Minnesota's 8th congressional district
Minnesota's 8th congressional district covers the northeastern part of Minnesota. It is anchored by the state's fifth-largest city, it includes most of the Mesabi and Vermilion iron ranges. The district is best known for its mining, agriculture and shipping industries. For many decades, the district reliably voted Democratic, but in 2016, Republicans made strong gains and Donald Trump carried the district by a 15-point margin. In the 2018 midterm election, it was one of only three US Congressional districts flipped to Republican. Only St. Louis, Lake and Carlton counties in the extreme northeast of the district had margins for the Democratic party candidate; the district is represented by Republican Pete Stauber. Minnesota's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts
Becker County, Minnesota
Becker County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 32,504, its county seat is Detroit Lakes. A portion of the White Earth Indian Reservation extends into the county; the county was created in 1858 and organized in 1871. Becker County became a county on March 18, 1858, it was named for George Loomis Becker, one of three men elected to Congress when Minnesota became a state. Since Minnesota could only send two, Becker elected to stay behind, he was promised to have a county named after him; the city of Detroit Lakes was founded by Colonel George Johnston in 1871. It grew with the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Johnston had led settlers hailing from New England to settle in this region. An 1877 election decided that Detroit Lakes known as Detroit, would become the county seat. Detroit won the election by a 90% majority. Frazee, Lake Park, Audubon were in the running. In 1884, Detroit Lakes had many businesses, including two hotels, a bank, a newspaper, an opera house.
The first courthouse was built that year. In 1885, the first County Fire Department was constructed. In 1903, the Soo Line Railroad built a line through the county. Detroit Lakes hosts a park dedicated to the Grand Army of the Republic; the City of Detroit Lakes rededicated the GAR Park on April 15, 2015, marking the 150th anniversary of the end of the Civil War and the death of President Lincoln. The rededication was sponsored by Colonel Tom Mortenson and his wife, representing the Women's Relief Corps who spearheaded community support for the effort that included new signage for the Park and a time capsule to be opened on the 200th anniversary; the county terrain tree-covered and dotted with lakes and ponds. The terrain slopes to the west and north, with its highest point near its NW corner, at 1,631' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,445 square miles, of which 1,315 square miles is land and 130 square miles is water. Becker County has much diversity in its topographical features, it is home to several hundred lakes, many acres of fertile farm land, forested areas.
Much of the land consists of hills and deciduous trees. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Detroit Lakes have ranged from a low of −2 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July, although a record low of −46 °F was recorded in February 1936 and a record high of 107 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.53 inches in February to 4.44 inches in June. Becker County voters have voted solidly Republican in recent decades. In only one national election since 1980 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 30,000 people, 11,844 households, 8,184 families in the county. The population density was 22.8/sqmi. There were 16,612 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.35% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 7.52% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 2.32% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
32.2 % were of 26.0 % Norwegian and 5.2 % Swedish ancestry. There were 11,844 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.10% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.02. The county population contained 26.60% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,797, the median income for a family was $41,807. Males had a median income of $29,641 versus $20,693 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,085. About 8.50% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
Becker County is the setting of the 2006 independent film Sweet Land, though it was filmed in Chippewa County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Becker County, Minnesota Becker County government’s website
U.S. Route 2
U. S. Route 2 or U. S. Highway 2 is an east–west U. S. Highway spanning 2,571 miles across the northern continental United States. US 2 consists of two segments connected by various roadways in southern Canada. Unlike some routes, which are disconnected into segments because of encroaching Interstate Highways, the two portions of US 2 were designed to be separate in the original 1926 highway plan; the western segment of US 2 has its western terminus at an interchange with Interstate 5 and State Route 529 in Everett and its eastern terminus at I-75 in St. Ignace, Michigan; the eastern segment of US 2 has its western terminus at US 11 in Rouses Point, New York and its eastern terminus at I-95 in Houlton, Maine. As its number indicates, it is the northernmost east–west U. S. Route in the country, it is the lowest primary-numbered east–west U. S. Route, whose numbers otherwise end in zero, was so numbered to avoid a US 0. Sections of US 2 in New England were once New England Route 15, part of the New England road marking system.
The western segment of US 2 extends from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan across the northern tier of the lower 48 states. Most of the western route was built paralleling the Great Northern Railway. US 2 adopted the railway's route nickname "The Highline" as the most northern crossing in the U. S; the Adventure Cycling Association's Northern Tier Bicycle Route is a bicycle touring route which follows or parallels US 2 for over 600 miles, most notably a 550-mile stretch between Columbia Falls and Williston, North Dakota. Within Washington state, US 2 is the northernmost all-season highway through the Cascade Mountains, it begins at Interstate 5 and State Route 529 in Everett, travels east via Stevens Pass. It intersects US 97 4 miles east of Leavenworth and continues as a duplicate route crossing the Columbia River at Wenatchee continues north as far as Orondo, where US 97 splits north. US 2 continues to the border in Newport. Shortly after entering Idaho from the west, US 2 crosses the Priest River.
US 2 follows Pend Oreille River to its source at Lake Pend Oreille. US 2 intersects Idaho State Highway 57 in the town of Priest River at mile 5.8. US 2 intersects US 95 at mile 28.4 in the town of Sandpoint. The two routes are duplexed for 36.2 miles until just after Bonners Ferry. At Three Mile Corner, US Route 2 continues southeast for 15.8 miles. US 2 is a vital northern corridor for Montana and has more mileage within Montana than in any other state, it intersects US 93 at Kalispell and passes through the southern end of Glacier National Park, crossing the continental divide at Marias Pass, before it enters the Great Plains west of Browning. It travels through Shelby; the highway continues east and leaves the state near the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. US 2 is an east–west highway that runs through North Dakota’s northern tier of larger cities: Williston, Devils Lake, Grand Forks. US 2 intersects US 85 at Williston, US 52 and US 83 at Minot, US 281 at Churchs Ferry, the I-29 / US 81 concurrency at Grand Forks.
US 2 is four-laned from North Dakota’s eastern edge to just past Williston, a stretch of about 343 miles, leaving the remaining 12 miles to the Montana border as a two-lane highway. In Rugby, just east of the route's intersection with ND 3, the highway passes the location designated in 1931 as the geographical center of North America; the monument marking the geographic center had to be relocated in 1971 when US 2 was converted from two lanes to four lanes. The portion of US 2 from Cass Lake to Bemidji is designated the Paul Bunyan Expressway, it intersects US 169 and the Mississippi River in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. At the crossing between Duluth, Minn. and Superior, Wisc. the highway crosses the Richard I. Bong Memorial Bridge, about 8,300 feet in length—roughly 11,800 feet in length when the above land approaches are included. Of the 266 miles of US 2 in Minnesota, 146 miles have four lanes located in the northwest part of the state; the Minnesota section of US 2 is defined as Routes 8 and 203 in Minnesota Statutes §§161.114 and 161.115.
After crossing the Bong Bridge and entering into the city of Superior, Wisconsin's western segment of the highway joins Belknap Street. After crossing the midsection of Superior, US 2 merges with US 53 for a few miles following East 2nd Street out of the city. Ten miles outside of Superior, US 53 and US 2 part ways. US 53 veers south toward Eau Claire, while US 2 continues to the city of Ashland and to the Wisconsin–Michigan state line at the city of Ironwood. An eastern segment of US 2 re-enters Wisconsin 4 miles northwest of Florence and proceeds concurrently with US 141 for 14.5 miles until exiting Wisconsin again near Iron Mountain, Michigan. US 2 enters Michigan at the city of Ironwood and runs east to the town of Crystal Falls, where it turns south and re-enters Wisconsin northwest of Florence, it re-enters Michigan north of Iron Mountain and continues through the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the cities of Escanaba, St. Ignace. Along the way, it cuts through the Ottawa and Hiawatha National Forests and follows the northern shore of Lake Michigan.
It ends at I-75, just north of the Mackinac Bridge in St. Ignace; the eastern segment of US 2 traverses the northeastern part of New York and the northern New England states. The road starts at US 11, just 1 mile south of the Canadian border at Rouses Point in Champlain, New York. From there it crosses the Richelieu River at the outlet of
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Beltrami County, Minnesota
Beltrami County is a county in the northern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 44,442, its county seat is Bemidji. The county's name comes from Italian adventurer Giacomo Beltrami, who explored the area in 1825; the county was created in 1866 and organized in 1896. Beltrami County comprises MN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Portions of the Leech Lake and Red Lake Indian reservations are in the county; the northernmost portion of the Mississippi River flows through the southern part of the county, through Bemidji. Beltrami and Renville are Minnesota's only counties. Beltrami County's southwest corner is considered part of the headwaters of the Mississippi River, which flows easterly and northeasterly from Lake Itasca through the southern part of the county. Much of the middle and upper county is taken up with the two sections of Red Lake; the county terrain consists of rolling low tree-covered hills, dotted with ponds. The terrain slopes to the east and north with its highest point near its southwest corner, at 1,457' ASL.
The county has a total area of 3,056 square miles, of which 2,505 square miles is land and 551 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Minnesota by area. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Bemidji have ranged from a low of −4 °F in January to a high of 79 °F in July, although a record low of −50 °F was recorded in January 1950 and a record high of 101 °F was recorded in July 1975. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.59 inches in February to 4.33 inches in July. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 39,650 people, 14,337 households, 9,749 families in the county; the population density was 15.8/sqmi. There were 16,989 housing units at an average density of 6.78/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 76.66% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 20.36% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.84% from two or more races. 0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.6% were of German, 19.7% Norwegian and 5.6% Swedish ancestry.
95.1 % spoke 2.4 % Ojibwa as their first language. There were 14,337 households out of which 34.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.30% were married couples living together, 13.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.00% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.13. The county population contained 28.70% under the age of 18, 13.90% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,392, the median income for a family was $40,345. Males had a median income of $30,434 versus $22,045 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,497. About 12.90% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over.
Over half the children in the county are born out of wedlock. About a third are born to teenaged mothers; the county has about twice the state average in terms of high school dropouts. Between 1990 and 2005 the county had a suicide rate four times higher than the state; the county exceeds the state and national rates in both violent and property crimes. On March 21, 2005 ten people were murdered by a spree killer at the Red Lake Indian Reservation. Beltrami County voters have tended to vote Democratic for several decades. Since 1960 the county has selected the Democratic Party candidate in 79% of national elections. Gilfillan Biotic Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Beltrami County, Minnesota Red Lake, the largest lake, in Minnesota. Official website 360 Degree Virtual Tour of 2011 Beltrami County Fair