Mount Hood National Forest
The Mount Hood National Forest is 62 miles east of the city of Portland and the northern Willamette River valley. The Forest extends south from the Columbia River Gorge across more than 60 miles of forested mountains and streams to the Olallie Scenic Area, a high lake basin under the slopes of Mount Jefferson; the Forest is named after Mount Hood, a stratovolcano. The Forest encompasses some 1,067,043 acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated; the Forest is divided into four separate districts - Barlow, Clackamas River, Hood River, Zigzag. In descending order of land area the National Forest is located in parts of Clackamas, Hood River, Multnomah and Jefferson counties. Mount Hood National Forest was first established as the Bull Run Forest Reserve in 1892, it was expanded in 1893. It was named Oregon National Forest; the name was changed again to Mount Hood National Forest in 1924. The 1952 film Bend of the River was shot in Mount Hood National Forest.
In 2010, Mount Hood National Forest was honored with its own quarter under the America the Beautiful Quarters program. The Mount Hood National Forest is one of the most-visited National Forests in the United States, with over four million visitors annually. Less than five percent of the visitors camp in the forest; the forest contains 170 developed recreation sites, including: Timberline Lodge, built in 1937 high on Mount Hood Lost Lake Burnt Lake Trillium Lake Timothy Lake Rock Creek Reservoir The Old Oregon Trail, including Barlow RoadOther common recreational activities in the Mount Hood National Forest include fishing, hiking, rafting, horseback riding, mountain biking, berry-picking, mushroom collecting. A portion of the Pacific Crest Trail passes through the National Forest on the flanks of the mountain. Mount Hood is a popular destination for mountain climbers. Several nonprofits lead free hikes into the National Forest to build support for further protection from logging and off-road vehicle use, including BARK and Oregon Wild.
Mount Hood National Recreation Area was established within Mount Hood National Forest on March 30, 2009. The recreation area comprises three separate units. There are eight designated wilderness areas within Mount Hood National Forest collectively adding up to 311,448 acres that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Acreages are as of 2011. Badger Creek Wilderness at 29,057 acres Bull of the Woods Wilderness at 36,731 acres Clackamas Wilderness at 9,181 acres Lower White River Wilderness at 1,743 acres not counting 1,063 acres on BLM land Mark O. Hatfield Wilderness at 65,822 acres Mount Hood Wilderness at 63,177 acres includes the peak and upper slopes of Mount Hood Roaring River Wilderness at 36,768 acres Salmon–Huckleberry Wilderness at 62,455 acres The Olallie Scenic Area is a roaded lake basin that offers a primitive recreational experience. A campaign which began in 2004 and is still running as of December 31st 2016. Mt. Hood has attempted at becoming a National Park since the early 20th century.
Mount Hood National Forest - US Forest Service Mount Hood National Forest - Wildernet.com Hiking Mount Hood National Forest - GORP Mount Hood National Park Campaign - MHNPC
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located in the states of Washington and Oregon. The National Historic Site consists of two units, one located on the site of Fort Vancouver in modern-day Vancouver, Washington; the two sites were separately given national historic designation in the 1940s. The Fort Vancouver unit was designated a National Historic Site in 1961, was combined with the McLoughlin House into a unit in 2003; the visitor center at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was built in 1966 as a part of the National Park Service's Mission 66 Program. Today, the visitor center is co-operated by the both the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service. Recent renovations to the visitor center transformed the historic building as an information center for both Fort Vancouver National Historic Site and the Gifford Pinchot National Forest; the visitor center features rotating archaeological exhibits from the national historic site and art exhibits from local native artists.
The building has a theater that shows 3 films from the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service: Fort Vancouver - One place Across Time, Vancouver Kaiser Shipyards Documentary, Mount St. Helens - Eruption of Life; the main unit of the site, containing Fort Vancouver, is located in Vancouver, just north of Portland, Oregon. Fort Vancouver was an important Hudson's Bay Company fur trading post, established in 1824. Operations until 1845 were overseen by Chief Factor John McLoughlin, it was the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's fur trade activity on the Pacific coast and its influence stretched from the Rocky mountains in the east, to Alaska in the north, Alta California in the south, to the Kingdom of Hawaii in the Pacific. Ratified in 1846, the Treaty of Oregon was signed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States, thereby ending the decades long Oregon boundary dispute; the treaty permitted the Hudson's Bay Company to continue to operate at Fort Vancouver, now within the Oregon Territory.
On June 14, 1860, Fort Vancouver was abandoned by the Hudson's Bay Company in favor of their stations in British Columbia, such as Fort Victoria. In 1849, the United States Army constructed the Vancouver Barracks adjacent to the British trading post. A fire destroyed the Hudson's Bay Company fort in 1866, but the Army facility continued in operation in various forms until to the present. Fort Vancouver was separated from the Army's barracks and became a national monument in 1948. Congress re-designated the site as a National Historic Site. For some years after its addition to the National Park System, the National Park Service was reluctant to begin reconstruction of the fort walls or buildings, preferring to manage it as an archaeological site as provided by its standing policies. However, in 1965, with the urging of the local community, Congress directed reconstruction to begin. All fort structures seen today are modern replicas, albeit placed on the original locations. In response to concerns about the designation of reconstructed structures, the Park Service designated the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Historic District to encompass reconstructed buildings as well as historic Army and Mission 66 era Park Service structures.
The National Park Service operates the Pearson Air Museum on the fort grounds. An earth-covered pedestrian land bridge was built over the Lewis and Clark Highway, as part of the Confluence Project, in 2007, it connects the site with the Columbia River. The McLoughlin House unit consists of the homes of McLoughlin, of Dr. Forbes Barclay, an explorer and associate of McLoughlin's, they are located adjacent to each other on a bluff overlooking the Willamette River in Oregon City, Oregon, on a plot of land set aside for public use by McLoughlin in the 1840s. In 1846, McLoughlin left the employ of Hudson's Bay Company, purchased from the company a land claim located on the Willamette River in Oregon City. McLoughlin constructed the house there, lived there until his death in 1857; the house, a two-style colonial mansion, is typical of East Coast residences from the time. After McLoughlin's death in 1857, his widow lived there; the home soon became a bordello known as the Phoenix Hotel. In 1908, the paper mill that owned the property wished to expand and the house was threatened with demolition, but preservationists saved it the next year, raising over $1,000 and overcoming a referendum.
The house was moved from the riverfront to its current location on a bluff overlooking downtown Oregon City in 1910. It sat there for twenty-five years, until being restored in 1935-1936 under the auspices of the Civil Works Administration, opened as a museum; the Barclay House was built in 1849 by Portland carpenter and pioneer John L. Morrison, occupied by Dr. Barclay and his family. Barclay died in 1874. Today, the Barclay House contains a gift shop; the McLoughlin House became a National Historic Site in 1941, both homes were added to the National Park System in 2003, becoming part of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. The McLoughlin House unit lies on the Oregon National Historic Trail, a part of the National Trails System; the graves of McLoughlin and his wife are on the
Siuslaw National Forest
The Siuslaw National Forest is a national forest in western Oregon in the United States. Established in 1908, the Siuslaw is made up of a wide variety of ecosystems, ranging from coastal forests to sand dunes; the Siuslaw National Forest encompasses more than 630,000 acres along the central Oregon Coast between Coos Bay and Tillamook, in some places extends east from the ocean, beyond the crest of the Oregon Coast Range reaching the Willamette Valley. The forest lies in Lane County and Lincoln County, it includes the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area. The Forest Supervisor's office is located in Corvallis, the Siuslaw is broken up into two ranger districts—the Hebo Ranger District, with 151,000 acres, the Central Coast Ranger District, with 479,000 acres; the forest contains the highest point in the Oregon Coast Range at 4,097 feet. Numerous aquatic habitats are found in the forest: marine shore and streams—1,200 miles, including the Alsea, Nestucca and Umpqua rivers—and 30 lakes; the terrestrial environment can be regarded as two major vegetation zones, one near the coast dominated by Sitka spruce, the other dominated by western hemlock and Douglas fir.
Western hemlock grows in the shade under Douglas fir. Other major tree species in the forest are western red cedar, red alder, bigleaf maple. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated; the Cummins Creek Wilderness and the Rock Creek Wilderness preserve some of this old growth. Recreational activities in the Siuslaw National Forest include fishing, hiking, horseback riding, mountain biking, exploring tide pools, riding off highway vehicles. There are three designated wilderness areas within the Siuslaw National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, all established in 1984: Drift Creek Wilderness - Lincoln County Cummins Creek Wilderness - Lane County Rock Creek Wilderness - Lane County Beaver Creek Falls in the heart of the forest Siuslaw National Forest official website Media related to Siuslaw National Forest at Wikimedia Commons
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located on the borders of the U. S. states of Idaho. The recreation area, managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, was established by U. S. Congress and signed by President Gerald Ford in 1975 to protect the historic and archaeological values of the Hells Canyon area and the area of the Snake River between Hells Canyon Dam and the Oregon-Washington border. 215,000 acres of the recreation area are designated the Hells Canyon Wilderness. There are nearly 900 miles of hiking trails in the recreation area; the largest portion of the area lies in eastern Wallowa Oregon. Smaller portions lie in southwestern Idaho County, northwestern Adams County and northeastern Baker County, Oregon. All or included in the HCNRA is the Hells Canyon Archeological District, a 12,000-acre historic district, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the district includes 536 contributing sites, 23 contributing buildings, 58 other contributing structures.
The Snake River National Recreation Trail #102 lies within the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area and along the Idaho side of the Snake River, from near Lamont Springs, downstream, to Pittsburg Landing. The SRNRT was designated in 1980 under the National Trails System Act, it was constructed during the period of the late 1800s to about the 1930s. Access to the SRNRT can be gained via road to the trailhead at Pittsburg Landing on the north end of the trail, or, by boat access near Hells Canyon Dam on the south end of the trail. Access can be gained via trails leading from Seven Devils Wilderness Area trail head at Windy Saddle via either the Granite Creek trails or Sheep Creek trails. Ewert, Sara E. Dant. "Evolution of an Environmentalist: Senator Frank Church and the Hells Canyon Controversy." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 51: 36-51. Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Malheur National Forest
The Malheur National Forest is a National Forest in the U. S. state of Oregon. It contains more than 1.4 million acres in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. The forest consists of high desert grasslands, juniper, pine and other tree species. Elevations vary from about 4,000 feet to the 9,038-foot peak of Strawberry Mountain; the Strawberry Mountains extend east to west through the center of the forest. U. S. Route 395 runs south to north through the forest, while U. S. Route 26 runs east to west; the forest was established by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 13, 1908, is named after the Malheur River, from the French, meaning "misfortune". It is managed by the United States Forest Service for timber extraction, cattle grazing, gold mining and wilderness use. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. In descending order of land area, the forest is located in parts of Grant, Harney and Malheur counties. There are three ranger districts in the forest, with offices in John Day, Prairie City, Hines.
The Malheur National Forest contains the largest known organism in the world: an Armillaria solidipes that spans 2,200 acres. There are two wilderness areas in the Malheur National Forest. Strawberry Mountain Wilderness at 68,700 acres Monument Rock Wilderness at 19,620 acres, located within the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest Vinegar Hill-Indian Rock Scenic Area, a high-elevation scenic area in the northeast portion of the forest Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, a federally protected refuge to the south of the forest Malheur National Forest home page Cedar Grove Botanical Area