The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family; the Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller, along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world." Rockefeller Foundation's activities have included: Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed" Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom. Construction of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's Institute for Brain Research with a $317,000 grant in 1929, with continuing support for the institute's operations under Ernst Rüdin over the next several years. Funding an experiment conducted by Vanderbilt University where they gave 800 pregnant women radioactive iron, 751 of which were pills, without their consent.
In a 1969 article published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, it was estimated that three children had died from the experiment. As of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U. S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2016 assets were tallied with annual grants of $173 million. On January 5, 2017, the board of trustees announced the unanimous selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation, he assumed the position March 1, succeeding Judith Rodin who served as president for nearly twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71, in June 2016. Rodin in turn had succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005. A former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy and Public Relations began in 1904, influenced by Ida Tarbell's book published about Standard Oil crimes, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which prompted him to whitewash the Rockefeller image.
His initial idea to set up a large-scale foundation occurred in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's famous business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind". It was in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America, but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior and Harold Fowler McCormick, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment, they applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, with at one stage Junior secretly meeting with President William Howard Taft, through the aegis of Senator Nelson Aldrich, to hammer out concessions.
However, because of the ongoing antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter. On May 14, 1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation – two years after the Carnegie Corporation – with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes; the total benefactions of both him and Junior and their philanthropies in the end would far surpass Carnegie's endowments, his biographer Ron Chernow states, ranking Rockefeller as "the greatest philanthropist in American history." The first secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former secretary of Harvard University, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work.
On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D. C. At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade on the sciences, public health and medical education, it was located within the family office at Standard Oil's headquarters at 26 Broadway shifting to the GE Building, along with the newly named family office, Room 5600, at Rockefeller Center. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission, the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public heal
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology that combines physiology, molecular biology, developmental biology, mathematical modeling and psychology to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits; the understanding of the biological basis of learning, behavior and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "ultimate challenge" of the biological sciences. The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales and the techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and cognitive tasks in the brain; the earliest study of the nervous system dates to ancient Egypt. Trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull for the purpose of curing headaches or mental disorders, or relieving cranial pressure, was first recorded during the Neolithic period.
Manuscripts dating to 1700 BC indicate that the Egyptians had some knowledge about symptoms of brain damage. Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, the brain was removed in preparation for mummification, it was believed at the time. According to Herodotus, the first step of mummification was to "take a crooked piece of iron, with it draw out the brain through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs."The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not challenged until the time of the Greek physician Hippocrates. He believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation—since most specialized organs are located in the head near the brain—but was the seat of intelligence. Plato speculated that the brain was the seat of the rational part of the soul. Aristotle, believed the heart was the center of intelligence and that the brain regulated the amount of heat from the heart.
This view was accepted until the Roman physician Galen, a follower of Hippocrates and physician to Roman gladiators, observed that his patients lost their mental faculties when they had sustained damage to their brains. Abulcasis, Avicenna and Maimonides, active in the Medieval Muslim world, described a number of medical problems related to the brain. In Renaissance Europe, René Descartes, Thomas Willis and Jan Swammerdam made several contributions to neuroscience. Luigi Galvani's pioneering work in the late 1700s set the stage for studying the electrical excitability of muscles and neurons. In the first half of the 19th century, Jean Pierre Flourens pioneered the experimental method of carrying out localized lesions of the brain in living animals describing their effects on motricity and behavior. In 1843 Emil du Bois-Reymond demonstrated the electrical nature of the nerve signal, whose speed Hermann von Helmholtz proceeded to measure, in 1875 Richard Caton found electrical phenomena in the cerebral hemispheres of rabbits and monkeys.
Adolf Beck published in 1890 similar observations of spontaneous electrical activity of the brain of rabbits and dogs. Studies of the brain became more sophisticated after the invention of the microscope and the development of a staining procedure by Camillo Golgi during the late 1890s; the procedure used a silver chromate salt to reveal the intricate structures of individual neurons. His technique was used by Santiago Ramón y Cajal and led to the formation of the neuron doctrine, the hypothesis that the functional unit of the brain is the neuron. Golgi and Ramón y Cajal shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for their extensive observations and categorizations of neurons throughout the brain. In parallel with this research, work with brain-damaged patients by Paul Broca suggested that certain regions of the brain were responsible for certain functions. At the time, Broca's findings were seen as a confirmation of Franz Joseph Gall's theory that language was localized and that certain psychological functions were localized in specific areas of the cerebral cortex.
The localization of function hypothesis was supported by observations of epileptic patients conducted by John Hughlings Jackson, who inferred the organization of the motor cortex by watching the progression of seizures through the body. Carl Wernicke further developed the theory of the specialization of specific brain structures in language comprehension and production. Modern research through neuroimaging techniques, still uses the Brodmann cerebral cytoarchitectonic map anatomical definitions from this era in continuing to show that distinct areas of the cortex are activated in the execution of specific tasks. During the 20th century, neuroscience began to be recognized as a distinct academic discipline in its own right, rather than as studies of the nervous system within other disciplines. Eric Kandel and collaborators have cited David Rioch, Francis O. Schmitt, Stephen Kuffler as having played critical roles in establishing the field. Rioch originated the integration of basic anatomical and physiological research with clinical psychiatry at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, starting in the 1950s.
During the same period, Schmitt established a neuroscience research program within the Biology Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, bringing together biology, chemistry and mathematics. The first freestandin
Michigan Medicine the University of Michigan Health System, is the wholly owned academic medical center of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. It includes the U-M Medical School, with many research laboratories. S. Mott Children's Hospital, Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital, as well as 40 health centers and home care services across southeast Michigan. In June 2014, the University of Michigan Hospitals & Health Centers projected that it would end its 2014 fiscal year with an operating margin of 0.7 percent on revenues of $2.52 billion. In 2015, the Hospitals and Health Centers aimed to achieve an operating margin of 3 percent on revenues of about $2.66 billion. The results for 2016 and the projection for 2017 were stronger; as a non-profit entity, Michigan Medicine uses positive operating margins to fund continued advances in patient care, education and the facilities needed to support these functions. Michigan Medicine is a high-volume surgical center with a total of 66 operating rooms; the construction of the $523 million Children and Women's Hospital and the $132 million Eye Center expansion added 18 operating rooms to the health system for a total of 82 operating rooms.
Outpatient care is provided at the main medical campus in Ann Arbor and at numerous satellite locations. More than 2.4 million outpatient and emergency visits, 48,000 hospital stays, 54,000 surgeries and 4,400 births take place each year at facilities operated by Michigan Medicine, including the University Hospital, C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, Women's Hospital and the A. Alfred Taubman Health Care Center on the main medical campus, at outpatient health centers in multiple communities in southeast Michigan. Michigan Medicine has nearly 26,000 employees, including about 2,700 faculty, more than 5,000 nurses and nearly 1,200 residents and clinical fellows known as house officers as well as other clinical, research and administrative staff. In all, the Michigan Medicine community accounts for more than half of the entire University of Michigan faculty/staff headcount across all campuses; the Michigan Visiting Nurses, a wholly owned part of the Michigan Health Corporation, provides a broad range of home care services in a 13-county area of southeastern Michigan.
These include home nursing, specialty treatments and palliative care. It provides public and employer-based immunization services. From 1986 to 2006, the health system included M-CARE, a managed-care organization that provided health plans to university faculty, staff and dependents and to employees of companies throughout Michigan. In late 2006, due to changing conditions in the health-plan climate and the need for the health system to focus on its core missions of patient care and education, it sold M-CARE to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and its Blue Care Network subsidiary. In 1983, UMHS established the first of its kind in the state; the service operates three American Eurocopter EC155 B1 helicopters and one Cessna Citation Encore fixed-wing, twin-engine jet. For its first, ten years, the service flew American Eurocopter AS355 Twinstar craft, which were replaced in 1993 with Bell 230 craft that remained in service for five years, until they were replaced in 1998 uwith Bell 430 craft.
From 2012 to the present, the service has used the Eurocopters. The four aircraft make 1000 to 1500 trips annually and have a range of over 400 mi from the U-M campus; the flights transport 800 to 1000 patients per year with the remainder of the trips for the transport of human organs. The jet transported victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake for treatment in the United States. In addition to its main helipad on the U-M medical campus, Survival Flight operates out of Livingston County Airport, in a hangar that it shares with Livingston County EMS. Survival Flight has an excellent safety record and intense maintenance program; the aero-medical aviation sector has a high accident rate per hours flown due to its requirement to operate in all weather conditions and due to urgent transportation needs. Survival Flight has only suffered equipment loss. On June 4, 2007, a Cessna 550 Citation II provided by Marlin Air, Inc. plunged into Lake Michigan after experiencing a "trim runaway" problem. In September 2008, a legal settlement was reached between University of Michigan and Marlin Air, Inc. after a lawsuit was filed because the university terminated its contract for air medical transportation services.
Results of the NTSB investigation placed blame on the deficiencies and inadequate checkrides instituted by the chief pilot of Marlin Air, Inc. cited an "ill-prepared pilot in the first officer's seat", placed blame on the FAA's inability to detect such training and operational deficiencies. In 2009, Survival Flight once again began to operate fixed-wing service in a new Cessna Citation Encore out of KPTK airport in Waterford Township, Michigan and in 2013 moved fixed-wing operations to KOZW airport in Howell, Michigan; the new Cessna Citation Encore's extended operability allows Survival Flight to provide aeromedical evacuation "as far away as the Caribbean and Mexico". Under a leadership and organization structure introduced in January 2016, the position of dean of the medical school is held by the individual serving as the university's executive vice president for medical affairs; the two positions had been separate. All physicians who are part of the U-M Medical Scho
University of Iowa
The University of Iowa is a public research university in Iowa City, Iowa. Founded in 1847, it is the second largest university in the state; the University of Iowa is organized into 11 colleges offering more than 200 areas of study and seven professional degrees. Located on an urban 1,880 acre campus on the banks of the Iowa River, the University of Iowa is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity." The university is best known for its programs in health care and the fine arts, with programs ranking among the top 25 nationally in those areas. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and the Stead Family Children's Hospital are ranked nationally by U. S. News and World Report in eleven specialties; the university was the original developer of the Master of Fine Arts degree and it operates the Iowa Writer's Workshop, which has produced 17 of the university's 46 Pulitzer Prize winners. Iowa is a member of the Association of American Universities, the Universities Research Association, the Big Ten Academic Alliance.
Among American universities, the University of Iowa was the first public university to open as coeducational, opened the first coeducational medical school, opened the first Department of Religious Studies at a public university. The University of Iowa's 33,000 students take part in nearly 500 student organizations. Iowa's 22 varsity athletic teams, the Iowa Hawkeyes, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are members of the Big Ten Conference; the University of Iowa alumni network exceeds 250,000 graduates located around the globe. The University of Iowa was founded on February 25, 1847, just 59 days after Iowa was admitted to the Union; the Constitution of the State of Iowa refers to a State University to be established in Iowa City "without branches at any other place." The legal name of the university is the State University of Iowa, but the Board of Regents approved using "The University of Iowa" for everyday usage in October 1964. The first faculty offered instruction at the university beginning in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, located where Seashore Hall is now.
In September 1855, there were 124 students. The 1856–57 catalogue listed nine departments offering ancient languages, modern languages, intellectual philosophy, moral philosophy, natural history, natural philosophy, chemistry; the first president of the university was Amos Dean. The original campus consisted of the Iowa Old Capitol Building and the 10 acres of land on which it stood. Following the placing of the cornerstone July 4, 1840, the building housed the Fifth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Iowa and became the first capitol building of the State of Iowa on December 28, 1846; until that date, it had been the third capitol of the Territory of Iowa. When the capitol of Iowa was moved to Des Moines in 1857, the Old Capitol became the first permanent "home" of the University. In 1855, The university became the first public university in the United States to admit men and women on an equal basis. In addition, Iowa was the world's first university to accept creative work in theater, writing and art on an equal basis with academic research.
The university was one of the first institutions in America to grant a law degree to a woman, to grant a law degree to an African American, to put an African American on a varsity athletic squad. The university offered its first doctorate in 1898; the university was the first state university to recognize the Gay, Bisexual and Allied Union. The University of Iowa established the first law school west of the Mississippi River, it was the first university to use television in education, in 1932, it pioneered in the field of standardized testing. The University of Iowa was the first Big Ten institution to promote an African American to the position of administrative vice president. A shooting took place on campus on November 1, 1991. Six people died in the shooting, including the perpetrator, one other person was wounded; this was the fifth-deadliest university shooting in United States history, tied with a shooting at Northern Illinois University. In the summer of 2008, flood waters breached the Coralville Reservoir spillway, damaging more than 20 major campus buildings.
Several weeks after the flood waters receded university officials placed a preliminary estimate on flood damage at $231.75 million. The university estimated that repairs would cost about $743 million. In 2008, UNESCO designated Iowa City the world's third City of Literature, making it part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. In 2014, the Iowa Board of Regents proposed tying state funding to undergraduate resident enrollment, which would have shifted millions of dollars away from the UI to Iowa State University and the University of Northern Iowa. Iowa legislators did not support the plan. In 2015, the Iowa Board of Regents selected Bruce Harreld, a business consultant with limited experience in academic administration, to succeed Sally Mason as president; the regents' choice of Harreld provoked criticism and controversy on the UI campus due to his corporate background, lack of history in leading an institution of higher education, the circumstances related to the search process. The regents said they had based their decision on the belief that Harreld could limit costs and find new sources of revenue beyond tuition in an age of declining state support for universities.
In July 2016, the university took over the former AIB College of Business in Des Moines, wher
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
American University of Beirut
The American University of Beirut is a private and independent university in Beirut, Lebanon. It is one of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East, securing the top spot in the Arab region in the 2018 QS World University Rankings; the American University of Beirut is governed by a private, autonomous Board of Trustees and offers programs leading to bachelor's, master's, MD and PhD degrees. It collaborates with many universities around the world, notably with Columbia University, George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the University of Paris; the current president is Fadlo R. Khuri, MD; the American University of Beirut has an operating budget of $423 million with an endowment of $605 million. The campus is composed of 64 buildings, including the American University of Beirut Medical Center, four libraries, three museums Museum and seven dormitories. One-fifth of AUB's students attended secondary school or university outside Lebanon before coming to AUB.
AUB graduates reside in more than 120 countries worldwide. The language of instruction is English. Degrees awarded at the university are registered with the New York Board of Regents. On January 23, 1862, W. M. Thomson proposed to a meeting of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions that a college of higher learning, that would include medical training, should be established in Beirut with Dr. Daniel Bliss as its president. On April 24, 1863, while Bliss was raising money for the new college in the United States and England, the State of New York granted a charter for the Syrian Protestant College; the college, renamed the American University of Beirut in 1920, opened with a class of 16 students on December 3, 1866. Bliss served as its first president, from 1866 until 1902. AUB alumni have had the world for many years. For example, 19 AUB alumni were delegates to the signing of the United Nations Charter in 1945—more than any other university in the world. AUB graduates continue to serve in leadership positions as presidents of their countries, prime ministers, members of parliament, governors of central banks and deans of colleges and universities, leading academics, scientists, doctors and nurses.
They work in governments, the private sector, in nongovernmental organizations. During the Lebanese Civil War AUB pursued various means to preserve the continuity of studies, including enrollment agreements with universities in the United States. On January 18, 1984, AUB President Malcolm H. Kerr was murdered. On March 21, 2008, the Board of Trustees selected Peter Dorman to be AUB's 15th president, he succeeded John Waterbury, president of AUB from 1998 to 2008. Dorman is an international scholar in the field of Egyptology and chaired the University of Chicago's Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. On March 19, 2015, the Board of Trustees formally approved the nomination of Fadlo R. Khuri, MD, as the next president, he was inaugurated as AUB's 16th president on January 25, 2016. The 61-acre American University of Beirut campus is on a hill overlooking the Mediterranean Sea on one side and bordering Bliss Street on the other. Based in one of Lebanon’s few geographic locations, AUB’s campus in Ras Beirut consists of 64 buildings, seven dormitories and several libraries.
In addition, the university houses the Charles W. Hostler Student Center, an Archaeological Museum as well as the renowned Natural History Museum. Students benefit from a range of recreational and research facilities, such as the 247 acre research farm and educational complex hosted by the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences' AREC in Beqaa, Lebanon. FAFS, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences FAS, Faculty of Arts and Sciences FHS, Faculty of Health Sciences FM, Faculty of Medicine HSON, Rafic Hariri School of Nursing MSFEA, Maroun Semaan Faculty of Engineering and Architecture OSB, Suliman S. Olayan School of Business In fall 2018, there were over 9,000 students enrolled at AUB: 7,180 undergraduates and 1,922 graduate students. AUB diplomas. In 2007, the American University of Beirut reintroduced PhD programs, it offers doctoral programs in the following fields: Arab and Middle Eastern History Arabic Language and Literature Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Sciences Cell and Molecular Biology Civil Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Epidemiology Mechanical Engineering Nursing Theoretical Physics AUB includes dozens of research centers and institute that sponsor and promote research in a variety of fields.
The AUB Medical Center is the not-for-profit teaching center of the Faculty of Medicine. AUBMC, accredited by the Joint Commission International on hospital accreditation, includes a 420-bed hospital and offers comprehensive tertiary/quaternary medical care and referral services in a wide range of specialties and medical and paramedical training programs at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Throughout its history, the AUB Medical Center, known as the American University Hospital, has played a critical role in caring for the victims of regional and local conflicts, it provided care for the sick and wounded during World War I and World War II, the Lebanese Civil War, the Palestinian conflict, the invasion of Iraq. In recent years