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Hudson County, New Jersey

Hudson County, a county in the U. S. state of New Jersey, lies west of the lower Hudson River, named for Henry Hudson, the sea captain who explored the area in 1609. Part of New Jersey's Gateway Region in the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is its largest city and county seat; as of the 2018 Census estimate, Hudson County was the fastest-growing county in New Jersey compared to 2010. Hudson County is the fourth-most populous county in the state. Hudson County is the geographically smallest and most densely populated county in New Jersey and the sixth-most densely populated county in the United States with 13,731.4 residents per square mile of total area in 2010, 14,973.9 per square mile in 2017. Most of the county has a humid subtropical climate while East Newark and Kearney west of the western spur of the New Jersey Turnpike have a hot-summer humid continental climate. Average monthly temperatures at Journal Square in Jersey City range from 32.3° F in January to 77.1° F in July. The hardiness zone is 7a except from Bayonne up the east side of the Palisades to Route 495 where it is 7b.

There are 12 municipalities in Hudson County, listed with area in square miles and 2010 Census data for population and housing. North Hudson and West Hudson each comprise municipalities in their distinct areas. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 62.31 square miles, including 46.19 square miles of land and 16.12 square miles of water. Based on land area, it is the smallest of New Jersey's 21 counties, less than half the size of the next smallest and the eighth-smallest of all counties in the United States. Hudson is located in the heart of New York metropolitan area in northeastern New Jersey, it is bordered by Upper New York Bay to the east. The topography is marked by the New Jersey Palisades in the north with cliffs overlooking the Hudson to the east and less severe cuesta, or slope, to the west, they level off to the southern peninsula, coastal and flat. The western region, around the Hackensack and Passaic is part of the New Jersey Meadowlands. Much of the land along the county's extensive shoreline and littoral zone was created by land reclamation.

The highest point, at 260 feet above sea level, is in West New York. North Bergen is the city with the second most hills per square mile in the United States behind San Francisco. Ellis Island and Liberty Island, opposite Liberty State Park, lie within Hudson County's waters, which extend to the New York state line. Liberty Island is part of New York. Created through land reclamation, Ellis Island covers a land area of 27.5 acres, with the 2.74-acre natural island and contiguous areas comprising a 3.3 acres exclave of New York. Shooters Island, in the Kill van Kull, is shared with New York. Robbins Reef Light sits atop a reef which runs parallel the Jersey City waterfront. Much of the county lies between the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers on geographically long narrow peninsula, a contiguous urban area where it's difficult to know when one's crossed a civic boundary; these boundaries and the topography-including many hills and inlets-create distinct neighborhoods. Kennedy Boulevard runs the entire length of the peninsula.

Numerous cuts for rail and vehicular traffic cross Bergen Hill. Counties adjacent to Hudson are New York New York and Kings County, New York to the east. Given its proximity to Manhattan, it is sometimes referred to as New York City's sixth borough. At the time of European contact in the 17th century, Hudson County was the territory of the Lenape, namely the bands known as the Hackensack, the Tappan, the Raritan, the Manhattan, they were a seasonally migrational people who practiced small-scale agriculture augmented by hunting and gathering which given the topography of the area, included much fishing and trapping. These groups had frequent trading contact with Europeans, their Algonquian language can still be inferred in many local place names such as Communipaw, Hackensack, Weehawken and Pamrapo. Henry Hudson, for whom the county and river on which it sits are named, established a claim for the area in 1609 when anchoring his ship the Halve Maen at Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove; the west bank of the North River and the cliffs and marshlands abutting and beyond it, were settled by Europeans from the Lowlands around the same time as New Amsterdam.

In 1630, Michael Pauw received a land patent, or patroonship and purchased the land between the Hudson and Hackensack Rivers, giving it the Latin-ized form of his name, Pavonia. He was forced to return his holdings to the Dutch West India Company. Homesteads were established at Communipaw, Paulus Hook and Hoebuck. Relations were tenuous with the Lenape, led to Kieft's War, which began as a

Aeromachus dubius

Aeromachus dubius, the dingy scrub-hopper, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. It ranges from India to China, including Malaya, Myanmar, Vietnam and Yunnan. Male. Upperside dark, the post-medial series of spots on the forewing indistinct or wanting, sex mark on the forewing a small inconspicuous fold of raised scales in cell 1A, next vein 1A near the middle. Underside forewing umber-brown, the apical and costal regions similar to the hindwing, a small pale spot near the upper distal angle of the cell, the post-medial series of pale spots represented by about six spots, which become fainter in their course from cells 8-3, a pale anteciliary line, hindwing ochreous-brown by reason of a close sprinkling of yellow scales on the umber-brown ground, the post-medial and sub-terminal series of pale spots indistinct or wanting, a pale anteciliary line. Fringes greyish-white, the short scales grey -brown. Antennae above blackish, minutely spotted with yellowish, beneath greyish-yellow, the shaft spotted with black.

Second joint of palpi clothed with yellow and black hairs intermixed. Body above concolorous beneath with greyish-yellow pubescence. Legs with greyish-yellow scaling. Tegumen with a small rounded projection near the apex on each side, beyond which it is produced in a bluntly rounded triangle. Female differs from the male in wanting the sex mark and in having the pale spots proper to the underside more developed, the postmedian series appears faintly in the costal portion of the upperside of the forewing; the larva has been recorded on Cyrtococcum trigonum. Hesperiidae List of butterflies of India List of butterflies of India Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. "Markku Savela's website on Lepidoptera". Tree of Life Web Project. Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander. Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329

We Are All Prostitutes (song)

"We Are All Prostitutes" is a song by English post-punk band The Pop Group. It was released as the band's second single on 9 November 1979 through Rough Trade Records; the song was included as the third track in the 2016 reissue of The Pop Group's 1980 album For How Much Longer Do We Tolerate Mass Murder? Songwriter Nick Cave declared the song to be the band's masterpiece, saying, "It had everything that I thought rock and roll should have, it was violent, paranoid music for a violent, paranoid time." Writer Mark Fisher described the song "scouring, seasick funk, a pied piper’s exit from dominant reality, fired by a fissile compound of millenarian terror and militant jubilation." Designates unordered lists. All songs written by The Pop Group. UK 7" single"We Are All Prostitutes" – 3:08 "Amnesty International Report on British Army Torture of Irish Prisoners" – 3:08 The Pop Group Dan Catsisbass guitar Gareth Sager – guitar, saxophone Bruce Smithdrums, percussion Mark Stewartvocals John Waddington – guitarAdditional musicians Tristan Honsingercello Technical personnel Maxwell Anandappa – mastering Dennis Bovell – production Adam Kidron – engineering The Pop Group – production "We Are All Prostitutes" at Discogs "We Are All Prostitutes" at Bandcamp

Christ's Sake

Christ's Sake is an American Christian hardcore and Christian rock band, they play hardcore punk, punk rock, alternative rock. They come from California; the band started making music in 2011, their members are lead vocalist, Dillon Hendren and lead guitarist, Lance Hendren, background vocalist, Sandra Calvillo, Matt Vangalapudi, drummer, Vinny. Their first studio album, Christ's Sake, was released in 2012 by Thumper Punk Records; the subsequent studio album, We All Fall Down, was released by Thumper Punk Records, in 2014. Christ's Sake is a Christian hardcore and Christian rock band from California, their members are lead vocalist, Dillon Hendren and lead guitarist, Lance Hendren, lead guitarist, Matt Killian, background vocalist, Sandra Calvillo, Matt Vangalapudi, drummer, Vinnie. The band commenced as a musical entity in 2011 with their release, Christ's Sake, a studio album, released by Thumper Punk Records on October 27, 2012, their subsequent studio album, We All Fall Down, was released on July 23, 2014 by Thumper Punk Records.

Current membersDillon Hendren - lead vocals Lance Hendren - lead guitar, vocals Sandra Calvillo - background vocals Matt Vangalapudi - bass Vinny Morales - drums Studio albumsChrist's Sake We All Fall Down Facebook page

Don River (North Queensland)

The Don River is a river located in North Queensland, Australia. The Don River rises in the Clarke Range, part of the Great Dividing Range, below Mount Roundhill and west of Proserpine; the river flows north by northeast through the Eungella National Park and is joined by thirteen minor tributaries, towards its mouth and empties into the Coral Sea north of Bowen. With a catchment area of 1,200 square kilometres, the river descends 253 metres over its 60-kilometre course. High salinity levels have been recorded at the mouth of the river. Land use in the upper catchment is beef cattle production with crops grown in the richer soils downstream; the river is crossed by the Bruce Highway via the Don River Bridge at Bowen. The highest recorded flood was in 1970 when the river reached 7.25 metres at the Bowen Pumping Station. The river delta is vulnerable to flooding during cyclones. Floods in 2008 left deposits of sand. Approval to dredge sand was granted by the Queensland Government however only about half of, removed in recent years.

A flood in 2008 lead the Whitsunday Regional Council to create a channel so that similar flooding could be avoided. A management plan for the river was established late in 2008, it included measures to encourage further sand extraction. List of rivers of Queensland

Divergent thinking

Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. It occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, "non-linear" manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, unexpected connections are drawn. Following divergent thinking and information are organized and structured using convergent thinking, which follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a "correct" solution; the psychologist J. P. Guilford first coined the terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking in 1956. Psychologists have found. Instead, personality traits that promote divergent thinking are more important. Divergent thinking is found among people with personality traits such as nonconformity, willingness to take risks, persistence. Activities which promote divergent thinking include creating lists of questions, setting aside time for thinking and meditation, subject mapping, bubble mapping, keeping a journal, playing tabletop role-playing games, creating artwork, free writing.

In free writing, a person will focus on one particular topic and write non-stop about it for a short period of time, in a stream of consciousness fashion. Parallels have been drawn between playfulness in divergent thinking. In a study documented by Lieberman, the relationship between these two traits was examined, with playfulness being "conceptualized and operationally defined in terms of five traits: physical and cognitive spontaneity; the author noted that during the study, while observing the children's behaviour at play, they "noted individual differences in spontaneity, overtones of joy, sense of humour that imply a relationship between the foregoing qualities and some of the factors found in the intellectual structure of creative adults and adolescents". This study highlighted the link between behaviours of divergent thinking, or creativity, in playfulness during childhood and those displayed in years, in creative adolescents and adults. Future research opportunities in this area could explore a longitudinal study of kindergarten-aged children and the development or evolution of divergent thinking abilities throughout adolescence, into adulthood, in order to substantiate the link drawn between playfulness and divergent thinking in life.

This long-term study would help parents and teachers identify this behaviour in children at an age when it can be reinforced if displayed, or supported if not yet displayed. In a study at the University of Bergen, the effects of positive and negative mood on divergent-thinking were examined. Nearly two hundred art and psychology students participated, first by measuring their moods with an adjective checklist before performing the required tasks; the results showed a clear distinction in performance between those with a self-reported positive versus negative mood: Results showed natural positive mood to facilitate task performance and negative mood to inhibit it… The results suggest that persons in elevated moods may prefer satisficing strategies, which would lead to a higher number of proposed solutions. Persons in a negative mood may choose optimizing strategies and be more concerned with the quality of their ideas, detrimental to performance on this kind of task. A series of related studies suggested a link between positive mood and the promotion of cognitive flexibility.

In a 1990 study by Murray, Sujan and Sujan, this hypothesis was examined more and "found positive mood participants were able to see relations between concepts”, as well as demonstrating advanced abilities "in distinguishing the differences between concepts". This group of researchers drew a parallel between "their findings and creative problem solving by arguing that participants in a positive mood are better able both to differentiate between and to integrate unusual and diverse information"; this shows that their subjects are at a distinct cognitive advantage when performing divergent thinking-related tasks in an elevated mood. Further research could take this topic one step further to explore effective strategies to improve divergent thinking when in a negative mood, for example how to move beyond "optimizing strategies" into "satisficing strategies" rather than focus on "the quality of their ideas", in order to generate more ideas and creative solutions. While little research has been conducted on the impact of sleep deprivation on divergent thinking, one study by J.

A. Horne illustrated that when motivation to perform well is maintained, sleep can still impact divergent thinking performance. In this study, twelve subjects were deprived of sleep for thirty-two hours, while a control group of twelve others maintained normal sleep routine. Subjects' performance on both a word fluency task and a challenging nonverbal planning test was "significantly impaired by sleep loss" when the factor of personal motivation to perform well was controlled; this study showed that "one night of sleep loss can affect divergent thinking”, which "contrasts with the outcome for convergent thinking tasks, which are more resilient to short-term sleep loss". Research on sleep deprivation and divergent thinking could be further explored on a biological or chemical level, to identify the reason why cognitive functioning, as it relates to divergent thinking, is impacted by lack of sleep and if there is a difference in its impact if subjects are deprived of REM versus non-REM sleep.

Lateral thinking "Changing Paradigms" by Sir Ken Robinson - v