Otley is a market town and civil parish at a bridging point on the River Wharfe, in the City of Leeds metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. A part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the population was 13,668 at the 2011 census, it is in two portions – south of the river is the historic town of Otley and to the north is Newall, a separate township. The town is in lower Wharfedale on the A660 road; the town sits in the Otley and Yeadon of Leeds City Council and the Leeds North West parliamentary constituency. Otley's name is derived from Otto, Othe, or Otta, a Saxon personal name and leah, a woodland clearing in Old English, it was recorded as Ottanlege in 972 and Otelai or Othelia in the Domesday Book of 1086. The name Chevin has close parallels to the early Brythonic Welsh term Cefn meaning ridge and may be a survival of the ancient Cumbric language. There are pre-historic settlement finds alongside both sides of the River Wharfe and it is believed the valley has been settled at this site since the Bronze Age.
There are Bronze Age carvings on rocks situated on top of The Chevin, one such example is the Knotties stone. West Yorkshire Geology Trust has reference to Otley Chevin and Caley Crags having a rich history of human settlement stretching back into Palaeolithic times. Flint tools, Bronze Age rock carvings and Iron Age earthworks have been found. In medieval times the forest park was used as common pasture land, as a source of wood and sandstones for buildings and walls; the majority of the early development of the town dates from Saxon times and was part of an extensive manor granted by King Athelstan to the see of York. The Archbishops of York were lords of the manor, their palace was located on the site occupied by the Manor House. Otley may have formed part of the kingdom of Elmet. Remains of the Archbishop's Palace were found during the construction of St Joseph's School; as in other areas of the north, the Norman conquest laid waste this area. The Saxon church was replaced by a Norman one, thus in the 11th and 12th century Otley would have been a loose congregation of buildings around the two focal points of the manor house by the bridge and the church.
An important reason for the town's location was a water supply, the Calhead Beck which ran down from Otley Chevin over Whitley Croft, a little East of the church and to the river near the bridge. The town grew in the first half of the 13th century when the archbishops laid out burgage plots to attract merchants and tradespeople; the burgage plots were on Boroughgate and Kirkgate. This began to create the layout of today, based on a triangle of these plots forming the streets. Bondgate was for the workers: tenants. A leper hospital was founded on the road to Harewood beyond Cross Green; as well as farming and use of woodland, important local activities were quarrying stone, the manufacture of potash from bracken, used to make a soap which therefore supported a community carrying out fulling, the cleansing and finishing of woollen cloth on Watergate. The Chevin provided stone for building as well as bracken and common grazing, while the river provided reeds for thatching houses; the woollen industry developed as a cottage industry but during the Industrial Revolution and the mechanisation of the textile industry, mills were built using water steam power.
A cotton mill and weaving shed. Woolcombing and worsted spinning were introduced. By the mid 19th century 500 inhabitants were employed in two worsted-mills, a paper-mill, other mills. A tannery was established in the 19th century. At this time the opening of the new Leeds Road and Bradford Road increased access for trade. Many houses were built from the middle of the 19th century onwards, including the first row of terraces by the newly formed Otley Building Society from 1847. Otley railway station opened in 1865 connecting goods and people to Leeds, with a connection to Bradford in 1875. At its peak it had 50 trains a day. Kirkgate was the first street to be paved in 1866, followed by sewers in 1969; the Wharfedale Printing Machine was developed in Otley by David Payne. An early example can be seen in Otley Museum. By 1900 the printing machinery trade, with over 2,000 people employed in seven machine shops, was Otley's most important industry. After the First World War there was a general shortage of housing in Britain, much of it was crowded slums.
Otley Council prepared one of the first subsidized housing schemes, commencing with open land in Newall on the North of the river in 1920. The 1920s saw the beginnings of the conversion of properties to a sewer drainage system, electric lighting instead of gas on the streets. Further estates followed and by 1955 there were more than 1000 council houses. Private housing was expanded during this time, but was reduced the Second World War. House building revived in the 1960s to 1980s, but industry declined, with many factories closing, including the printing machine works in 1981. Otley was a market-town and the centre of a large ecclesiastical parish in the wapentakes of Skyrack and Claro in the West Riding of Yorkshire; the various chapelries and townships in the ancient parish became separate civil parishes in 1866. The local authority was the lord of the manor until 1864 when Otley Board was formed and many public buildings date from on. From 1894 Otley formed an Urban District, in 1897 and 1903 expanded north of the River Wharfe to include Newall.
Since local govern
North Yorkshire Police
North Yorkshire Police is the territorial police force covering the non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire and the unitary authority of York in northern England. The force comprises three area command units; as of March 2013 the force had a strength of 1,370 police officers, 158 Special Constables, 173 PCSOs and 1,095 police staff. The force was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, was a successor to the York and North East Yorkshire Police taking part of the old West Riding Constabulary's area; the York and North East Yorkshire Police had covered the North Riding of Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire and the county borough of York. Proposals made by the Home Secretary on 21 March 2006 would have seen the force merge with West Yorkshire Police, South Yorkshire Police and Humberside Police to form a strategic police force for the entire region. However, these proposals were dropped, it was announced in January 2007 that the Chief Constable, Della Cannings, would be retiring from the force on 16 May 2007 due to illness.
Della Cannings made the headlines on a number of occasions. She was not allowed to purchase wine from Tesco in Northallerton in March 2004 until she had taken off her hat and epaulettes, as it was illegal to sell alcohol to on-duty police officers. In October 2006 it was revealed that more than £28,000 had been spent to refurbish a shower in her office. On 19 April 2007, it was announced that Grahame Maxwell was to become the new Chief Constable of North Yorkshire Police. Grahame Maxwell began his career with Cleveland Police and served in all ranks up to Chief Superintendent when he became District Commander in Middlesbrough. After completing the Strategic Command Course in 2000, he was appointed as an Assistant Chief Constable with West Yorkshire Police and during his four years there served as the ACC Specialist Operations and ACC Territorial Operations. Mr Maxwell was promoted to Deputy Chief Constable with South Yorkshire Police in January 2005 and become the Chief Constable of North Yorkshire Police on 17 May 2007.
Dave Jones QPM, was appointed as chief constable in 2013 after serving as Assistant Chief Constable at the Police Service of Northern Ireland, where he had command of the Rural Division. He was awarded the Queen's Police Medal in the 2017 New Year Honours List and retired from the role in 2018. In July 2017, the force's headquarters was moved from Newby Wiske to Alverton Court in Northallerton; the new headquarters is a brand new, purpose-built facility, designed with the police in mind. The previous headquarters at Newby Wiske is a grade II listed building and was becoming difficult to upgrade into the 21st century; the memorial stones commemorating those who have served the police in the region have been moved to the new headquarters from Newby Wiske. These include those who have died in the First and the Second World Wars and those who have died in the line of duty. In August 2018, it was confirmed that Lisa Winward would become the new chief constable with immediate effect. Winward joined the police in 1993 and has been serving in the North Yorkshire police service since 2008.
Police vehicles used include the Ford Focus and Vauxhall Astra. The "Traffic" section use Audi A4 and BMW 530d. Mercedes and Ford Transit police vans present, as are Nissan 4x4s and Land Rover Discoveries in some areas; the traffic section use motorcycles. The force covers over 6,000 miles of road; the Firearms Support Unit use the BMW X5. The force has a new livery from March 2009, consisting of a high visibility panels of yellow and blue on all vehicles, new vehicles include Ford Focus estates and Ford Transit Connect vans. North Yorkshire Police Authority had 9 councillors, 3 justices of the peace, 5 independent members, it was abolished in November 2012 to be replaced by a Crime Commissioner. 1974–1977: Robert Boyes 1977–1979: John Woodcock 1979–1985: Kenneth Henshaw 1985–1989: Peter Nobes 1989–1998: David Burke 1998–2002: David Kenworthy 2002–2007: Della Cannings 2007–2012: Graham Maxwell 2012–2013: Tim Madgwick 2013–2018: Dave Jones 2018–: Lisa Winward The Police Memorial Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty, since its establishment in 1984 has erected over 38 memorials to some of those officers.
The following officers of North Yorkshire Police are listed by the Trust as having died attempting to prevent, stop or solve a crime, since the turn of the 20th century: Acting DC Norman Garnham, 1977 PC David Ian Haigh, 1982 Sgt David Thomas Winter, 1982 Special Constable Glenn Thomas Goodman, 1992 North Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner List of police forces in the United Kingdom Policing in the United Kingdom North Yorkshire Police North Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner Operation Countryman 2 is Launched
Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy. Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used; the use of smoke signals, reflected light signals, flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy; the advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging; the word "telegraph" was first coined by the French inventor of the Semaphore telegraph, Claude Chappe, who coined the word "semaphore".
A "telegraph" is a device for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e. for telegraphy. The word "telegraph" alone now refers to an electrical telegraph. Wireless telegraphy, transmission of messages over radio with telegraphic codes. Contrary to the extensive definition used by Chappe, Morse argued that the term telegraph can be applied only to systems that transmit and record messages at a distance; this is to be distinguished from semaphore, which transmits messages. Smoke signals, for instance, are to be considered semaphore, not telegraph. According to Morse, telegraph dates only from 1832 when Pavel Schilling invented one of the earliest electrical telegraphs. A telegraph message sent by an electrical telegraph operator or telegrapher using Morse code was known as a telegram. A cablegram was a message sent by a submarine telegraph cable shortened to a cable or a wire. A Telex was a message sent by a Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network.
A wire picture or wire photo was a newspaper picture, sent from a remote location by a facsimile telegraph. A diplomatic telegram known as a diplomatic cable, is the term given to a confidential communication between a diplomatic mission and the foreign ministry of its parent country; these continue to be called cables regardless of the method used for transmission. Passing messages by signalling over distance is an ancient practice. One of the oldest examples is the signal towers of the Great Wall of China. In 400 BC, signals could drum beats. By 200 BC complex flag signalling had developed, by the Han dynasty signallers had a choice of lights, flags, or gunshots to send signals. By the Tang dynasty a message could be sent 700 miles in 24 hours; the Ming dynasty added artillery to the possible signals. While the signalling was complex, only predetermined messages could be sent; the Chinese signalling system extended well beyond the Great Wall. Signal towers away from the wall were used to give early warning of an attack.
Others were built further out as part of the protection of trade routes the Silk Road. Signal fires were used in Europe and elsewhere for military purposes; the Roman army made frequent use of them, as did their enemies, the remains of some of the stations still exist. Few details have been recorded of European/Mediterranean signalling systems and the possible messages. One of the few for which details are known is a system invented by Aeneas Tacticus. Tacitus's system had water filled pots at the two signal stations which were drained in synchronisation. Annotation on a floating scale indicated which message was being received. Signals sent by means of torches indicated when to start and stop draining to keep the synchronisation. None of the signalling systems discussed above are true telegraphs in the sense of a system that can transmit arbitrary messages over arbitrary distances. Lines of signalling relay stations can send messages to any required distance, but all these systems are limited to one extent or another in the range of messages that they can send.
A system like flag semaphore, with an alphabetic code, can send any given message, but the system is designed for short-range communication between two persons. An engine order telegraph, used to send instructions from the bridge of a ship to the engine room, fails to meet both criteria. There was only one ancient signalling system described; that was a system using the Polybius square to encode an alphabet. Polybius suggested using two successive groups of torches to identify the coordinates of the letter of the alphabet being transmitted; the number of said torches held up signalled the grid square. The system would have been slow for military purposes and there is no record of it being used. An optical telegraph, or semaphore telegraph is a telegraph consisting of a line of stations in towers or natural high points which signal to each other by means of shutters or paddles. Early proposals for an optical telegraph system were made to the Royal Society by Robert Hooke in 1684 and were first implemented on an experimental level by Sir Richard Lovell Edgeworth in 1767.
The first successful optical telegraph network was invented by Claude Chappe and operated in France from 1
Weeton railway station
Weeton railway station serves the villages of Weeton and Huby in North Yorkshire, England. It is located on the Harrogate Line 11.5 miles north of Leeds and operated by Northern who provide all passenger train services. The Leeds and Thirsk Railway was authorised in 1845, built in stages; the section between Wormald Green and Weeton opened on 1 September 1848. On 9 July 1849, the final section of the original L&TR main line was formally opened, between Weeton and Leeds; the station at Weeton was described as Weeton for Ormscliff Crags in some timetables. The station is unstaffed and so tickets must be purchased from the conductor on the train or prior to the journey. There are only basic shelters on each platform, but there are passenger information screens in place and a public address system to provide train running information. Neither platform is DDA-compliant, as the Leeds one has steps to it and access to the Harrogate one is via a steep pathway. During Monday to Saturday daytimes, there is a half-hourly service southbound to Leeds and a half-hourly service northbound to Knaresborough with one train per hour onwards to York.
In the evenings and on Sundays there is an hourly service in each direction, with some services starting/terminating at Harrogate at the beginning & end of service. Train times and station information for Weeton railway station from National Rail
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city, it has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy. Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century.
It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million. Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy; the finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail and the visitor economy and the creative and digital industries; the city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene, the 1767 invention of soda water.
Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London; the name derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city. This name referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. Bede states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in...regione quae vocatur Loidis. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a word of uncertain origin; the term Leodensian is used, from the city's Latin name. The name has been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning "a place".
Leeds developed as a market town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall. Leeds handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816. In the late Georgian era, William Lupton, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, was one of a number of central Leeds landowners with the mesne lord title, some of whom, like him, were textile manufacturers. At the time of his death in 1828, Lupton's land in Briggate in central Leeds included a mill, manor house and outbuildings; the railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester and the ports of Liverpool and Hull giving improved access to international markets.
Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. Marshall's Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition; the contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council's vision of building a'24-hour European city' and'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors, increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.
Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. Leeds was a manor and townshi
Harrogate is a spa town in North Yorkshire, England. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town is a tourist destination and its visitor attractions include its spa waters and RHS Harlow Carr gardens. 13 miles away from the town centre is the Yorkshire Dales national park and the Nidderdale AONB. Harrogate grew out of two smaller settlements, High Harrogate and Low Harrogate, in the 17th century. Since 2013, polls have voted the town as "the happiest place to live" in Britain. Harrogate spa water contains iron and common salt; the town became known as'The English Spa' in the Georgian era, after its waters were discovered in the 16th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries its'chalybeate' waters were a popular health treatment, the influx of wealthy but sickly visitors contributed to the wealth of the town. Harrogate railway station and Harrogate bus station in the town centre provide transport connections. Leeds Bradford International Airport is 10 miles southwest of Harrogate; the main roads through the town are the A61, connecting Harrogate to Leeds and Ripon, the A59, connecting the town to York and Skipton.
Harrogate is connected to Wetherby and the A1, by the A661. The town of Harrogate had a population of 71,594 at the 2001 UK census; the town motto is Arx celebris fontibus, which means "a citadel famous for its springs." The name Harrogate is first attested in the 1330s as Harwegate and Harrowgate. The origin of the name is uncertain, it may derive from Old Norse hǫrgr'a heap of stones, cairn' + gata'street', in which case the name meant'road to the cairn'. Another possibility is that the name means "the way to Harlow"; the form Harlowgate is known from 1518, in the court rolls of Edward II. In medieval times Harrogate was a place on the borders of the township of Bilton with Harrogate in the ancient Parish of Knaresborough, the parish of Pannal known as Beckwith with Rossett; the part within the township of Bilton developed into the community of High Harrogate, the part within Pannal developed into the community of Low Harrogate. Both communities were within the Royal Forest of Knaresborough. In 1372 King Edward III granted the Royal Forest to his son John, Duke of Lancaster, the Duchy of Lancaster became the principal landowner in Harrogate.
Harrogate's development is owed to the discovery of its chalybeate and sulphur rich spring water from the 16th century. The first mineral spring was discovered in 1571 by William Slingsby who found that water from the Tewit Well in High Harrogate possessed similar properties to that from springs in the Belgian town of Spa, which gave its name to spa towns; the medicinal properties of the waters were publicised by Edmund Deane. His book, Spadacrene Anglica, or the English Spa Fountain was published in 1626. In the 17th and 18th centuries further chalybeate springs were discovered in High Harrogate, both chalybeate and sulphur springs were found in Low Harrogate; the two communities attracted many visitors. A number of inns were opened for visitors in High Harrogate in the 17th century In Low Harrogate the Crown was open by the mid 18th century, earlier. In accordance with an Enclosure Act of 1770, promoted by the Duchy of Lancaster, the Royal Forest of Knaresborough was enclosed; the enclosure award of 1778 clarified ownership of land in the Harrogate area.
Under the award 200 acres of land, which included the springs known at that time, were reserved as a public common, The Stray, which has remained public open space. The Enclosure Award facilitated development around the Stray. During the 19th century, the area between High Harrogate and Low Harrogate, which until had remained separate communities a mile apart, was developed, what is now the central area of Harrogate was built on high ground overlooking Low Harrogate. An area to the north of the developing town was reserved to the Duchy of Lancaster, was developed for residential building. To provide entertainment for the increasing numbers of visitors the Georgian Theatre was built in 1788. Bath Hospital was built in 1826; the Royal Pump Room was built in 1842. The site of Tewit Well is marked by a dome on the Stray. Other wells can be found in the Valley Gardens and Royal Pump Room museum. In 1870, engineering inventor Samson Fox perfected the process of creating water gas, in the basement laboratory of Grove House.
After constructing a trial plant at his home on Skipton Road, making it the first house in Yorkshire to have gas lighting and heating. After Parliament Street became the world's first route to be lit by water-gas, newspapers commented: "Samson Fox has captured the sunlight for Harrogate." After donating the town's first fire engine, building the town's theatre, he was elected mayor for three years, an unbroken record. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Harrogate was popular among the English élite and frequented by nobility from mainland Europe, its popularity declined after the First World War. During the Second World War, Harrogate's large hotels accommodated government offices evacuated from London paving the way for the town to become a commercial and exhibition centre. In 1893 Harrogate doctor George Oliver was the first to observe the effect of adrenaline on the circulation. Former employers in