The Red Eyebrows was one of the two major agrarian rebellion movements against Wang Mang's short-lived Xin dynasty, the other being Lülin. It was so named; the rebellion active in the modern Shandong and northern Jiangsu regions led to Wang Mang's downfall by draining his resources, allowing Liu Xuan, leader of the Lülin, to overthrow Wang and temporarily reestablish an incarnation of the Han dynasty. The Red Eyebrows overthrew Gengshi Emperor and placed their own Han descendant puppet, teenage Emperor Liu Penzi, on the throne, who ruled until the Chimei leaders' incompetence in ruling the territories under their control caused the people to rebel against them, forcing them to retreat and attempt to return home; when their path was blocked by the army of Liu Xiu's newly established Eastern Han regime, they surrendered to him. Circa 17 AD, due to Wang Mang's incompetence in ruling—particularly in his implementation of his land reform policy—and a major Yellow River flood affecting the modern Shandong and northern Jiangsu regions, the people who could no longer subsist on farming were forced into rebellion to try to survive.
The rebellions were numerous and fractured. Two key examples are discussed below; the case of Mother Lü was a unusual one. Her son was a minor official at the Haiqu county government, accused of a minor offence and executed by the county magistrate. Mother Lü, a substantial landowner, sold off her property and used the proceeds to recruit poor young men; when she gathered thousands, she stormed the county seat in the year 17 and killed the magistrate to avenge her son's death. She led her men to the sea, but died soon afterwards. Fan Chong had his own rebellion in 18 in the Ju and Langya counties, he used Mount Tai as his base, he was able to gather about 10,000 men. He soon entered into an alliance with other rebel leaders Pang An, Xu Xuan, Xie Lu, Yang Yin, pooling resources with them, they soon became powerful and unstoppable for the local governments. In 19, at the behest of his official Tian Kuang, Wang Mang oddly reacted to the agrarian rebellions by raising taxes; this only aggravated the agrarian rebels.
In 21, Wang sent vice generals Jing Shang and Wang Dang to try to put down the rebellions, but Jing and Wang's soldiers were so lacking in military discipline that they further angered the populace which had not rebelled, which caused them to join or help the rebels in greater earnest. Tian, who had earlier aggravated the rebellions, had some success against them, he advocated a policy where the villagers would be evacuated to the cities to trap the rebels into attacking fortifications. Wang, who by this point had distrusted Tian due to his military successes and summoned him back to the capital Chang'an. About this time, Mother Lü died, her followers joined forces with Fan Chong's forces, it should be noted that by this point and the other rebel leaders still lacked any real political ambition—even as they were showing genuine military abilities. The only rules of law that they had among the rebels was that one who murders would die, one who wounds would be responsible for the care of the victim until he or she heals.
The only titles for the rebel leaders were "county educator", "county clerk", "sheriff" -- not more grandiose titles as "general" or "prince". By 22, the forces that Jing and Wang led against Fan and other rebel generals were in shambles, in 22, Fan killed Jing in battle. Wang Mang reacted by sending two of his senior generals, Wang Kuang and Lian Dan with a massive regular force, against these rebels. Fan and the other rebel leaders, concerned that during battles it would become impossible to tell friend or foe, ordered that their men color their eyebrows red—and this is where the name Chimei came from. Wang and Lian, while capable generals on the battlefield failed to maintain proper military discipline; this led to a famous lament by the people victimized by their forces: I'd rather meet the Chimei than the Taishi. The Taishi is mild, but Gengshi wants to kill me! In winter 22, Wang and Lian had some successes against the Chimei leader Suolu Hui, capturing the city of Wuyan. Rather than allowing their forces to rest, Wang decided to attack the Chimei stronghold of Liang, Lian reluctantly attacked Liang with him.
At the battle of Chengchang, the tired Xin forces collapsed. Lian died in battle and Wang fled without his troops; this ended any serious attempt by Xin forces against the Chimei, as Xin would soon be confronted with the closer Lülin threat, which would capture Chang'an in 23 and kill Wang Mang, ending the Xin Dynasty and placing Gengshi Emperor on the throne. After Wang Mang's death, the entire empire at least nominally, submitted to Gengshi Emperor as the legitimately restored Han emperor. Gengshi Emperor temporarily placed his capital at Luoyang, he sent diplomats to try to persuade Chimei generals to submit as well. Fan Chong and the other key generals agreed, 20 odd Chimei generals went to Luoyang and were made marquesses. However, they were not given any actual m
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters", it was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han and the Eastern Han or Later Han; the emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came from the scholarly gentry class; the Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms.
These kingdoms lost all vestiges of their independence following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of scholars such as Dong Zhongshu; this policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty; the coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty. The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum that could be used to discern the cardinal direction of distant earthquakes.
The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior and vassal partner, but continued their military raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them; the ultimate Han victory in these wars forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world; the territories north of Han's borders were overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall.
Imperial authority was seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling, the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire; when Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist. According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the collapse of the Qin dynasty the hegemon Xiang Yu appointed Liu Bang as prince of the small fief of Hanzhong, named after its location on the Han River. Following Liu Bang's victory in the Chu–Han Contention, the resulting Han dynasty was named after the Hanzhong fief. China's first imperial dynasty was the Qin dynasty; the Qin unified the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their empire became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi Huang. Within four years, the dynasty's authority had collapsed in the face of rebellion.
Two former rebel leaders, Xiang Yu of Chu and Liu Bang of Han, engaged in a war to decide who would become hegemon of China, which had fissured into 18 kingdoms, each claiming allegiance to either Xiang Yu or Liu Bang. Although Xiang Yu proved to be a capable commander, Liu Bang defeated him at Battle of Gaixia, in modern-day Anhui. Liu Bang assumed the title "emperor" at the urging of his followers and is known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu. Chang'an was chosen as the new capital of the reunified empire under Han. At the beginning of the Western Han known as the Former Han dynasty, thirteen centrally controlled commanderies—including the capital region—existed in the western third of the empire, while the eastern two-thirds were divided into ten semi-autonomous kingdoms. To placate his prominent commanders from the war with Chu, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed some of them as kings. By 157 BC, the Han court h
Hundred Schools of Thought
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 B. C. during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China. An era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China, it was fraught with chaos and bloody battles, but it was known as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy because a broad range of thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely; this phenomenon has been called the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought. The thoughts and ideas discussed and refined during this period have profoundly influenced lifestyles and social consciousness up to the present day in East Asian countries and the East Asian diaspora around the world; the intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant scholars, who were employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government and diplomacy. This period ended with the subsequent purge of dissent. A traditional source for this period is Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian.
The autobiographical section of the Shiji, the "Taishigong Zixu", refers to the schools of thought described below. Confucianism is the body of thought, its written legacy lies in the Confucian Classics, which became the foundation of traditional society. Confucius, or Kongzi, looked back to the early days of the Zhou dynasty for an ideal socio-political order, he believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: "Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject". Furthermore, he contended. To Confucius, the functions of government and social stratification were facts of life to be sustained by ethical values. Mencius, or Mengzi, formulated his teachings directly in response to Confucius; the effect of the combined work of Confucius, the codifier and interpreter of a system of relationships based on ethical behavior, Mencius, the synthesizer and developer of applied Confucianist thought, was to provide traditional Chinese society with a comprehensive framework by which to order every aspect of life.
There were many accretions to the body of Confucian thought and over the millennia, from within and without the Confucian school. Interpretations adapted to contemporary society allowed for flexibility within Confucianism, while the fundamental system of modeled behavior from ancient texts formed its philosophical core. Diametrically opposed to Mencius, in regards to human nature, was the interpretation of Xunzi, another Confucian follower. Xunzi preached; the School of Law or Legalism doctrine was formulated by Li Kui, Shang Yang, Han Feizi, Li Si, who maintained that human nature was incorrigibly selfish. The Legalists exalted the state above all, seeking its prosperity and martial prowess over the welfare of the common people. Legalism influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government. During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken to form a sort of synthesis, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain intact until the late 19th century.
Philosophical Taoism or Daoism developed into the second most significant stream of Chinese thought. Its formulation is attributed to the legendary sage Laozi, said to predate Confucius, Zhuangzi; the focus of Taoism is on the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society. In many ways the opposite of rigid Confucian morality, Taoism was for many of its adherents a complement to their ordered daily lives. A scholar serving as an official would follow Confucian teachings, but at leisure or in retirement might seek harmony with nature as a Taoist recluse. Politically, Taoism advocates for rule through inaction, avoiding excessive interference. Mohism or Moism was developed by followers of Mozi. Though the school did not survive through the Qin dynasty, Mohism was seen as a major rival of Confucianism in the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought, its philosophy rested on the idea of impartial care: Mozi believed that "everyone is equal before heaven", that people should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love.
This is translated and popularized as "universal love", misleading as Mozi believed that the essential problem of human ethics was an excess of partiality in compassion, not a deficit in compassion as such. His aim was to re-evaluate behavior, not attitudes, his epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism.
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Han conquest of Gojoseon
The Han conquest of Gojoseon was a campaign launched by Emperor Wu of Han China against Wiman Joseon between 109 and 108 BC. It resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and the establishment of the Four Commanderies of Han in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Wi Man, or Wei Man, was a general in the vassal kingdom of Yan under the rule of Lu Wan. In 195 BC, Lu Wan was implicated in plotting rebellion against the Han dynasty, Emperor Gaozu of Han sent an army against him. Yan was defeated and Lu Wan fled to the Xiongnu while Wi Man sought refuge in the eastern kingdom of Gojoseon. Wi Man and one thousand of his followers adopted the dress of the Koreans and little by little, he gained a large following of both native Koreans and Chinese refugees, he usurped the throne of King Jun of Gojoseon, who fled south to Jin. The governor of Liaodong agreed to acknowledge Wi Man as a foreign vassal of Han so long as he guarded their border against barbarian intrusions, to allow passage any barbarians who wished to pay their respects to the Han emperor.
Wi Man's grandson, King Ugeo of Gojoseon, interrupted direct contact with envoys sent by chiefs of various tribes on the Korean Peninsula to the Han court. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu of Han dispatched She He to rebuke King Ugeo. After an audience with the king, She He failed in securing safe passage for the envoys. On the return trip, She He killed Wi Jang, an assistant, sent to escort him home; this angered King Ugeo. The direct pretext for war thus came when King Ugeo had the Han envoy executed, which angered Emperor Wu considerably; the initiation of war may have been brought by the desire to remove the possibility that Gojoseon would ally with the Xiongnu against the Han. Another reason may have been the deteriorating relations between Han and Gojoseon, because Wiman Joseon prevented trade between Han and polities such as Jinbeon. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu launched a Han military campaign into Gojoseon. Yang Pu and Xun Zhi respectively—set out from the Han empire to invade Gojoseon. Yang Pu's army of 50,000 sailed from Qi across the Bohai Sea towards Gojoseon, while Xun Zhi marched by land through Liaodong and headed towards Wanggeom, the capital of Gojoseon.
One of Yang's commanders by the name of Duo took command of a large number of troops and lead them ahead as a vanguard force. He suffered a disastrous defeat; as a result Yang Pu had only 7,000 men with him when they reached the capital of Gojoseon, Wanggeom-seong. Seeing how small the enemy army was, King Ugeo marched out and routing Yang Pu's army. Yang Pu spent the next ten days rounding up the remnants of his army, which had fled into the nearby mountains. Meanwhile Xun Zhi failed to break Gojoseon's army west of the Yalu River; when Emperor Wu received news of these defeats, he wished to reestablish peaceful relations between Han and Gojoseon. King Ugeo agreed, to make amends, he sent his son and a gift of 5,000 horses to the Han court; when the prince and his escort of 10,000 soldiers reached the Yalu River, Xun Zhi reasoned that they should lay down arms. The prince suspected that Xun Zhi was planning on murdering him and so went back to Wanggeom-seong, resuming the war. Xun Zhi succeeded in defeating it this time.
Xun Zhi and Yang Pu convered on Wanggeom-seong and laid siege to it, but the city was well guarded, after several months it had still not fallen. After a sudden attack by Xun Zhi, the high minister of Gojoseon secretly sent envoys to discuss terms of surrender with Yang Pu, however no final agreement was reached. Xun Zhi wished to make an all out attack on the city but Yang Pu favored continued negotiations, therefore relations between the two generals began to strain; when Emperor Wu sent the governor of Ji'nan, Gongsun Sui, to straighten things out, Xun Zhi told him that Yang Pu was delaying the defeat of Gojoseon. Gongsun Sui used his imperial credentials to summon Yang Pu to Xun Zhi's camp. Once there, they took command of his army. Emperor Wu sent orders for Gongsun Sui to be executed. With both armies under his command, Xun Zhi made preparations for a final attack on Wanggeom-seong. Officials such as No In, Han Eum, Sam of Gojoseon, Wang Gyeop insisted on surrendering to the Han, but King Ugeo disagreed.
In April of 108 BC, Wang Gyeop, No In, Han Eum, Sam surrendered to the Han. Sam sent assassins into Wanggeom-seong and killed King Ugeo. Wanggeom-seong still struggled on under the leadership of Minister Seong Gi but Seong Gi was assassinated; the people of Wanggeom-seong were convinced to surrender by the sons of King Ugeo and No In. In 108 BC, all of Gojoseon was conquered by the Han. After the conquest of Gojoseon, four Han commanderies were created to administer the conquered territories; these were Lelang, Xuantu and Lintun. The most significant commandery was located in Lelang, which controlled the region until 313 AD; the conquest of Gojoseon in 108 BC by Han led to the Proto-Three Kingdoms period of Korea. While the surrendered nobles and ministers of Gojoseon were enfeoffed as marquises, Xun Zhi was arrested upon returning home and executed for jealousy and betrayal of strategy. Yang Pu was sentenced to execution for his subordinate's defeat, but on payment of a fine he was allowed to become a commoner.
Gojoseon–Yan War Matray, James Irving. Korea divided: The thirty-eighth parallel and the Demilitarized Zone. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-7829-7. Pai, Hyung Il. "Culture contact and culture change: The Korean Peninsula and its rela
Lü Clan Disturbance
The Lü Clan Disturbance refers to a political upheaval after the death of Empress Lü Zhi of the Han dynasty, the aftermath of which saw her clan, the Lü, who were consort kin, being deposed from their seats of power and massacred. Sometimes the term encompasses the total domination of the political scene by Empress Lü Zhi and her kin after the death of her son Emperor Hui to an extent greater than during his reign; when Emperor Hui died in autumn 188 BCE, his son ascended to the throne as Emperor Qianshao. However, there was no pretension that he was in charge. In winter 188 BCE, Empress Dowager Lü wanted to make her brothers princes despite her husband Emperor Gaozu's ruling that only members of the imperial Liu clan could be made princes – a ruling that Empress Dowager Lü had a hand in creating, she was opposed by Right Minister Wang Ling but was supported by Left Minister Chen Ping and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Zhou Bo. When Wang rebuked Chen and Zhou in private for going against Gaozu's ruling, they explained that their compliance with Empress Dowager Lü's position was necessary to protect the empire and the Liu family.
Empress Dowager Lü promoted Wang to the honorary position of the emperor's teacher. Lü removed him from his position as Right Minister and had him returned to his march and promoted Chen to Right Minister and her lover Shen Yiji, Marquess of Piyang, to Left Minister. Empress Dowager Lü went ahead and carried out her plan to make members of her clan princes. In summer 187 BCE, after her daughter, Princess Yuan of Lu died, she made the princess's son, Zhang Yan, Prince of Lu. Princess Yuan of Lu's husband and Zhang Yan's father, Zhang Ao, during Gaozu's reign, been Prince of Zhao, but was removed as part of the policy against non-Liu princes, so Empress Dowager Lü might have felt that making Zhang Yan a prince would be considered to be more justified. A month she required the emperor's officials to formally petition her to make her nephew Lü Tai Prince of Lü – carving the principality out from the Principality of Qi. In the unprecedented and subsequently rare action of granting a female a march, in 184 BCE, she made her younger sister Lü Xu Marchioness of Lingguang.
In spring 181 BCE, Lü Tai's son Lü Chan, who had become Prince of Lü after his father's death, was given the larger principality of Liang, but did not go to his principality but stayed in the capital Chang'an to serve as the emperor's teacher and assistant to Empress Dowager Lü. That year, the empress dowager made her nephew Lü Lu Prince of Zhao and another son of Lü Tai's, Lü Tong, Prince of Yan. In summer of 180 BCE, Empress Dowager Lü died. Before her death, she had put Lü Lu and Lü Chan in charge of the imperial guards – Lü Lu in charge of the stronger northern division and Lü Chan in charge of the weaker southern division – and the government. After her death, it was alleged that the Lü clan had a plan to overthrow the Han dynasty and assume imperial power themselves. Purportedly, this plan was leaked to Liu Zhang, the Marquess of Zhuxu and grandson of Emperor Gao through his oldest son Liu Fei, who had married a daughter of Lü Lu and who had learned of the plan from his wife. Liu Zhang planned a rebellion with his younger brother Liu Xingju, the Marquess of Dongmou, their older brother Liu Xiang, the Prince of Qi.
Under their plan, Liu Xiang would lead Qi forces against the capital, while Liu Zhang and Liu Xingju would persuade the imperial guards to rise up against the Lüs. If they were successful, they planned to have Liu Xiang declared emperor. However, everything did not go to plan. In autumn 180 BCE, Liu Xiang did indeed start a military campaign with his own forces and gained the support of the nearby Principality of Langye. Lü Chan sent Guan Ying, the Marquess of Yingyin, against the Qi forces, but Guan, unwilling to fight the Qi forces, managed to negotiate a secret armistice with Liu Xiang, both armies halted some distance apart from each other. At this time, the Lüs were ready to take over the imperial dynasty, but did not do so because they were concerned at the reactions of Zhou Bo, Liu Zhang, the principalities of Qi and Chu. While the crisis was forming in Xi'an, so was a new conspiracy, involving: Liu Zhang Liu Xingju Zhou Bo Chen Ping Guan Ying Cao Qu, the Marquess of Pingyang and son of Cao Can, a former prime minister Li Ji, the son of Li Shang, the Marquess of Quzhou and the best friend of Lü Lu Ji Tong, the Marquess of Xiangping Liu Jie, the Minister of Vassal Affairs.
The conspirators first tried to get the Lüs to give up power voluntarily, by having Li Ji persuade Lü Lu that the best course of action for him and Lü Chan was to return to their principalities and turn over power to Zhou and Chen. Lü Lu was unable to reach a consensus with the Lü clan elders; the conspirators took drastic actions. Ji issu