Antonio de Espejo
Antonio de Espejo was a Spanish explorer who led an expedition into New Mexico and Arizona in 1582–83. The expedition created interest in establishing a Spanish colony among the Pueblo Indians of the Rio Grande valley. Espejo was born about 1540 in Cordova and arrived in Mexico in 1571 along with the Chief Inquisitor, Pedro Moya de Contreras, sent by the Spanish king to establish an Inquisition. Espejo and his brother became ranchers on the northern frontier of Mexico. In 1581, Espejo and his brother were charged with murder, his brother was imprisoned and Espejo fled to Santa Barbara, the northernmost outpost of Mexico. He was there. Espejo, a wealthy man and financed an expedition for the ostensible purpose of ascertaining the fate of two priests who had remained behind with the Pueblos when Chamuscado led his soldiers back to Mexico. Along with fourteen soldiers, a priest, about 30 Indian servants and assistants, 115 horses he departed from San Bartolome, near Santa Barbara, on November 10, 1582.
Espejo followed the same route as Chamuscado and Rodriguez, down the Conchos River to its junction with the Rio Grande and up the Rio Grande to the Pueblo villages. Along the Conchos River, Espejo encountered the Conchos Indians "naked people... who support themselves on fish, mesquite and lechuguilla". Further downriver, he found Conchos who grew corn and melons. Leaving the Conchos behind, Espejo next encountered the Passaguates "who were naked like the Conchos" and seemed to have had a similar lifestyle. Next, came the Jobosos who were few in number and ran away from the Spaniards. All of these tribes had been impacted by Spanish slave raids."Near the junction of the Conchos and the Rio Grande, Espejo entered the territory of the Patarabueyes who attacked his horses, killing three. Espejo succeeded in making peace with them; the Patarabueyes, he said, the other Indians near La Junta were called "Jumanos". -- the first use of the name for these Indians who would be prominent on the frontier for nearly two centuries.
To add to the confusion, they were called Otomoacos and Abriaches. Espejo saw five settlements of Jumanos with a population of about 10,000 people, they lived in low, flat roofed houses and grew corn and beans and hunted and fished along the river. They gave Espejo bison skins. Leaving the Jumano behind, he passed through the lands of the Caguates or Suma, who spoke the same language as the Jumanos, the Tanpachoas or Mansos, he found the Rio Grande Valley well populated all the way up to the present site of Texas. Upstream from El Paso, the expedition traveled 15 days without seeing any people. In February 1583, Espejo arrived at the territory of the Piros, the most southerly of the Pueblo villagers. From there the Spanish continued up the Rio Grande. Espejo described the Pueblo villages as "clean and tidy"; the houses were made of adode bricks. "They make fine tortillas," Espejo commented, the Pueblos served the Spanish turkeys, beans and pumpkins. The people "did not seem to be bellicose"; the southernmost Pueblos had only clubs for weapons plus a few "poor Turkish bows and poorer arrows".
Further north, the Indians were more aggressive. Some of the Pueblo towns were large, Espejo described Zia as having 1,000 houses and 4,000 men and boys. In their farming, the Pueblos used irrigation "with canals and dams, built as if by Spaniards"; the only Spanish influence that Espejo noted among the Pueblos was their desire for iron. They would steal any iron article. Espejo confirmed that the two priests had been killed by the Indians in the pueblo of Puala, near present-day Bernalillo; as the Spanish approached the Pueblo the inhabitants fled to the nearby mountains. The Spanish continued their explorations and west of the Rio Grande with no opposition from the Indians. Near Acoma, they noted that a people called Querechos lived in the mountains nearby and traded with the townspeople; these Querechos were Navajo. The related Apache of the Great Plains during this period were called Querechos. Espejo visited the Zuni and Hopi and heard stories of silver mines further west. With four men and Hopi guides he went in search of the mines, reaching the Verde River in Arizona in the area of Montezuma Castle National Monument.
He found the mines near present-day Jerome, but was unimpressed by their potential. He heard from the local Indians Yavapai, of a large river to the west, undoubtedly a reference to the Colorado. Among the Hopi and the Zuni, Espejo met several Spanish-speaking Mexican Indians, left behind by, or escaped from, the Coronado expedition more than 40 years earlier; the priest, several of the soldiers, the Indian assistants decided, despite Espejo's entreaties, to return to Mexico. It is possible that the priest was offended by the high-handed tactics of Espejo in dealing with the Pueblos. Espejo and eight soldiers stayed behind to look for silver and other precious metals; the little force had a skirmish with the Indians of Acoma because two women slaves or prisoners of the Spanish escaped. The Spanish recaptured the women but they fought their way free, wounding a Spanish soldier. In aiding the escape of the women, the Acomans and the Spanish exchanged volleys of harquebus fire and arrows; the Spanish, were placed on notice that the hospitality of the Pueblos had limits.
The Spanish returned to the Rio Grande Valley where they executed 16 Indians at a village who mocked them and refused them food. The Spanish departed the Rio Grande and expl
Fredericksburg is the seat of Gillespie County, in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 10,530. Fredericksburg was named after Prince Frederick of Prussia. Old-time German residents referred to Fredericksburg as Fritztown, a nickname, still used in some businesses; the town is notable as the home of Texas German, a dialect spoken by the first generations of German settlers who refused to learn English. Fredericksburg shares many cultural characteristics with New Braunfels, established by Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels the previous year. Fredericksburg is the birthplace of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, it is the sister city of Germany. On October 14, 1970, the Fredericksburg Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in Texas. Fredericksburg is located east of the center of Gillespie County at 30°16′27″N 98°52′19″W, it is 70 miles north of San Antonio and 78 miles west of Austin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.6 square miles, of which 8.6 square miles are land and 0.05 sq mi, or 0.55%, is covered by water.
Enchanted Rock is a geographical landmark 17 mi north of Fredericksburg in Llano County. The rock is a huge, pink granite exfoliation dome that rises 425 ft above the surrounding land, has a summit elevation of 1,825 ft above sea level, covers 640 acres, it is one of the largest batholiths in the United States, was declared a National Natural Landmark in 1970. In 1994, the State of Texas opened it as Enchanted Rock State Natural Area after adding facilities; the same year, Enchanted Rock was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Balanced Rock was a famous local landmark that perched atop Bear Mountain 10 mi north of Fredericksburg; the natural wonder stone pillar, about the size of a small elephant, precariously balanced on its small tip. It fell prey to vandals, who dynamited it off its base in April 1986; the first known record of Cross Mountain was in 1847 by Dr. Ferdinand von Roemer. Native Americans used the location to signal each other about intrusions into their territory; the area was part of settler Dr. John Christian Durst's 10-acre allotment.
Durst found a timber cross on the mountain, indicating that Spanish missionaries had once used the site. Durst named Cross Mountain. In 1849, Father George Menzel erected a new cross. In 1946, St. Mary's Catholic Church erected a concrete cross; the mountain has been used both for Easter sunrise services. It was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark 1976; the Vereins Kirche, the Pioneer Museum Complex, Pioneer Memorial Library, other architecture. On January 3, 1913, the San Antonio and Northern Railway was chartered to connect Fredericksburg with the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway near Waring. A 920-foot long railroad trestle was built, still exists as the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Old Tunnel bat habitat at 10619 Old San Antonio Rd, with provided picnic and restroom facilities for visitors; the cost of the tunnel sent the railroad into receivership on October 28, 1914. It was sold under foreclosure on December 31, 1917 to Martin Carle who deeded the property to the Fredericksburg and Northern Railway, chartered on December 26 of that year.
The train operated until July 27, 1942. The Fredericksburg-Stonewall area has become known as the Peach Capital of Texas and Benjamin Lester Enderle is known as the Father of the Hill Country Peach Industry, he was Gillespie County Surveyor and a math and science teacher at Fredericksburg High School when he planted five peach trees and began selling the fruit in 1921. Enderle worked to develop the Hale, Burbank and Stark varieties, he began marketing them through the H-E-B grocery chain, had 5,000 producing peach trees on 150 acres. Growers claim the taste is due to the area having the right combination of elevation, sandy soil, climate to produce flavorful clingstone and freestone peaches; the fruit ripens May–August, consumers can either buy picked fruit, or pick their own. Herb farms, grape culture, lavender production, wildflower seeds have become burgeoning businesses in Fredericksburg. Combinations of agribusiness with day spas, wedding facilities, or bed-and-breakfast accommodations are not unusual.
A Texas Hill Country Lavender Trail has been designated. Lady Bird Johnson's passion for Texas wildflowers not only lives on in the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center in Austin, but sparked a high demand for seed; the 200-acre Wildseed Farms in Fredericksburg was founded by John R. Thomas in 1983 as a result of that high demand, produces 88 varieties of wildflower seeds, it is the largest family-owned wildflower seed farm in the United States and host of an annual Wildflower Celebration. In 1994, the Seventy-third Texas Legislature passed H. B. No. 1425, allowing brewpub operations within Texas. Fredericksburg Brewing Company began operations shortly thereafter. A number of vineyards and related industries have arisen in the post-LBJ era of Fredericksburg; the designated American Viticultural Areas of Fredericksburg in the Texas Hill Country AVA and the much larger Texas Hill Country AVA both include Fredericksburg inside their boundaries. Fredericksburg is a common starting point or destination for tourists visiting wineries in the Texas Hill Country.
The city of Fredericksburg is served by the Fredericksburg Independent School District. The school's t
Armand Douglas Hammer is an American actor. The son of businessman Michael Armand Hammer and the great-grandson of oil tycoon Armand Hammer, Hammer began his acting career with guest appearances in several television series, his first leading role was as Billy Graham in the 2008 film Billy: The Early Years, he gained wider recognition for his portrayal of the Winklevoss twins in David Fincher's biographical drama film The Social Network. For the latter, he won the Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor. Hammer went on to portray Clyde Tolson in the biopic J. Edgar, play the title character in the western The Lone Ranger, star as Illya Kuryakin in the action film The Man from U. N. C. L. E.. In 2017, he starred in Luca Guadagnino's romantic drama Call Me by Your Name, for which he received a nomination for the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor; the following year, he portrayed Martin D. Ginsburg in the biopic On the Basis of Sex. Hammer was born in California, his mother, Dru Ann, is a former bank loan officer, his father, Michael Armand Hammer, owns several businesses, including Knoedler Publishing and Armand Hammer Productions.
He has Viktor. Hammer has described his background as "half Jewish." His paternal great-grandfather was oil tycoon and philanthropist Armand Hammer, whose parents were Jewish immigrants to the U. S. from Russian Empire, were of Ukrainian Jewish descent. Armie's paternal great-grandmother was Russian-born actress and singer Olga Vadimovna Vadina, the daughter of a tsarist general, his paternal grandmother was from Texas, while his mother's family is from Oklahoma. Hammer lived in the Dallas neighborhood of Highland Park for several years; when he was seven, his family moved to the Cayman Islands, where they lived for five years, settled back in Los Angeles. He attended Faulkner's Academy in Governor's Harbour, Cayman Islands, Grace Christian Academy in Grand Cayman, went to Los Angeles Baptist High School in the San Fernando Valley, he dropped out of high school in eleventh grade to pursue an acting career. Subsequently, he took college courses. Hammer said his parents disowned him when he decided to leave school and take up acting but have since become supportive and proud of his work.
Hammer's professional acting career began with small guest appearances in the television series Veronica Mars, Gossip Girl and Desperate Housewives. His first ventures into film began with a minor role in the 2006 film Flicka, as well as co-starring in a 2008 psychological thriller, Blackout, his first leading role in film came with his portrayal of the Christian evangelist Billy Graham in Billy: The Early Years, which premiered in October 2008. The film garnered Hammer a "Faith and Values Award" nomination in the Grace Award category, awarded for the Most Inspiring Performance in Movie or Television by Mediaguide, an organization which provides movie reviews from a Christian perspective. In 2007, Hammer was hand-picked by filmmaker George Miller, after a long search, to star in the planned superhero film Justice League: Mortal, as Batman/Bruce Wayne; the film, to be directed by Miller, was cancelled. The films cancellation came in large part due to the looming 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike as well as stalled budgetary rebate negotiations with the Australian Government.
In 2009, he played Harrison Bergeron in 2081, based on the short story of the same name by author Kurt Vonnegut, which premiered at the Seattle International Film Festival. In 2010, Hammer's breakthrough film role was in David Fincher's The Social Network, about the creation of Facebook, he portrayed the identical twins Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss, with actor Josh Pence serving as a body double during filming. The filmmakers utilized computer-generated imagery during post-production to superimpose Hammer's face over Pence's as well as the use of split-screen photography in certain scenes. In preparation for the film, Hammer stated that he had to learn how to row on both sides of a boat in order to play the twins, who are rowing champions. Hammer and Pence went through 10 months of extensive twin boot camp in preparation for their roles, in order to, "drill the subtle movements and speech patterns that the Winklevosses would have developed over two decades of genetic equality." This film earned Hammer his first critical plaudits, with Richard Corliss of Time remarking that Hammer's portrayal of the twins was, "an astonishingly subtle trompe l'oeil of special effects."
For his role in the film, Hammer won Toronto Film Critics Association Awards for Best Supporting Actor. His next role was that of the first Associate Director of the FBI, Clyde Tolson, in Clint Eastwood's 2011 film J. Edgar; the biographical drama, written by Dustin Lance Black, focused on the expansive career of J. Edgar Hoover, of which the titular role was portrayed by Leonardo DiCaprio; the acting was praised, with David Denby of The New Yorker citing Hammer's performance as "charming" and The Hollywood Reporter's Todd McCarthy as, "excellent,". McCarthy goes on further in his review to praise the chemistry between DiCaprio and Hammer in their depiction of the speculated romantic relationship between their characters, pointing out that, "...the way the homoerotic undertones and impulses are handled is one of the best things about the film.
The Navajos are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States. The Navajo people are politically divided between two federally recognized tribes, the Navajo Nation and the Colorado River Indian Tribes. At more than 300,000 enrolled tribal members as of 2015, the Navajo Nation is the second-largest federally recognized tribe in the U. S. and has the largest reservation in the country. The reservation straddles the Four Corners region and covers more than 27,000 square miles of land in Arizona and New Mexico; the Navajo language is spoken throughout the region, most Navajo speak English. The states with the largest Navajo populations are New Mexico. More than three-quarters of the enrolled Navajo population resides in these two states; the Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan language. The language comprises mutually intelligible dialects; the Apache language is related to the Navajo language. Speakers of various other Athabaskan languages located in Canada may still comprehend the Navajo language despite the geographic and linguistic deviation of the languages.
Additionally, some Navajo speak Navajo Sign Language, either a dialect or daughter of Plains Sign Talk. Some speak Plains Sign Talk itself. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo and Apache entered the Southwest around 1400 CE; the Navajo oral tradition is said to retain references to this migration. Until contact with the Pueblo and the Spanish peoples, the Navajo were hunters and gatherers; the tribe adopted crop-farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing the traditional "Three Sisters" of corn and squash. After the Spanish colonists influenced the people, the Navajo began keeping and herding livestock—sheep and goats—as a main source of trade and food. Meat became an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep became a form of currency and status symbols among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, women began to weave wool into blankets and clothing. Oral history indicates a long relationship with Pueblo people and a willingness to incorporate Puebloan ideas and linguistic variance into their culture.
There were long-established trading practices between the groups. Spanish records from the mid-16th century recount the Pueblo exchanging maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat and stone from Athabaskans traveling to the pueblos or living in their vicinity. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajo maintaining large herds of livestock and cultivating large crop areas. Western historians believe that the Spanish before 1600 referred to the Navajo as Apaches or Quechos. Fray Geronimo de Zarate-Salmeron, in Jemez in 1622, used Apachu de Nabajo in the 1620s to refer to the people in the Chama Valley region, east of the San Juan River and northwest of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. Navahu comes from the Tewa language. By the 1640s, the Spanish began using the term Navajo to refer to the Diné. During the 1670s, the Spanish wrote that the Diné lived in a region known as Dinétah, about sixty miles west of the Rio Chama valley region. In the 1770s, the Spanish sent military expeditions against the Navajo in the Mount Taylor and Chuska Mountain regions of New Mexico.
The Spanish and Hopi continued to trade with each other and formed a loose alliance to fight Apache and Commanche bands for the next twenty years. During this time there were minor raids by Navajo bands and Spanish citizens against each other. In 1800 Governor Chacon led 500 men in an expedition to the Tunicha Mountains against the Navajo. Twenty Navajo chiefs asked for peace. In 1804 and 1805 the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other's settlements. In May 1805 another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making and trading among the Navajo, Apache and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in 1846; the Navajo encountered the United States Army in 1846, when General Stephen W. Kearny invaded Santa Fe with 1,600 men during the Mexican–American War. On November 21, 1846, following an invitation from a small party of American soldiers under the command of Captain John Reid, who journeyed deep into Navajo country and contacted him and other Navajo negotiated a treaty of peace with Colonel Alexander Doniphan at Bear Springs, Ojo del Oso.
This agreement by some New Mexicans. The Navajo raided New Mexican livestock, New Mexicans took women and livestock from the Navajo. In 1849, the military governor of New Mexico, Colonel John MacRae Washington—accompanied by John S. Calhoun, an Indian agent—led a force of 400 soldiers into Navajo country, penetrating Canyon de Chelly, he signed a treaty with two Navajo leaders: Mariano Martinez as Head Chief and Chapitone as Second Chief. The treaty acknowledged the transfer of jurisdiction from the United Mexican States to the United States; the treaty allowed forts and trading posts to be built on Navajo land. The United States, on its part, promised "such donations such other liberal and humane measures, as may deem meet and proper." While en route to this treaty signing, Narbona, a prominent Navajo peace leader
Claude Benton Hudspeth
Claude Benton Hudspeth was an American cowboy, rancher and statesman from El Paso, Texas. A native of Medina, he represented Texas as a Democrat in the U. S. Congress from 1919 to 1931, he served in the Texas House of Representatives and in the Texas State Senate. Hudspeth moved to San Antonio in 1940, died there on March 19, 1941, he is buried in the Mission Burial Park in San Antonio. Hudspeth County, Texas was named for him. United States Congress. "HUDSPETH, Claude Benton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Martin Donell Kohout: Claude Benton Hudspeth from the Handbook of Texas Online
John Pope (military officer)
John Pope was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. He had a brief stint in the Western Theater, but he is best known for his defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run in the East. Pope was a graduate of the United States Military Academy in 1842, he served in the Mexican–American War and had numerous assignments as a topographical engineer and surveyor in Florida, New Mexico, Minnesota. He spent much of the last decade before the Civil War surveying possible southern routes for the proposed First Transcontinental Railroad, he was an early appointee as a Union brigadier general of volunteers and served under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, he achieved initial success against Brig. Gen. Sterling Price in Missouri led a successful campaign that captured Island No. 10 on the Mississippi River. This inspired the Lincoln administration to bring him to the Eastern Theater to lead the newly formed Army of Virginia, he alienated many of his officers and men by publicly denigrating their record in comparison to his Western command.
He launched an offensive against the Confederate army of General Robert E. Lee, in which he fell prey to a strategic turning movement into his rear areas by Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson. At Second Bull Run, he concentrated his attention on attacking Jackson while the other Confederate corps attacked his flank and routed his army. Following Manassas, Pope was banished far from the Eastern Theater to the Department of the Northwest in Minnesota, where he commanded U. S. Forces in the Dakota War of 1862, he was appointed to command the Department of the Missouri in 1865 and was a prominent and activist commander during Reconstruction in Atlanta. For the rest of his military career, he fought in the Indian Wars against the Apache and Sioux. Pope was born in Louisville, the son of Nathaniel Pope, a prominent Federal judge in early Illinois Territory and a friend of lawyer Abraham Lincoln, he was the brother-in-law of Manning Force, a distant cousin married the sister of Mary Todd Lincoln. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1842, was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the Corps of Topographical Engineers.
He served in Florida and helped survey the northeastern border between the United States and Canada. He fought under Zachary Taylor in the Battle of Monterrey and Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican–American War, for which he was appointed a brevet first lieutenant and captain, respectively. After the war Pope worked as a surveyor in Minnesota. In 1850 he demonstrated the navigability of the Red River, he served as the chief engineer of the Department of New Mexico from 1851 to 1853 and spent the remainder of the antebellum years surveying a route for the Pacific Railroad. Pope was serving on lighthouse duty when Abraham Lincoln was elected and he was one of four officers selected to escort the president-elect to Washington, D. C, he offered to serve Lincoln as an aide, but on June 14, 1861, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and was ordered to Illinois to recruit volunteers. In the Department of the West under Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont, Pope assumed command of the District of North and Central Missouri in July, with operational control along a portion of the Mississippi River.
He had an uncomfortable relationship with Frémont and politicked behind the scenes to get him removed from command. Frémont was convinced that Pope had treacherous intentions toward him, demonstrated by his lack of action in following Frémont's offensive plans in Missouri. Historian Allan Nevins wrote, "Actually and timidity offer a better explanation of Pope than treachery, though he showed an insubordinate spirit."Pope forced the Confederates under Sterling Price to retreat southward, taking 1,200 prisoners in a minor action at Blackwater, Missouri, on December 18. Pope, who established a reputation as a braggart early in the war, was able to generate significant press interest in his minor victory, which brought him to the attention of Frémont's replacement, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. Halleck appointed Pope to command the Army of the Mississippi on February 23, 1862. Given 25,000 men, he was ordered to clear Confederate obstacles on the Mississippi River, he made a surprise march on New Madrid and captured it on March 14.
He orchestrated a campaign to capture Island No. 10, a fortified post garrisoned by 12,000 men and 58 guns. Pope's engineers cut a channel. Assisted by the gunboats of Captain Andrew H. Foote, he landed his men on the opposite shore, which isolated the defenders; the island garrison surrendered on April 7, 1862, freeing Union navigation of the Mississippi as far south as Memphis. Pope's outstanding performance on the Mississippi earned him a promotion to major general, dated as of March 21, 1862. During the Siege of Corinth, he commanded the left wing of Halleck's army, but he was soon summoned to the East by Lincoln. After the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign, Pope was appointed to command the Army of Virginia, assembled from scattered forces in the Shenandoah Valley and Northern Virginia; this promotion infuriated Frémont. Pope brought an attitude of self-assurance, offensive to the eastern soldiers under his command, he issued an astonishing message to his new army on July 14, 1862, that included the following: Let us understand each other.
I have come to you from the West.
Butterfield Overland Mail
Butterfield Overland Mail was a stagecoach service in the United States operating from 1858 to 1861. It carried passengers and U. S. Mail from two eastern termini, Tennessee, St. Louis, Missouri, to San Francisco, California; the routes from each eastern terminus met at Fort Smith and continued through Indian Territory, New Mexico, Arizona and California ending in San Francisco. On March 3, 1857, Congress authorized the U. S. postmaster general, Aaron Brown, to contract for delivery of the U. S. mail from Saint Louis to San Francisco. Prior to this, U. S. Mail bound for the Far West had been delivered by the San Antonio and San Diego Mail Line since June 1857. John Butterfield was a descendant of Benjamin Butterfield, who brought his family from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638, his father, Daniel Butterfield, lived at Berne, in the Helderberg, near Albany, N. Y. where John was born. He attended schools near his boyhood home. John's early involvement with stage lines started about 1820.
"John Butterfield was borne at Berne, in the Helderberg, near Albany, November 18, 1801. In early life we find him in the employment of Thorpe & Sprague, of that city, as a driver, through the solicitation of Mr. Theodore S. Faxton came to Utica, where he for a time was employed in picking up passengers from the taverns and boats for Parker's stages. After a time he started a livery with but small accommodations… His connection to Parker & Co. continued so long as they were still in business, was succeeded by lines of his own, wherein he was a leading manager in the State until staging was superseded by railroads." After his employment with other stage lines, John decided to use this experience for running his own stage lines in Upstate New York. "Mr. Butterfield devoted his attention to lines running North and South. At the height of stage coaching he had forty lines running from Utica as headquarters to Ogdensburg and Sacketts Harbor on the North, South to the Pennsylvania line, through Chemung and Susquehanna valleys."
By 1857, when John was awarded the Overland Mail Company contract, he had had 37 years of experience working for and running stage lines. This was one of the reasons. Through the 1840s and 1850s there was a desire for better communication between the east and west coasts of the United States. There were several proposals for railroads connecting the two coasts. A more immediate realization was an overland mail route across the west. Congress authorized the Postmaster General to contract for mail service from Missouri to California to facilitate settlement in the west; the Post Office Department advertised for bids for an overland mail service on April 20, 1857. Bidders were to propose routes from the Mississippi River westward. Nine bids were made by some of the most experienced stage men. None of the express companies, such as American Express, Adams Express, or Wells Fargo & Co. Express, bid on the contract because, as of yet, they had no experience running stage lines. A suggestion by The New York Times that the express companies could do a better job than the Overland Mail Company drew a sharp rebuttal from a Washington, D.
C. newspaper. Mail Contract No. 12,578 for $600,000 per annum for a semi-weekly service was assigned to John Butterfield of Utica, New York, president for the contract, named the Overland Mail Company. This was the longest mail contract awarded in the United States, it was a stockholding company and the main stockholders, besides John Butterfield who were the directors, were William B. Dinsmore of New York City. There were four others known as sureties. All of the stockholders were connected to other businesses in Upstate New York and most lived not far from Butterfield's home in Utica, New York. Alexander Holland was Butterfield's treasurer of the Overland Mail Company. Dinsmore was vice-president of the company; the office for the company was in New York City. Why John Butterfield was chosen was stated best by Postmaster General Aaron Brown:... a route which no contractor had bid for, but one which in the judgement of A. V. Brown, of Memphis, had more advantages than any other, and, as John Butterfield & Co. had, in the opinion of Brown, greater ability and experience than anybody else to carry out a mail service, John Butterfield & Co. was selected and preferred.
The route, known as the Oxbow Route because of its long curving route through the southwest, was 600 miles longer than the Central Overland Trail, but had the advantage of being snow free. The contract with the U. S. Post Office, which went into effect on September 16, 1858, identified the route and divided it into eastern and western divisions. Franklin, Texas to be named El Paso was the dividing point and these two were subdivided into minor divisions, five in the East and four in the West; these minor divisions were numbered west to east from San Francisco, each under the direction of a superintendent. John Butterfield Sr. turned to two of his most trusted and experienced employees to put in place the Butterfield Trail. In 1858, with expedition leader Marquis L. Kenyon, John Butterfield Jr. helped to select the route and sites for the stage stations. Kenyon was a stockholder/director of the Overland Mail Company and the only stockholder, other than John Butterfield, to have significant staging experience.
Marquis moved fr