Sanctification is the act or process of acquiring sanctity, of being made or becoming holy. In the various branches of Christianity sanctification refers to a person becoming holy, with the details differing in different branches; the Catholic Church upholds the doctrine of sanctification, teaching that: Sanctifying grace is that grace which confers on our souls a new life, that is, sharing in the life of God. Our reconciliation with God, which the redemption of Christ has merited for us, finds its accomplishments in sanctifying grace. Through this most precious gift we participate in the divine life; this grace is the source of all our supernatural merits and bestows upon us the right of eternal glory. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia "sanctity" differs for God and corporate body. For God, it is God's unique absolute moral perfection. For the individual, it is a close union with the resulting moral perfection, it is of God, by a divine gift. For a society, it is the ability to produce and secure holiness in its members, who display a real, not nominal, holiness.
The Church's holiness is beyond natural power. Sanctity is regulated by established conventional standards. Orthodox Christianity teaches the doctrine of theosis. A key scripture supporting this is 2 Peter 1:4. In the 4th century, Athanasius taught. Man does not become divine, but in Christ can partake of divine nature; this Church's version of salvation restores God's image in man. One such theme is release from mortality caused by desires of the world. A 2002 Anglican publishing house book states that “there is no explicit teaching on sanctification in the Anglican formularies”. A glossary of the Episcopal Church gives some teaching: “Anglican formularies have tended to speak of sanctification as the process of God's work within us by means of which we grow into the fullness of the redeemed life.” Outside official formularies sanctification has been an issue in the Anglican Communion since its inception. The 16th century Anglican Theologian Richard Hooker distinguished between the “righteousness of justification”, imputed by God and the “righteousness of sanctification” that comprises the works one does as an “inevitable” result of being justified.
Jeremy Taylor argued that sanctification can not be separated. A 19th century Church of England work agreed with Jeremy Taylor that justification and sanctification are “inseparable”. However, they are not the same thing. Justification is “found in Christ’s work alone”. “Sanctification is the work of the Holy Spirit in us, is a progressive work.” Martin Luther, taught in his Large Catechism that Sanctification is only caused by the Holy Spirit through the powerful Word of God. The Holy Spirit uses churches to gather Christians together for the teaching and preaching of the Word of God. Sanctification is the Holy Spirit's work of making us holy; when the Holy Spirit creates faith in us, he renews in us the image of God so that through his power we produce good works. These good works show the faith in our hearts. Sanctification flows from justification, it is an on-going process which will not reach perfection in this life. Luther viewed the Ten Commandments as means by which the Holy Spirit sanctifies.
"Thus we have the Ten Commandments, a commend of divine doctrine, as to what we are to do in order that our whole life may be pleasing to God, the true fountain and channel from and in which everything must arise and flow, to be a good work, so that outside of the Ten Commandments no work or thing can be good or pleasing to God, however great or precious it be in the eyes of the world...whoever does attain to them is a heavenly, angelic man, far above all holiness of the world. Only occupy yourself with them, try your best, apply all power and ability, you will find so much to do that you will neither seek nor esteem any other work or holiness." Pietistic Lutheranism emphasizes the "biblical divine commands of believers to live a holy life and to strive for holy living, or sanctification." Calvinist theologians interpret sanctification as the process of being made holy only through the merits and justification of Jesus Christ through the work of the Holy Spirit that are reflected in man. Sanctification cannot be attained by any works-based process, but only through the works and power of the divine.
When a man is unregenerate, it is his essence that does evil. But when a man is justified through Christ, it is no longer the man that sins, but the man is acting outside of his character. In other words, the man is not being himself, he is not being true to. In Wesleyan-Arminian theology, upheld by the Methodist Church as well as by Holiness Churches, "sanctification, the beginning of holiness, begins at the new birth". With the Grace of God, Methodists "do works of piety and mercy, these works reflect the power of sanctification". Examples of these means of grace that aid with sanctification include frequent reception of the sacrament of Holy Communion, visiting the sick and those in prison. Wesleyan covenant theology emphasizes that an important aspect of sanctification is the keeping of the moral law contained in the Ten Commandments; as such, in "sanctification one grows to be more like Christ." This process of sanctification that begins at the new birth has its goal as Christian perfection known as entire sanct
Michaelmas is a Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September. In some denominations a reference to a fourth angel Uriel, is added. Michaelmas has been one of the four quarter days of the financial year; the Serbian Orthodox Church observes the feast. The Greek and Romanian Orthodox honour the archangels on 8 November instead, honouring the Cherubim and Seraphim also. In Christian angelology, the Archangel Michael is the greatest of all the Archangels and is honored for defeating Satan in the war in heaven, he is one of the principal angelic warriors, seen as a protector against the dark of night, the administrator of cosmic intelligence. Michaelmas has delineated time and seasons for secular purposes as well in Britain and Ireland as one of the quarter days. In the fifth century a basilica near Rome was dedicated in honour of Michael on 30 September, beginning with celebrations on the eve of that day, 29 September is now kept in honour of Michael and all Angels throughout some western churches.
The name Michaelmas comes from a shortening of "Michael's Mass," in the same style as Christmas and Candlemas. During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a Holy Day of Obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. In medieval England, Michaelmas marked the ending and beginning of the husbandman's year, George C. Homans observes: "at that time harvest was over, the bailiff or reeve of the manor would be making out the accounts for the year."Because it falls near the equinox, it is associated in the northern hemisphere with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days. It was one of the English and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day. Michaelmas hiring fairs were held at beginning of October. On the Isle of Skye, Scotland, a procession was held. Many of the activities, done at Lughnasadh – sports and horse races – migrated to this day. One of the few flowers left around at this time of year is the Michaelmas daisy. Hence the rhyme: "The Michaelmas daisies, among dead weeds, Bloom for St Michael's valorous deeds..."
A traditional meal for the day includes goose. The custom of baking a special bread or cake, called Sruthan Mhìcheil, St Michael's bannock, or Michaelmas Bannock on the eve of the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel originated in the Hebrides; the bread was made from equal parts of barley and rye without using any metal implements. In remembrance of absent friends or those who had died, special Struans, blessed at an early morning Mass, were given to the poor in their names. Nuts were traditionally cracked on Michaelmas Eve. Folklore in the British Isles suggests that Michaelmas day is the last day that blackberries can be picked, it is said that when St Michael expelled Lucifer, the devil, from heaven, he fell from the skies and landed in a prickly blackberry bush. Satan cursed the fruit, scorched them with his fiery breath, stamped and urinated on them, so that they would be unfit for eating; as it is considered ill-advised to eat them after 29 September, a Michaelmas pie is made from the last of the season.
In Anglican and Episcopal tradition, there are three or four archangels in its calendar for 29 September feast for St. Michael and All Angels: namely Michael and Raphael, Uriel. For the Roman Catholic 29 September is referred only to the three Archangels mentioned in the Bible: Saint Michael, Saint Gabriel, Saint Raphael, their feast were unified in one common day during the second half of the 20th century. In the time before their feasts were: 29 September, 24 March for St Gabriel, lastly, 24 October for St Raphael, it is used in the extended sense of autumn, as the name of the first term of the academic year, which begins at this time, at various educational institutions in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. These are older institutions, including the universities of Cambridge, Lancaster, the London School of Economics, Oxford and Dublin; the Inns of Court of the English Bar and the Honorable Society of King's Inns in Ireland have a Michaelmas term as one of their dining terms. It ends towards the end of December.
The term is the name of the first of four terms into which the legal year is divided by the courts of Ireland and England and Wales. In the United Kingdom, the United States and Ireland, a Red Mass is traditionally convened on the Sunday closest to Michaelmas, in honor of and to bless lawyers and judges; because Saint Michael is the patron of some North American police officers, Michaelmas may be a Blue Mass. However, the same can be said for members of the United States military and several of St. Michael's other patronages. Lutheran Christians consider it a principal feast of Christ, the Lutheran Confessor, Philip Melanchthon, wrote a hymn for the day, still sung in Lutheran churches: "Lord God, We All to Thee Give Praise". Michaelmas is still celebrated in the Waldorf schools, which celebrate it as the "festival of strong will" during the autumnal equinox. Rudolf Steiner considered it the second most important festival after Easter, Easter being about Christ ("He is laid in the grave and H
James Keir Hardie was a Scottish trade unionist and politician. He was a founder of the Labour Party, served as its first parliamentary leader from 1906 to 1908. Hardie was born in North Lanarkshire, he started working at the age of seven, from the age of 10 worked in the South Lanarkshire coal mines. With a background in preaching, he became known as a talented public speaker and was chosen as a spokesman for his fellow miners. In 1879, Hardie was elected leader of a miners' union in Hamilton and organised a National Conference of Miners in Dunfermline, he subsequently led miners' strikes in Ayrshire. He turned to journalism to make ends meet, from 1886 was a full-time union organiser as secretary of the Ayrshire Miners' Union. Hardie supported William Gladstone's Liberal Party, but concluded that the working class needed its own party, he first stood for parliament in 1888 as an independent, that year helped form the Scottish Labour Party. Hardie won the English seat of West Ham South as an independent candidate in 1892, helped to form the Independent Labour Party the following year.
He was re-elected to parliament in 1900 for a Welsh constituency. In the same year he helped to form the union-based Labour Representation Committee, renamed the Labour Party. After the 1906 election, Hardie was chosen as the Labour Party's first parliamentary leader, he resigned in 1908 in favour of Arthur Henderson, spent his remaining years campaigning for specific causes, such as women's suffrage, self-rule for India, opposition to World War I. He died in 1915 while attempting to organise a pacifist general strike. Hardie is seen as a key figure in the history of the Labour Party and has been the subject of multiple biographies. Kenneth O. Morgan has called him "Labour's greatest pioneer and its greatest hero". James Keir Hardie was born on 15 August 1856 in a two-roomed cottage on the western edge of Newhouse, North Lanarkshire, near Holytown, a small town close to Motherwell in Scotland, his mother, Mary Keir, was a domestic servant and his stepfather, David Hardie, was a ship's carpenter.
The growing family soon moved to the shipbuilding burgh of Govan near Glasgow, where they made a life in a difficult financial situation, with his stepfather attempting to maintain continuous employment in the shipyards rather than practising his trade at sea — never an easy proposition given the boom-and-bust cycle of the industry. Hardie's first job came at the young age of seven, when he was put to work as a message boy for the Anchor Line Steamship Company. Formal schooling henceforth became impossible, but his parents spent evenings teaching him to read and write, skills which proved essential for future self-education. A series of low-paying entry-level jobs followed for the boy, including work as an apprentice in a brass-fitting shop, work for a lithographer, employment in the shipyards heating rivets, time spent as a message boy for a baker for which he earned four shillings and sixpence a week. A great lockout of the Clydeside shipworkers took place in which the unionised workers were sent home for a period of six months.
With their main source of income terminated, the family was forced to sell all their possessions to pay for food, with Hardie's meagre earnings the only remaining source of income for the household. One sibling took ill and died in the miserable conditions which followed, while the pregnancy of his mother limited her own ability to work. Making matters worse, young James lost his job for turning up late on two occasions. In desperation, his stepfather returned to work at sea, while his mother moved from Glasgow to Newarthill, where his maternal grandmother still lived. At the age of ten years old, Hardie went to work in the mines as a "trapper" — opening and closing a door for a ten-hour shift in order to maintain the air supply for miners in a given section. Hardie began to attend night school in Holytown at this time. Hardie's stepfather returned from sea and went to work on a railway line being constructed between Edinburgh and Glasgow; when this job was completed, the family moved to the village of Quarter, South Lanarkshire, where Hardie went to work as a pony driver at the mines working his way into the pits as a hewer.
He worked for two years above ground in the quarries. By the time he was twenty, he had became a skilled practical miner."Keir", as he was now called, longed for a life outside the mines. To that end, encouraged by his mother, he had learned to write in shorthand, he began to associate with the Evangelical Union becoming a member of the Evangelical Union Church, Park Street, Hamilton – now the United Reformed Church, Hamilton – and to participate in the Temperance movement. Hardie's avocation of preaching put him before crowds of his fellows, helping him to learn the art of public speaking. Before long, Hardie was looked to by other miners as a logical chairman for their meetings and spokesman for their grievances. Mine owners began to see him as an agitator and in short order, he and two younger brothers were blacklisted from working in the local mining industry. If Scottish mine owners had hoped to remove a potential labour agitator from their midst by blacklisting Hardie from work in the mines, their action proved to be a major miscalculation.
The 23-year-old Keir Hardie moved seamlessly from the coal mines to union organisation work. In May 1879, Scott
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, 128 miles north of London, 45 miles northeast of Birmingham and 56 miles southeast of Manchester, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making and tobacco industries, it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination. In 2017, Nottingham had an estimated population of 329,200; the population of the city proper, compared to its regional counterparts, has been attributed to its historical and tightly-drawn city boundaries. The wider conurbation, which includes many of the city's suburbs, has a population of 768,638, it is the second-largest in The Midlands. Its Functional Urban Area the largest in the East Midlands, has a population of 912,482; the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn.
The city was the first in the East Midlands to be ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system, it is a major sporting centre, in October 2015 was named'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, the home of two professional league football teams; the city has professional rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year. On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a "City of Literature" by UNESCO, joining Dublin, Edinburgh and Prague as one of only a handful in the world; the title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. H. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The city has two universities—Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham—both of which are spread over several campuses in the city, with a total university student population of over 61,000. The city predates Anglo-Saxon times and was known in Brythonic as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling"; when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham". Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form". Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen; the Anglo-Saxon settlement was confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts.
A settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. The space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century; the ditch was widened, in the mid-13th century, a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham, it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham alabaster.
The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire. One of those impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway. … Nottingham … with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry.
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s. The revival movement permanently affected Protestantism as adherents strove to renew individual piety and religious devotion; the Great Awakening marked the emergence of Anglo-American evangelicalism as a transdenominational movement within the Protestant churches. In the United States, the term Great Awakening is most used, while in the United Kingdom, it is referred to as the Evangelical Revival. Building on the foundations of older traditions—Puritanism and Presbyterianism—major leaders of the revival such as George Whitefield, John Wesley and Jonathan Edwards articulated a theology of revival and salvation that transcended denominational boundaries and helped create a common evangelical identity. Revivalists added to the doctrinal imperatives of Reformation Protestantism an emphasis on providential outpourings of the Holy Spirit.
Extemporaneous preaching gave listeners a sense of deep personal conviction of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ and fostered introspection and commitment to a new standard of personal morality. Revival theology stressed that religious conversion was not only intellectual assent to correct Christian doctrine but had to be a "new birth" experienced in the heart. Revivalists taught that receiving assurance of salvation was a normal expectation in the Christian life. While the Evangelical Revival united evangelicals across various denominations around shared beliefs, it led to division in existing churches between those who supported the revivals and those who did not. Opponents accused the revivals of fostering disorder and fanaticism within the churches by enabling uneducated, itinerant preachers and encouraging religious enthusiasm. In England, evangelical Anglicans would grow into an important constituency within the Church of England, Methodism would develop out of the ministries of Whitefield and Wesley.
In the American colonies, the Awakening caused the Congregational and Presbyterian churches to split, while it strengthened both the Methodist and Baptist denominations. It had little impact on most Lutherans and non-Protestants. Evangelical preachers "sought to include every person in conversion, regardless of gender and status." Throughout the colonies in the South, the revival movement increased the number of African slaves and free blacks who were exposed to and subsequently converted to Christianity. It inspired the creation of new missionary societies, such as the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792. Historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom sees the Great Awakening as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that created pietism in the Lutheran and Reformed churches of continental Europe. Pietism emphasized heartfelt religious faith in reaction to an overly intellectual Protestant scholasticism perceived as spiritually dry; the pietists placed less emphasis on traditional doctrinal divisions between Protestant churches, focusing rather on religious experience and affections.
Pietism prepared Europe for revival, it occurred in areas where pietism was strong. The most important leader of the Awakening in central Europe was Nicolaus Zinzendorf, a Saxon noble who studied under pietist leader August Hermann Francke at Halle University. In 1722, Zinzendorf invited members of the Moravian Church to live and worship on his estates, establishing a community at Herrnhut; the Moravians came to Herrnhut as refugees, but under Zinzendorf's guidance, the group enjoyed a religious revival. Soon, the community became a refuge for other Protestants as well, including German Lutherans, Reformed Christians and Anabaptists; the church began to grow, Moravian societies would be established in England where they would help foster the Evangelical Revival as well. While known as the Great Awakening in the United States, the movement is referred to as the Evangelical Revival in Britain; the revivalist tradition had existed in Scottish Presbyterianism since the 1620s. The Evangelical Revival, first broke out in Wales.
In 1735, Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland experienced a religious conversion and began preaching to large crowds throughout South Wales. Their preaching initiated the Welsh Methodist revival. In England, the major leaders of the Evangelical Revival were brothers John and Charles Wesley and their friend George Whitefield, who would become the founders of Methodism, they had been members of a religious society at Oxford University called the Holy Club and "Methodists" due to their methodical piety. This society was modeled on the collegia pietatis used by pietists for Bible study and accountability. All three men experienced a spiritual crisis in which they sought true conversion and assurance of faith. Whitefield joined the Holy Club in 1733 and, under the influence of Charles Wesley, read German pietist August Hermann Francke's Against the Fear of Man and Scottish theologian Henry Scougal's The Life of God in the Soul of Man. Whitefield wrote that he "never knew what true religion was" until he read Scougal, who said that it consisted of becoming a "new creature".
From that point on, Whitefield sought the new birth. After a period of spiritual struggle, Whitefield experienced conversion during Lent in 1735. Afterwards, he was ordained a priest in the Church of England, but he always maintained a willingness to work with evangelicals from other denominations. In 1737, Whitefield began preaching in Bristol and London, he became well known for his dramatic sermons, which were reported on by the press. In February 1739, Whitefield began open-air field preaching in the mining community of Kingswood, near Bristol, he learned this method from Howell
Burslem is a constitutional town that amalgamated to form the Federation of Stoke-on-Trent in 1910, along with Hanley, Fenton and Stoke-upon-Trent in 1925, following the granting of city status to become the City of Stoke-on-Trent. Burslem is on the eastern ridge of the Fowlea Valley, the Fowlea being one of the main early tributaries of the River Trent. Burslem embraces the areas of Middleport, Longport, Trubshaw Cross, Brownhills; the Trent & Mersey Canal cuts through, to the south of the town centre. A little further west, the West Coast Main Line railway and the A500 road run in parallel, forming a distinct boundary between Burslem and the abutting town of Newcastle-under-Lyme. To the south is Grange Park and Festival Park, reclaimed by the Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival; the Domesday Book shows Burslem as a small farming hamlet. As far back as the late 12th century a thriving pottery industry existed, based on the fine & abundant local clays. After the Black Death, Burslem emerges in the records as a medieval town - the 1536 stone church is still standing and in use.
Until the mid-1760s Burslem was cut off from the rest of England. By 1777 the Trent and Mersey Canal was nearing completion, the roads had markedly improved; the town boomed on the back of fine pottery production & canals, became known as'The Mother Town' of the six towns that make up the city. In 1910 the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent, the borough was granted city status in 1925. Many of the novels of Arnold Bennett evoke Victorian Burslem, with its many potteries and working canal barges; the Burslem of the 1930s to the 1980s is evoked by the plays of Arthur Berry. Burslem contains Britain's last real working industrial district. A recent report suggested the concentration of pottery-based heritage makes the area the richest stretch of canal for industrial heritage in England. "Burslem, an ancient town, with a market held for a long period by custom, subsequently sanctioned by an act of parliament, is about three miles from Newcastle and two from Hanley, entitled to the precedence of other towns in this district, as claiming to be the mother, as it is the metropolis, of the Staffordshire Potteries."
– 1828 journal "In the Doomsday Survey - for in that early date Burslem was a place of some importance - the town appears, as "Burwardeslyn. – 1893 journal At the 1991 census count, the population of Burslem was 21,400. A study by consultants Atkins, working from the United Kingdom Census 2001 data, showed that the Burslem population is steady and has not declined despite a manufacturing decline during the 1980s and'90s. Traditional Victorian architecture and Edwardian period terraced. New housing developments are underway around Woodbank Street. Heavy industrial employment has left a legacy of ill-health among many older people, but there is the Haywood Hospital and the new £300-million University Hospital of North Staffordshire is just three miles away by road. There were two electoral wards covering Burslem at the 2011 Census, Burslem Central and Burslem Park: At the 2011 Census the ethnic demographics of the Burslem Central ward were:White British and White Other - 83.5% | Asian/Asian British - 9.0% | Mixed/multiple ethnic groups - 2.7% | Black/African/Caribbean/Black British - 2.3% | Other ethnic group - 1.0% | At the 2011 Census the ethnic demographics of the Burslem Park ward were:White British and White Other - 90.3% | Asian/Asian British - 5.50% | Mixed/multiple ethnic groups - 1.92% | Black/African/Caribbean/Black British - 1.38% | Other ethnic group - 0.8% Industrial scale pottery production has drastically declined since the 1970s.
Burslem is emerging as a centre for small, freelance creative businesses working in sectors such as fine art and crafts as well as pottery. The number of shops in the town centre have markedly declined, hit by the impact of nearby out-of-town retail parks that offer free parking. However, the evening economy is still active with a wide range of bars and restaurants serving English and Indian food; the Leopard Inn is a listed building in Burslem, it is steeped in history and the discovery of tunnels and 58 bedrooms that have been left as they were when they were sealed between the 1930s and 1950s. The Leopard Inn dates from the early 1700s. A coaching house and Inn, there has been a working pub on this site for 300 years or more. In 1878 a three-storey extension including 57 rooms were built; the ambition was to create in Burslem'The Savoy of the North'. The rooms to the front of the Leopard are today in use as a pub and restaurant, to the rear the hotel lies abandoned and purportedly haunted. At Spring 2002 unemployment was 4.1% or 1,526 people in the Stoke-on-Trent North constituency.
In Burslem at 2001 unemployment was declining. In 2005, the building of business park units in the town. Further business parks are pla
Conditional preservation of the saints
The conditional preservation of the saints, or conditional security, is the Arminian belief that believers are kept safe by God in their saving relationship with Him upon the condition of a persevering faith in Christ. Arminians find the Scriptures describing both the initial act of faith in Christ, "whereby the relationship is effected, the persevering faith in Him whereby the relationship is sustained." The relationship of "the believer to Christ is never a static relationship existing as the irrevocable consequence of a past decision, act, or experience." Rather, it is a living union "proceeding upon a living faith in a living Savior." This living union is captured in this simple command by Christ, "Remain in me, I in you". According to Arminians, biblical saving faith expresses itself in obedience to God. In the Arminian Confession of 1621, the Remonstrants affirmed that true or living faith operates through love, that God chooses to give salvation and eternal life through His Son, "and to glorify all those and only those believing in his name, or obeying his gospel, persevering in faith and obedience until death...
"Arminians believe that "It is abundantly evident from the Scriptures that the believer is secure." Furthermore, believers have assurance in knowing there is no external power or circumstance that can separate them from the love of God they enjoy in union with Christ. Arminians see numerous warnings in Scripture directed to genuine believers about the possibility of falling away in unbelief and thereby becoming severed from their saving union with God through Christ. Arminians hold that if a believer becomes an unbeliever, they cease to partake of the promises of salvation and eternal life made to believers who continue in faith and remain united to Christ. Therefore, Arminians seek to follow the biblical writers in warning believers about the real dangers of committing apostasy. A sure and biblical way to avoid apostasy is to admonish believers to mature spiritually in their relationship with God in union with Christ and through power of the Spirit. Maturity takes place as Christ-followers keep on meeting with fellow believers for mutual encouragement and strength.
Free Will Baptist scholar Robert Picirilli states: Appropriately last among the points of tension among Calvinism and Arminianism is the question whether those who have been regenerated must persevere or may apostatize and be lost.... Arminius himself and the original Remonstrants avoided a clear conclusion on this matter, but they raised the question. And the natural implications of the views at the heart of Arminianism in its early stages as a formal movement, tended to question whether Calvinism's assumptions of necessary perseverance was Biblical; those tendencies indicated by the questions raised did not take long to reach fruition, thus Calvinism and Arminianism have come to be traditionally divided on this issue. Prior to the time of the debate between Calvinists and the Arminians at the Synod of Dort, the view in the early church appears to be on the side of conditional security. From his research of the writings of the early church fathers, patristic scholar David W. Bercot arrived at this conclusion: "Since the early Christians believed that our continued faith and obedience are necessary for salvation, it follows that they believed that a'saved' person could still end up being lost."
Jacobus Arminius arrived at the same conclusion in his own readings of the early church fathers. In responding to Calvinist William Perkins arguments for the perseverance of the saints, he wrote: "In reference to the sentiments of the fathers, you doubtless know that all antiquity is of the opinion, that believers can fall away and perish." On another occasion he notes that such a view was never "reckoned as a heretical opinion," but "has always had more supporters in the church of Christ, than that which denies its possibility." Arminius' opinion on the subject is communicated in this brief statement: My sentiments respecting the perseverance of the Saints are, that those persons who have been grafted into Christ by true faith, have thus been made partakers of his life-giving Spirit, possess sufficient powers to fight against Satan, the world and their own flesh, to gain the victory over these enemies—yet not without the assistance of the grace of the same Holy Spirit. Jesus Christ by his Spirit assists them in all their temptations, affords them the ready aid of his hand.
So that it is not possible for them, by any of the cunning craftiness or power of Satan, to be either seduced or dragged out of the hands of Christ. But I think it is useful and will be quite necessary in our first convention, to institute a diligent inquiry from the Scriptures, whether it is not possible for some individuals through negligence to desert the commencement of their existence in Christ, to cleave again to the present evil world, to decline from the sound doctrine, once delivered to them, to lose a good conscience, to cause Divine grace to be ineffectual. Though I here and ingenuously affirm, I never taught that a true believer can, either or fall away from the faith, perish.