with abundant edible plants. One of those groups produced the first known evidences in the "Cueva de las Ventanas", when they still lacked the constructions we now see; as these settlers dominated agricultural techniques began occupying the margins of the rivers and originated the Paquimé culture, neighboring what today is known as Casas Grandes, Chihuahua. Cuarentas Casas construction occurred during the height of Paquimé, a period corresponding to the late Mogollon culture period. Cuarentas Casas was a refuge site, similar to others at the Mesa Bandelier sites; the buildings share the typical T-shaped doorways of their northern neighbors and are constructed from adobe and rock with pine logs beams. It is possible that Cuarenta Casas was a garrison that protected allied groups in the region, in addition to safekeeping commercial routes.
It settlers farmed maize and pumpkin, their nourishment was supplemented with hunting of small species and harvesting of eatable wild plants like acorns, yucca seeds and maguey leaves. This was confirmed by remains found in archaeological excavations; the Paquimé regional center must have had frequent problems with hostile neighboring groups, which explains the presence of many surveillance points in extensive areas. Besieged by those groups or by internal problems, the settlement decayed, was abandoned and some of its inhabitants emigrated. Constructions date back to that period; the routes to the Pacific followed the Piedras Verdes River to the south and connected with the rivers that flow to the Pacific by way of smaller arroyos and canyons. Among these is the Huapoca Canyon to the west of the town of Madera; the Huapoca Canyon is not among the deepest of the Sierra Tarahumara but it possesses the most archaeological interest. The reasons why the settlement decayed, at 1340 CE are not known.
At the Paquimé fall as social and cultural center, the commercial routes disappeared, the guardians left their posts and many settlements throughout the route were abandoned. "Cueva de las Ventanas" was occupied with ceremonial purposes. As of 1520, the caves still were inhabited by native groups, hence it was possible to obtain information about their way of life, the natives named themselves "Jovas" or Cáhitas, with that name they referred to a group or larger family; this ethnic group is now considered extinct. The latest occupation of Cuarenta Casas occurred during the Paquimé apogee. Of the cave complex, the only area restored is the "Cueva de las Ventanas", it is a small archaeological site constructed with strong walls of poured adobe, with small "T" doors, characterizing the region pre-Hispanic architecture. It is a two-story structure of which only the ground floor rooms can be visited, these are distributed such that space was maximized within the space available in the cave. All rooms had stuccoed floors and furnaces.
It is totally destroyed and was placed towards the cave slope. On its higher section, a watchtower was constructed, it was equipped with a small drain channel and a urinal, the only ones found at the site. It
Agave americana, common names sentry plant, century plant, maguey or American aloe, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae, native to Mexico, the United States in New Mexico and Texas. Today, it is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant, it has become naturalized in many regions, including the West Indies, parts of South America, the southern Mediterranean Basin, parts of Africa, China and Australia. Despite the common name "American aloe", it is not related to plants in the genus Aloe. Although it is called the century plant, it lives only 10 to 30 years, it has a spread around 6–10 ft with gray-green leaves of 3–5 ft long, each with a prickly margin and a heavy spike at the tip that can pierce deeply. Near the end of its life, the plant sends up a tall, branched stalk, laden with yellow blossoms, that may reach a total height up to 25–30 ft tall, its common name derives from its semelparous nature of flowering only once at the end of its long life. The plant dies after flowering, but produces suckers or adventitious shoots from the base, which continue its growth.
A. americana was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in the 1753 edition of Species Plantarum, with the binomial name, still used today. A. americana is cultivated as an ornamental plant for the large dramatic form of mature plants—for modernist, drought tolerant, desert-style cactus gardens—among many planted settings. It is used in hot climates and where drought conditions occur; the plants can be evocative of 18th-19th-century Spanish colonial and Mexican provincial eras in the Southwestern United States and xeric Mexico. It is a popular landscape plant in beach gardens in Florida and coastal areas of the Southeastern United States, it is a popular plant in Spain, specially in the areas of Almeria and Murcia. Two subspecies and two varieties of A. americana are recognized by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: A. a. subsp. Americana A. a. subsp. Protamericana Gentry A. a. var. expansa Gentry A. a. var. oaxacensis GentryCultivars include:'Marginata' agm with yellow stripes along the margins of each leaf'Mediopicta' agm with a broad cream central stripe'Mediopicta Alba' agm with a central white band'Mediopicta Aurea' with a central yellow band'Striata' with multiple yellow to white stripes along the leaves'Variegata' agm with white edges on the leaves..
If the flower stem is cut before flowering, a sweet liquid called aguamiel gathers in the hollowed heart of the plant. This can be fermented to produce the alcoholic drink called pulque; the leaves yield fibers, known as pita, which are suitable for making rope, matting, or coarse cloth. They are used for embroidery of leather in a technique known as piteado. Both pulque and maguey fiber were important to the economy of pre-Columbian Mexico, where the fermented drink was known as octli. In the tequila-producing regions of Mexico, agaves are called mezcales; the high-alcohol product of fermented agave distillation is called mezcal. A mezcal called tequila is produced from Agave tequilana called "blue agave"; the many different types of mezcal include some which may be flavored with the pungent mezcal worm. Mezcal and tequila, although produced from agave plants, are different from pulque in their technique for extracting the sugars from the heart of the plant, in that they are distilled spirits.
In mezcal and tequila production, the sugars are extracted from the piñas by heating them in ovens, rather than by collecting aguamiel from the plant's cut stalk. Thus, if one were to distill pulque, it would not be a form of mezcal, but rather a different drink. Agave nectar is marketed as a natural form of sugar with a low glycemic index, due to its high fructose content; the plant figures in the coat of arms of Don Diego de Mendoza, a Native American governor of the village of Ajacuba, Hidalgo. Purpuric agave dermatitis Brandes, Stanley. "Maguey". Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 767–769. Gonçalves de Lima, Oswaldo. El maguey y el pulque en los códices mexicanos. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica 1956. Payno, Manuel. Memoria sobre el. Mexico City: Boix 1864. USDA Plants Profile for Agave americana Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network — Agave americana Agave americana — UC Photos gallery Espelie, Karl E.. E.. "Composition and ultrastructure of the suberized cell wall of isolated crystal idioblasts from Agave americana L. leaves".
Planta. 155: 166–75. Doi:10.1007/BF00392548. PMID 24271671