Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge; the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval in about 430 hectares in size; the city's total population is 117,073. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam, it is sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North. Bruges has a significant economic importance, thanks to its port, was once one of the world's chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, a university institute for European studies; the place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvccia in 840–875 as Bruciam, Brutgis uico, in portu Bruggensi, Bricge, Brycge, Bruges, Bruggas and Brugge.
The name derives from the Old Dutch for "bridge": brugga. Compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd and brug; the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant. The Dutch word and the English "bridge" both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-. Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory; this Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development. In the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates; the Franks took over the whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus Flandrensis. The Viking incursions of the ninth century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications. Early medieval habitation starts in the 9th and 10th century on the Burgh terrain with a fortified settlement and church Bruges became important due to the tidal inlet, important to local commerce, This inlet was known as the "Golden Inlet".
Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, new walls and canals were built. In 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin; the new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges. Bruges had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges was included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges innovated, they developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including letters of credit; the city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices.
With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme to Sluys to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean; this development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries in the 14th century.
By the time Venetian galleys first appeared. Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the 13th century. After the Castilian wool monopoly ended, the Basques, many hailing from Bilbao, thrived as merchants and established their own commercial consulate in Bruges by the mid-15th century; the foreign merchants expanded the city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700; such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, after the Bruges Matins, the population joined forces with the Count of Flanders against the French, culminating in
Karel van Mander
Karel van Mander or Carel van Mander I was a Flemish painter, art historian and art theoretician, who established himself in the Dutch Republic in the latter part of his life. He is remembered as a biographer of Early Netherlandish painters and Northern Renaissance artists in his Schilder-boeck; as an artist and art theoretician he played a significant role in the spread and development of Northern Mannerism in the Dutch Republic. Most of the information about Karel van Mander's life is based on a brief and anonymous biographical sketch included in the posthumous second edition of the Schilder-boeck published in 1618 by Jacob Pietersz Wachter, it is not certain who wrote various candidates have been proposed. Most it has been argued that it was written by his son Karel van Mander the Younger, his son would have relied on biographical information that Karel van Mander had written himself as well as on his own recollections and notes. The information in the biographical sketch is not reliable but is still regarded as the best source of information on van Mander's life.
Van Mander was born in the County of Flanders. He studied under Lucas de Heere in Ghent, in 1568-1569 under Pieter Vlerick in Kortrijk; the next five years he devoted to the writing of religious plays for which he painted the scenery. Followed three years in Rome, his biographical sketch refers to van Mander as the discoverer of'caves' in Rome. This may be a reference to the Catacombs of Rome although the exact meaning of the reference is unclear. In Rome he may have come into contact with fellow Fleming Bartholomeus Spranger, who left Rome in 1575 for Vienna to enter into the service of the emperor, his patrons in Rome included several cardinals. On his return journey he passed through Vienna, together with Spranger and the sculptor Hans Mont, he made the triumphal arch for the royal entry of the emperor Rudolf II. Van Mander settled in Meulebeke in 1578 where he was active as a writer, he married an 18-year-old local girl. In 1580 he left for Kortrijk due to religious troubles caused by Catholic zealots in Meulebeke.
Karel van Mander had at some point become a Mennonite and was therefore a possible target of these zealots. In Kortrijk he got a commission for an altar piece. In Kortrijk another son was born, he left Kortrijk for Bruges in 1582 because of an outbreak of other reasons. In Bruges, he worked with the painter Paul Weyts; because of the threat of religious troubles and the plague, Karel fled with his family and his mother-in-law by ship to the Dutch Republic where he settled in Haarlem in the province of Holland in 1583. Here he worked for 20 years on a commission by the Haarlem city fathers to inventory "their" art collection; the city of Haarlem had confiscated all Catholic religious art after the satisfactie van Haarlem, which gave Catholics equal rights to Protestants, had been overturned in 1578. Van Mander used his work on the commission in his "Schilder-boeck". While in Haarlem he continued to paint, concentrating his energy on his favourite genre: historical allegories. In 1603 he rented a fortified manor renamed Kasteel Marquette in Heemskerk to proofread his book, published in 1604.
He died soon after it was published in Amsterdam at the age of 58. Karel van Mander was the founder, together with Hubertus Goltzius and Cornelis van Haarlem, of an'academy to study after life', it is not clear what this academy did but it is believed it was an informal discussion group which may have organised drawing classes with life models. It has been claimed that the nature of the academy was more of a literary nature, he had an important impact on art in the Dutch Republic when in 1585 he showed his friend Hendrick Goltzius drawings by Bartholomeus Spranger. Spranger was the leading artist of Northern Mannerism and was based in Prague as the court artist of emperor Rudolf II; these drawings had a galvanising effect on Goltzius. Goltzius made engravings of the drawings. Van Mander and Cornelis van Haarlem became known as the "Haarlem Mannerists" and artists from other towns joined the movement, their pictorial language was characterised by a strong awareness of style and cultivated elegance.
They strived for artful ingenuity rather than naturalism. They had a preference for depicting exaggeratedly brawny musclemen, violent drama, wild fantasy and a heightened richness of detail; the dissemination of the engravings of Goltzius went hand in hand with the new practice of art theorisation, new to the 16th century and in which Karel van Mander played an important role. He received budding artists in his home for evenings of communal drawing and study of classical mythology. After the iconoclasm of the Calvinists, religious themes had gone out of fashion and mythology had become popular. However, few painters could afford a trip to Italy such as the one, his purpose was to educate young painters in the proper artistic techniques. He was a firm believer in the hierarchy of genres, it was his firm belief that only through proper study of existing works it was possible to realize true-to-life historical allegories. His own works included mannerist mythological subjects, but portraits and genre paintings influenced by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, such as the Kermis in the Hermitage Museum.
Few paintings by him survive. As a writer van Mander worked in various genres: drama, songs and art theory, he translated classical literature. His literary production ref
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Jacob de Punder
Jacob de Punder or Jacques de Punder, was a Flemish Renaissance painter known for his portrait paintings. Jacob de Punder was born in Mechelen; the early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander states in the Schilder-boeck that de Punder was in Mechelen the pupil of the painter Marcus Willems. Willems had been a disciple of Michiel Coxie, one of the leading Romanist painters in Flanders who had helped introduce Italian Renaissance painting there. Willems married de Punder's sister Katharina. De Punder married Barbara Verhulst, she was the sister of the first wife of the painter and engraver Hubert Goltzius. De Punder and Goltzius would collaborate on commissions. De Punder was in 1559 the master of a certain Willem de Vos in Mechelen, he worked in Leipzig in 1570 before moving to Denmark, where he died. Van Mander describes de Punder as a skilled portrait painter. Only three paintings are attributed to Jacob de Punder, all three portraits; the Walters Art Museum holds a pair of portraits dated 1543: one a Portrait of Abbot Nicholas à Spira and the other a Portrait of Saint Nicholas.
On the backs of the panels are remnants of an Annunciation scene, with Gabriel on one panel and the Virgin on the other. The panels were part of an altarpiece, with the Annunciation forming a unified scene on the exterior of the wings when the altarpiece was closed; the panels flanked a lost central painting a Madonna and Child. The altarpiece was commissioned by Nicholas à Spira, the abbot of the abbey of the Norbertine Order in Grimbergen in Flanders. Depicting the saintly bishop Saint Nicholas together with his namesake the living abbot in similar ecclesiastical vestments confers dignity upon the latter; the altarpiece was placed in the abbey. While the abbey was destroyed in 1566 during the Iconoclastic fury of the Beeldenstorm, the altarpiece survived. During the anticlerical campaigns of the 1790s following the French Revolution, the altarpiece was dismantled to separate the portraits from the central panel, likely destroyed; the Fries Museum holds a Portrait of Viglius of Aytta dated 1564, attributed to de Punder.
It depicts the Dutch jurist Viglius as chancellor of the Order of the Golden Fleece. A Portrait of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy by Jacob de Punder was in the collection of John Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley according to the Lumley inventories; this painting is now untraced. J. G. van Gelder,'Nieuw werk van Jacob de Punder', Oud-Holland 59, pp. 129-133 J. Duverger,'Enkele gegevens betreffende schilder Jacob de Punder alias de Poindre', Gentsche bijdragen tot de kunstgeschiedenis 9, pp. 211-215 E. Melanie Gifford,'Technical Notes on an Altarpiece by Jacob de Punder', The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery Vol. 49/50, pp. 99-105 Media related to Jacob de Punder at Wikimedia Commons
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website