A fanzine is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon for the pleasure of others who share their interest. The term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and first popularized within science fiction fandom, from there it was adopted by other communities. Publishers, editors and other contributors of articles or illustrations to fanzines are not paid. Fanzines are traditionally circulated free of charge, or for a nominal cost to defray postage or production expenses. Copies are offered in exchange for similar publications, or for contributions of art, articles, or letters of comment, which are published; some fanzines are photocopied by amateurs using standard home office equipment. A few fanzines have developed into professional publications, many professional writers were first published in fanzines; the term fanzine is sometimes confused with "fan magazine", but the latter term most refers to commercially produced publications for fans.
The origins of amateur fanac "fan" publications are obscure, but can be traced at least back to 19th century literary groups in the United States which formed amateur press associations to publish collections of amateur fiction and commentary, such as H. P. Lovecraft's United Amateur; these publications were produced first on small tabletop printing presses by students. As professional printing technology progressed, so did the technology of fanzines. Early fanzines were hand-drafted or typed on a manual typewriter and printed using primitive reproduction techniques. Only a small number of copies could be made at a time, so circulation was limited; the use of mimeograph machines enabled greater press runs, the photocopier increased the speed and ease of publishing once more. Today, thanks to the advent of desktop publishing and self-publication, there is little difference between the appearance of a fanzine and a professional magazine; when Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, he allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses.
By 1927 readers young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine. Science fiction fanzines had their beginnings in Constructive correspondence. Fans finding themselves writing the same letter to several correspondents sought to save themselves a lot of typing by duplicating their letters. Early efforts included simple carbon copies but that proved insufficient; the first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis; the term "fanzine" was coined by Russ Chauvenet in the October 1940 edition of his fanzine Detours. "Fanzines" were distinguished from "prozines,":. Prior to that, the fan publications were known as "fanmags" or "letterzines". Science fiction fanzines used a variety of printing methods. Typewriters, school dittos, church mimeos and multi-color letterpress or other mid-to-high level printing; some fans wanted their news spread, others reveled in the beauty of fine printing.
The hectograph, introduced around 1876, was so named because it could produce up to a hundred copies. Hecto used an aniline dye, transferred to a tray of gelatin, paper would be placed on the gel, one sheet at a time, for transfer. Messy and smelly, the process could create vibrant colors for the few copies produced, the easiest aniline dye to make being purple; the next small but significant technological step after hecto is the spirit duplicator the hectography process using a drum instead of the gelatin. Introduced by Ditto Corporation in 1923, these machines were known for the next six decades as Ditto Machines and used by fans because they were cheap to use and could print in color; the mimeograph machine, which forced ink through a wax paper stencil cut by the keys of a typewriter, was the standard for many decades. A second-hand mimeo could print in color; the electronic stencil cutter could add illustrations to a mimeo stencil. A mimeo'd zine could look terrible or look beautiful, depending more on the skill of the mimeo operator than the quality of the equipment.
Only a few fans could afford more professional printers, or the time it took them to print, until photocopying became cheap and ubiquitous in the 1970s. With the advent of computer printers and desktop publishing in the 1980s, fanzines began to look far more professional; the rise of the internet made correspondence cheaper and much faster, the World Wide Web has made publishing a fanzine as simple as coding a web page. The printing technology affected the style of writing. For example, there were alphanumeric contractions which are precursors to "leet-speak". Fanspeak is rich with concatenations. Where teenagers labored to save typing on ditto masters, they now save keystrokes when text messaging. Ackerman invented nonstoparagraphing as a space-saving measure. Whe
Underground music comprises musical genres beyond mainstream culture. Any song, not being commercialized is considered underground. Underground music may tend to express common ideas, such as high regard for sincerity and intimacy, freedom of creative expression as opposed to the formulaic composition of commercial music, appreciation of artistic individuality as opposed to conformity to current mainstream trends. Apart from the underground rock scenes in the pre-Mikhail Gorbachev Soviet Union, or the modern anti-Islamic metal scene of theocratic states in the Arabian Peninsula few types of underground music are hidden, although performances and recordings may be difficult for outsiders to find; some underground rock bands never got non-mainstream roots. They are radical, aggressive 60s bands such as The Velvet Underground, The Stooges, MC5, 70s bands like The Sex Pistols, The Damned, The Clash, 80s hardcore punk bands like Discharge; some underground styles became mainstream, commercialized pop styles, as did for example, the underground hip hop style of the early 1980s.
In the 2000s, the increasing availability of the Internet and digital music technologies has made underground music easier to distribute using streaming audio and podcasts. Some experts in cultural studies now argue that "there is no underground" because the Internet has made what was underground music accessible to everyone at the click of a mouse. One expert, Martin Raymond, of London-based company The Future Laboratory, commented in an article in The Independent, saying trends in music and politics are:... now transmitted laterally and collaboratively via the internet. You once had a series of gatekeepers in the adoption of a trend: the innovator, the early adopter, the late adopter, the early mainstream, the late mainstream, the conservative, but now it goes straight from the innovator to the mainstream. In effect, this means a boy band could be influenced by a obscure 1960s garage rock, early 1980s post punk, noise rock acts like Pussy Galore or composers of avant-garde classical music such as John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen, while maintaining recognizability as a boy band.
The term "underground music" has been applied to various artistic movements, for instance the psychedelic music movement of the mid-1960s, but the term has in more recent decades come to be defined by any musicians who tend to avoid the trappings of the mainstream commercial music industry otherwise it tells only truth through the music. Frank Zappa attempted to define "underground" by noting that the "mainstream comes to you, but you have to go to the underground." In the 1960s, the term "underground" was associated with the hippie counterculture and psychedelic drugs, applied to journalism and film as well as music, as they sought to communicate psychedelic experiences and Free love ideals. In modern popular music, the term "underground" refers to performers or bands ranging from artists that do DIY guerrilla concerts and self-recorded shows to those that are signed to small independent labels. In some musical styles, the term "underground" is used to assert that the content of the music is illegal or controversial, as in the case of early 1990s death metal bands in the US such as Cannibal Corpse for their gory cover art and lyrical themes.
Black metal is an underground form of music and its Norwegian scene are notorious for their association with church burnings, the occult and their Anti-Christian views. All of extreme metal is considered underground music for its extreme nature. Shlomo Sher's "philosophy for artists" argues that there are three common misconceptions about the "underground": that it refers to the rave/electronica scene. Instead, Sher claims that "underground music" is linked by shared values, such as a valuing of grassroots "reality" over music with "pre-wrapped marketing glossing it up". In a Counterpunch magazine article, Twiin argues that "Underground music is free media", because by working "independently, you can say anything in your music" and be free of corporate censorship; the genre of post-punk is considered a "catchall category for underground, indie, or lo-fi guitar rock" bands which "initially avoided major record labels in the pursuit of artistic freedom, out of an'us against them' stance towards the corporate rock world", spreading "west over college station airwaves, small clubs and independent record stores."
Underground music of this type is promoted through word-of-mouth or by community radio DJs. In the early underground scenes, such as the Grateful Dead jam band fan scenes or the 1970s punk scenes, crude home-made tapes were traded or sold from the stage or from the trunk of a car. In the 2000s, underground music podcasts. A music underground can refer to the culture of underground music in a city and its accompanying performance venues; the Kitchen is an example of what was an important New York City underground music venue in the 1960s and 1970s. CBGB is another famous New York City underground music venue claiming to be "Home of Underground Rock since 1973". Many gen
Bikini Kill is an American punk rock band formed in Olympia, Washington, in October 1990. The group consisted of singer and songwriter Kathleen Hanna, guitarist Billy Karren, bassist Kathi Wilcox, drummer Tobi Vail; the band is considered to be the pioneer of the riot grrrl movement, was known for its radical feminist lyrics and fiery performances. Their music is characteristically hardcore-influenced. After two full-length albums, several EPs and two compilations, they disbanded in 1997; the band reunited for a tour in 2019. Bikini Kill formed in Olympia, Washington, in October 1990, by Kathleen Hanna, Billy Karren, Kathi Wilcox, Tobi Vail. Hanna and Wilcox met while attending The Evergreen State College in Washington. Hanna published a fanzine called Bikini Kill for their first tours in 1991; the band wrote songs together and encouraged a female-centric environment at their shows, urging women to come to the front of the stage and handing out lyric sheets to them. Hanna would dive into the crowd to remove male hecklers.
Such male concertgoers would verbally and physically assault Hanna during shows when the tickets were still inexpensive and procured. However, the band's reach included large male audiences as well as young women. Fellow riot grrrl musician, Lois Maffeo adopted Bikini Kill as a band name, inspired by the 1967 B-movie The Million Eyes of Sumuru, she and her friend Margaret Doherty used the name for a one-off performance in the late 1980s where they donned faux fur punk cave girl costumes. Vail appropriated it after Maffeo settled on the band name Cradle Robbers. After an independent demo cassette, Revolution Girl Style Now!, Bikini Kill released the Bikini Kill EP on the indie label Kill Rock Stars. Produced by Ian MacKaye of Minor Threat and Fugazi, the album began to establish the band's audience; the band's debut album, Pussy Whipped, was released in September 1993. Bikini Kill toured in London, England to begin working with Huggy Bear, releasing a split album, Our Troubled Youth / Yeah Yeah Yeah Yeah, touring the UK.
The tour was the subject of a documentary film by Lucy Thane entitled It Changed My Life: Bikini Kill In The U. K. Upon their return to the United States, the band began working with Joan Jett of The Runaways, whose music Hanna described as an early example of the Riot Grrrl aesthetic. Jett produced the single "New Radio"/"Rebel Girl" for the band, Hanna co-wrote several songs on Jett's Pure and Simple album. By the following year, Riot Grrrl was receiving constant attention in the media, Bikini Kill were referred to as pioneers of the movement. Hanna called for a "media blackout" amongst Riot Grrrls, as they felt the band and the movement were being misrepresented by the media; the pioneer reputation endures but, as Hanna recalls, " vilified during the'90s by so many people, hated by so many people, I think that that's been kind of written out of the history. People were throwing chains at our heads – people hated us – and it was really hard to be in that band."The band's final album, Reject All American, was released in 1996.
After the band's breakup in 1997, a compilation of singles recorded between 1993 and 1995 was released in 1998 under the name The Singles. During the summer of 1992, the band The Frumpies was formed by Karren, Wilcox and Molly Neuman of Bratmobile, toured as late as the early 2000s along with a similar Italian punk rock band Dada Swing. Vail, notorious for her numerous side projects and being in several bands at a time resurfaced in a band called Spider and the Webs, played with The Old Haunts until the band broke up in 2009. Kathi Wilcox played in the Casual Dots, who released only one album to date, Billy Karren played in Ghost Mom. Hanna first contributed to an LP called'Real Fiction' as a member of The Fakes, turned to more dance-based new wave music on her solo debut, Julie Ruin, she became a member of the political new wave outfit Le Tigre. After Le Tigre broke up, Hanna became the front woman of a band named after her solo project, The Julie Ruin, for which Wilcox plays bass. In February 2016, a pro-Hillary Clinton clip, utilizing the Bikini Kill song "Rebel Girl" began to go viral, but was taken down by Vail.
In 2017, Kathleen Hanna, Kathi Wilcox and Tobi Vail reunited to play one song at a book-release concert. On the 15th of January 2019, Bikini Kill announced four U. S. shows. The lineup for these show will include Hanna, Tobi Vail and new guitarist Erica Dawn Lyle, who replaces Billy Karren in the lineup. Revolution Girl Style Now! Pussy Whipped Reject All American DIY ethic Ladyfest Official website Bikini Kill at tigerbomb.net Kathleen Hanna's Bikini Kill Archive at WordPress.com Bikini Kill at Rolling Stone Hanna And Her Sisters at The New Yorker
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these
Shane and Sia Barbi, popularly known as The Barbi Twins, are identical twins, cover models, co-authors, spokespersons for animal rights advocacy. Shane and Sia began modeling at the age of seven when they posed for a layout in the Sears mail-order catalog; as adults, their career has included fashion and pin-up modeling. The Los Angeles Times did a cover story about the Barbi Twins when their billboard went up on Sunset Boulevard in 1989 catapulting them to worldwide attention. In 1989, 1990, early 1991, they modeled for Chanel, Thierry Mugler, Jean Paul Gaultier, John Galliano and others. According to their 2001 E! True Hollywood Story, the billboard, the press that came from it, caught the eye of Hugh Hefner; the twins were put on the cover of Playboy magazine in the September 1991 issue which broke records by selling out in less than two weeks. In an unprecedented move, Hefner erected a billboard to promote the Barbi Twins and their second Playboy issue. USA Today said that the twins career brought them “caviar dreams and champagne life styles of the rich and famous”.
Playboy called their covers “legendary” and credited their subsequent television appearances with “the highest ratings,” remarking that the twins became Hollywood landmarks and global obsessions. The twins have generated a degree of controversy – a Saturday morning cartoon and an MTV show were criticized for being “too sexy” or “too controversial". Magazines and tabloids called them everything from "the sexiest twins alive” and "the best selling calendar models of the world” to referring to them as both “bizarre and bulimic” and “sexual icons and America’s cartoon sweethearts” The London Sun said that the Barbi Twins “took the glamour world by storm”, they were a favorite for cover models appearing on the covers and inside not only Playboy but mainstream national and international magazines including Cosmopolitan and Redbook. Newspapers and tabloids including'USA TODAY, Sunday Magazine’s News of the World, the Daily Star, were plastered with articles and pictures of the twins. Shane Barbi was among the many notable quotables when Newsweek’s “Overheard” section picked up a quote from her during an interview, "You can ask us about our cup size or favorite positions but please no personal questions.”
Stuff magazine gave the twins the title of “Sex Symbols for 1993” placing them in good company with other popular female icons such as Marilyn Monroe, Farrah Fawcett, Sharon Stone, Cindy Crawford. Redbook magazine took excerpts from the book “Diana’s Boys” which reveals how Prince William had his first crush on the Barbi Twins; the London Sun passed on a poster to the young prince autographed by the twins,“Love and Kisses and Sia”. After four years of the “best selling calendars”, photographs from a photo shoot were stolen from a NY film lab and "held for ransom" but were returned. In 2011 were featured and voted as one of MAXIM's Hottest Famous Twins, were featured in numerous movie posters on behalf of animal causes and on covers and featured articles in True Cowboy Magazine. Shane and Sia posed together in several internationally distributed Barbi Twins calendars from 1993 to 2007. After the success of their 1993 calendar the “Barbi Mania” continued with dozens of posters, a comic-art calendar and two comic books.
Other merchandise such as promotional trading cards, gift cards, gift wrap, mugs and just about any product that could have their images stamped on it were for sale. The Daily Star UK ran a comic strip called “The Barbi Twins”, featuring the twin models with psychic abilities. Gift shops world wide contained Barbi Twin products and every Spencer Gifts had dedicated a corner to Barbi Twin merchandise as E! True Hollywood Story reported. 48 Hours did a special on the Barbi Twins in 2002 on their eating disorders, the E! True Hollywood Story did a biography on the twins in 2001, they had several guest appearances on talk shows for television and radio, such as The Geraldo Rivera Show and The Howard Stern Show. The twins made several appearances along with William Shatner, John Landis, many others in the American animated series Eek! The Cat playing twin rocket scientists, "Dr. Shane and Dr. Sia". In 2007, they received an associate producer credit on Curt Johnson's animal activist documentary titled Your Mommy Kills Animals, which received acclaimed reviews from Variety, The Hollywood Reporter and LA Times.
In 2010 the twins again showed their support for the animal community and were featured in the movie Skin Trade, IMDb. In 2012 the twins announced their first feature documentary called I HAVE A DREAM about breed discrimination. Breed discrimination was at the root of the recent death of Lennox, a dog, destroyed just for being a breed too similar to a pit bull. In November 2003, the Barbi Twins sued Larry Flynt and Hustler magazine for shots taken at Playboy studios that found their way to Hustler without permission; the twins had a vitamin line they were promoting to be introduced in 2004 and the pictures were never meant to be published. They sued for both the pictures and a fictional story that appeared in Hustler as the Barbi Twins claimed it ruined their health image; the twins are the daughters of property developer Bob Carlson, a devout Christian and Marsha Barbi, a former Miss Ohio, but their parents divorced when the twins were just two. The twins believe that their mother was always a lesbian and when she left their father and they traveled to West Hollywood where Marsha became an "outspoken lesbian feminist"
Melody Maker was a British weekly music magazine, one of the world's earliest music weeklies, and—according to its publisher IPC Media—the earliest. It was founded in 1926 as a magazine for dance band musicians, by Leicester-born composer, publisher Lawrence Wright. In 2000 it was merged into "long-standing rival" New Musical Express; the Melody Maker concentrated on jazz, had Max Jones, one of the leading British proselytizers for that music, on its staff for many years. It was slow to cover rock and roll and lost ground to the New Musical Express, which had begun in 1952. MM launched its own weekly singles chart on 7 April 1956, an LPs charts in November 1958, two years after the Record Mirror had published the first UK Albums Chart. From 1964, the paper led its rival publications in terms of approaching music and musicians as a subject for serious study rather than entertainment. Staff reporters such as Chris Welch and Ray Coleman applied a perspective reserved for jazz artists to the rise of American-influenced local rock and pop groups, anticipating the advent of music criticism.
On 6 March 1965, MM called for the Beatles to be honoured by the British state. This duly happened on 12 June that year, when all four members of the group were appointed as members of the Order of the British Empire. By the late 1960s, MM had recovered, targeting an older market than the teen-oriented NME. MM had more specialised advertising, it ran pages devoted to "minority" interests like folk and jazz, as well as detailed reviews of musical instruments. A 1968 Melody Maker poll named John Peel best radio DJ, attention which John Walters said may have helped Peel keep his job despite concerns at BBC Radio 1 about Peel's style and record selection. Starting from the mid-Sixties, critics such as Welch, Richard Williams, Michael Watts, Steve Lake were among the first British journalists to write about popular music, shedding an intellectual light on such artists as Steely Dan, Cat Stevens, Led Zeppelin. Pink Floyd and Henry Cow. By the early 1970s, Melody Maker was considered "the musos' journal" and associated with progressive rock.
But Melody Maker reported on teenybopper pop sensations like The Osmonds, the Jackson 5, David Cassidy. The music weekly gave early and sympathetic coverage to glam rock. Richard Williams wrote the first pieces about Roxy Music, while Roy Hollingworth wrote the first article celebrating New York Dolls in proto-punk terms while serving as the Melody Maker's New York correspondent. In January 1972, Michael "Mick" Watts, a prominent writer for the paper, wrote a profile of David Bowie that singlehandedly ignited the singer's dormant career. During the interview Bowie claimed, "I'm gay, always have been when I was David Jones." "OH YOU PRETTY THING" ran the headline, swiftly became part of pop mythology. Bowie attributed his success to this interview, stating that, "Yeah, it was Melody Maker that made me, it was that piece by Mick Watts." During his tenure at the paper, Watts toured with and interviewed artists including Syd Barrett, Waylon Jennings, Pink Floyd, Bob Dylan and Bruce Springsteen. Caroline Coon was headhunted by Melody Maker editor Ray Coleman in the mid-1970s and promptly made it her mission to get women musicians taken and between 1974 and 1976 she interviewed Maggie Bell, Joan Armatrading, Lynsey de Paul and Twiggy.
She went on to make it her mission to promote punk rock. In 1978, Richard Williams returned - after a stint working at Island Records - to the paper as the new editor and attempted to take Melody Maker in a new direction, influenced by what Paul Morley and Ian Penman were doing at NME, he recruited Jon Savage, Chris Bohn and Mary Harron to provide intellectual coverage of post-punk bands like Gang of Four, Pere Ubu and Joy Division and of new wave in general. Vivien Goldman at NME and Sounds, gave the paper much improved coverage of reggae and soul music, restoring the superior coverage of those genres that the paper had in the early 1970s. Despite this promise of a new direction for the paper, internal tension developed, principally between Williams and Coleman, by this time editor-in-chief, who wanted the paper to stick to the more "conservative rock" music it had continued to support during the punk era. Coleman had been insistent that the paper should "look like The Daily Telegraph", but Williams wanted the paper to look more contemporary.
He commissioned an updated design. In 1980, after a strike which had taken the paper out of publication for a period, Williams left MM. Coleman promoted Michael Oldfield from the design staff to day-to-day editor, for a while, took it back where it had been, with news of a line-up change in Jethro Tull replacing features about Andy Warhol, Gang of Four and Factory Records on the cover. Several journalists, such as Chris Bohn and Vivien Goldman, moved to NME, while Jon Savage joined the new magazine The Face. Coleman left in 1981, the paper's design was updated, but sales and prestige were at a low ebb through the early 1980s, with NME dominant. By 1983, the magazine had become more populist and pop-oriented, exemplified by its modish "MM" masthead, regular covers for the likes of Duran Duran and its choice of Eurythmics' Touch as the best album of the year. Things were to change, however. In February 1984, Allan Jones, a staff writer on the paper since 1974, was appointed editor: defying instructions to put Kajagoogoo on the cover, he led the magazine with an article
John Robb (musician)
John David Robb is an English music journalist and singer. He runs the Louder Than War website and Louder Than Words monthly music magazine, he has written several books on music and makes media appearances as a music commentator. He is the vocalist in the punk rock band Goldblade and bassist and vocalist in post punk band The Membranes, his sister is Caroline Kende-Robb the boss of CARE in August 2018, before that she was the Executive Director of the Africa Progress Panel, a foundation chaired by Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations. Robb grew up in Anchorsholme, Blackpool, he attended Blackpool Sixth Form College an addition to the Collegiate Grammar School which Robb attended, where after reading about the emerging punk rock scene in the music press in 1976 he was inspired to start his own band. He is a supporter of Blackpool F. C. stating in January 2013, "I was born in Blackpool and supporting your local team is one of those things that gets under your skin for life."
Robb was inspired by the DIY ethic of punk to form The Membranes in 1977, the band releasing several albums in the 1980s. The band split up in 1990 with Robb forming Sensurround. In 1994 he formed Goldblade, who have released albums including 2005's Rebel Songs and 2008's Mutiny and single "City of Christmas Ghosts" featuring Poly Styrene on shared vocals. In 2013 Goldblade released the album The Terror of Modern Life via Overground Records; the Membranes reformed in 2010 appearing at the All Tomorrow's Parties Festival at the request of My Bloody Valentine and released the 7" vinyl single'If You Enter The Arena, You Got To Be Prepared To Deal with the Lions' – The single was released on Record Store Day 20 April 2012. Tim Burgess from the Charlatans released their next comeback single,'The Universe Explodes Into A Billion Photons Of Pure White Light' and the band released a new album,'Dark Matter/Dark Energy' in June 2015 on Cherry Red. In 2016 The band played concerts with a 25 piece choir in the UK and Europe and have lined up a remix album called Inner Space/Outer Space with mixes from Manic Street Preachers, Killing Joke, Mark Lanegan, Godflesh and the Makers, Einstürzende Neubauten, Clint Mansell and many others.
Their new album is due for release in May 2019 and features contributions from Chris Packham and the 20 piece BIMM choir in a double album about the beauty and violence of nature. The group believe that'every gig must be an event' and have promoted sell out shows where they explain the universe with scientists from the Higgs Boson project and a sold out gig at the top of Blackpool Tower in August. Robb produced several bands and in the mid-90s two singles by the Leicester three-piece Slinky and US punk band Done Lying Down, as well as Therapy? and Cornershop who he co-managed. Robb has appeared as a pundit on various television programmes including BBC Breakfast, Channel 4's "top 100" shows, BBC's I Love the 60s/70s/80s/90s series and Seven Ages of Rock, he has contributed to BBC 2's The Culture Show as well as several appearances on TV documentaries as well as on Channel 4 news talking about train travel, music piracy and the state of music, on BBC radio commenting on pop culture. He has been a contributor to Sky's The Pop Years and co-produced and presented a ten-part series on the history of punk rock.
He presented a twelve-part guide to the arts in North West England. He is filming a series of interviews for Lush's Gorilla channel with key cultural figures like Stewart Lee Mark Thomas Shaun Ryder Viv Albertine Caroline Lucas Youth and many others https://louderthanwar.com/watch-all-of-john-robbs-lush-interviews/ Gorilla channel. Robb's books include a biography of The Stone Roses, Stone Roses and the Resurrection of British Pop, his new book about post punk is due for release in 2019. The Stone Roses and the Resurrection of British Pop. Ebury Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-09-187887-0 Noise Bible – Adventures on the Eighties Underground with the Membranes. Thrill City; the Soul Manual. Ultimate; the Charlatans: We Are Rock. Ebury Press. ISBN 978-0-09-186568-9 The Nineties: What The Fuck Was That All About. Ebury Press. ISBN 978-0-09-187135-2 Punk Rock: An Oral History. Ebury Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-09-190511-8 The North Will Rise Again – Manchester Music City 1976–1996. Aurum Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84513-534-8 Death to Trad Rock – The Post-Punk Fanzine Scene 1982–1987.
Cherry Red, 2009. ISBN 978-1-901447-36-1 The Stone Roses and the Resurrection of British Pop: The Reunion Edition. Ebury Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-091948-58-0 Robb has worked as a journalist for many years, he published his own small town fanzine, Rox which would go on to be nationally distributed, while a member of The Membranes. He wrote for ZigZag in the 1980s, was a regular freelance contributor to Sounds in the late 1980s, as well as writing for Melody Maker, he now writes for The Sunday Times, The Observer, The Guardian, The Independent, several websites, The Big Issue and magazines in Turkey, America and Brazil. While working for Sounds, Robb was the first journalist to interview Nirvana, later coined the word'Britpop'. In 2011 Robb launched an online rock music and pop culture magazine/blog called Louder Than War, focusing on