Ugbrooke House is a stately home in the parish of Chudleigh, England, situated in a valley between Exeter and Newton Abbot. It dates back over 900 years. Before the Reformation the land belonged to the Church and the house was occupied by Precentors to the Bishop of Exeter, it has been the seat of the Clifford family for over four hundred years, the owners have held the title Baron Clifford of Chudleigh since 1672. The house, now a Grade I listed building, was remodelled by Robert Adam, while the grounds were redesigned by Capability Brown in 1761; the grounds featured what were the earliest plantings of the European White Elm Ulmus laevis in the UK. The gardens are now Grade II* listed in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the house and gardens are open to the public for a limited number of days each summer. In 1882, The Hon. William Clifford, son of Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, bought a large amount of agricultural land in Marlborough, New Zealand, built a mansion named after the family home.
Ugbrooke, Blenheim, is New Zealand's largest owned, single-storey house. The mansion, covering 10,000 square feet, changed ownership in 1897 when, after some financial hardship, Clifford sold the property to his cousin, Henry Vavasour. Ugbrooke subsequently became the home of the Vavasour family of Marlborough for three generations until 1992. Ugbrooke House Official site Ugbrooke in New Zealand Map sources for Ugbrooke
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Holderness is an area of the East Riding of Yorkshire, on the east coast of England. An area of rich agricultural land, Holderness was marshland. Topographically, Holderness has more in common with the Netherlands than with other parts of Yorkshire. To the north and west are the Yorkshire Wolds; the Prime Meridian passes through Holderness just to the east of Patrington and through Tunstall to the north. From 1974 to 1996 Holderness lay within the Borough of Holderness in Humberside. Holderness was the name of an ancient administrative area called a wapentake until the 19th century, when its functions were replaced by other local government bodies after the 1888 Local Government Act; the city of Kingston upon Hull lies in the south-west corner of Holderness and Bridlington borders the north-east but both are considered separately. The main towns include Beverley, Withernsea and Hedon; the Holderness Coast stretches from Flamborough Head to Spurn Head. The area has boundaries which are defined by the rising land of the Yorkshire Wolds to the north and west, the North Sea to the east and the Humber Estuary to the south.
There are no motorways in the area, however there is access to the national motorway network via the A63 from Hull. Links to the continent are via Hull, from where daily ferry services to Rotterdam and Zeebrugge depart. A-class roads centre upon the coastal resort of Bridlington. Otherwise the A1033 road which connects Withernsea on the south-east coast to inland areas is the only main route in the area; the only remaining rail link is the Yorkshire Coast Line that runs between Hull in the south and Bridlington and it tends to skirt the area towards the west. Until the 1960s there were lines from Hull to both Hornsea and Withernsea, but these were closed as a result of the Beeching Report. Furthermore, in 1901 there was a proposal to construct the North Holderness Light Railway from Beverley to North Frodingham railway station, but this came to nothing; as part of the United Kingdom, the Holderness area has cool summers and mild winters. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season.
The latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather in winter. The wind sometimes causes depositions to happen. Between depressions there are small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions. For its latitude this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a seasonal basis; the temperature is lower at night and January is the coldest time of the year. The two dominant influences on the climate of the Holderness are the shelter against the worst of the moist westerly winds provided firstly by the Pennines and the Yorkshire Wolds and the proximity of the North Sea. Rainfall is 600 to 700 mm per year, low compared with the national average rainfall of 1125 mm. Geologically, Holderness is underlain by Cretaceous chalk but in most places it is so buried beneath glacial deposits that it has no influence on the landscape.
The landscape is dominated by deposits of till, boulder clays and glacial lake clays. These were deposited during the Devensian glaciation; the glacial deposits form a more or less continuous lowland plain which has some peat filled depressions which mark the presence of former lake beds. There are other glacial landscape features such as drumlin mounds and kettle holes scattered throughout the area; the well drained glacial deposits provide fertile soils that can support intensive arable cultivation. Fields are large and bounded by drainage ditches. There is little woodland in the area and this leads to a landscape, rural but flat and exposed; the coast is subject to rapid marine erosion. The Holderness coastline suffers the highest rate of coastal erosion in Europe: 5 feet a year on average or 2 million tonnes of material a year; some of this is transported by longshore drift with about three percent of material being deposited at Spurn Point spit, to the south. The growth of Spurn Point is demonstrated by a series of lighthouses that have been built on the point.
It is thought that 3 miles of land has been lost since the Roman era, including at least 23 towns/villages, including Ravenspurn. The Holderness coastline is susceptible to erosion due to the long north-easterly fetch, allowing for powerful waves, the softness of the geology that make up the cliffs. Holderness is a former bay, filled in during the last ice age and is now made up of chalk/glacial compounds that are eroded such as boulder clay. All the villages affected by the erosion are located on the north side of the estuary of the River Humber; the area stretches from Flamborough Head down to Spurn Point. Villages such as Ravenser, which sent representatives to the parliament of Edward I, have disappeared; the local authorities are endeavouring to prevent the effects of erosion. Hard defences in the form of a concrete seawall and timber groynes have given some protection, it has been suggested that a large underwater reef made of tyres could be built off the Holderness coast to mitigate this erosion but it would be costly to build.
Other defences include sea walls and gabions but business people say that if the erosion is not stopped
Baron Clifford of Chudleigh
Baron Clifford of Chudleigh, of Chudleigh in the County of Devon, is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1672 for Thomas Clifford; the title was created as "Clifford of Chudleigh" rather than "Clifford" to differentiate it from several other Clifford Baronies created for members of this ancient family, including the Barony of de Clifford, extant but now held by a branch line of the Russell family, having inherited through several female lines. Baron Clifford of Chudleigh is the senior surviving male representative of the ancient Norman family which took the name de Clifford which arrived in England during the Norman Conquest of 1066, feudal barons of Clifford, first seated in England at Clifford Castle in Herefordshire, created Baron de Clifford by writ in 1299; the family seat is Ugbrooke Park, near Devon. Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Clifford, 2nd Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Clifford, 3rd Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Clifford, 4th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Edward Henry Clifford, 5th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Charles Clifford, 6th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Hugh Charles Clifford, 7th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Charles Hugh Clifford, 8th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Lewis Henry Hugh Clifford, 9th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh William Hugh Clifford, 10th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Charles Oswald Hugh Clifford, 11th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Lewis Joseph Hugh Clifford, 12th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Lewis Hugh Clifford, 13th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Thomas Hugh Clifford, 14th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon. Alexander Thomas Hugh Clifford.
Clifford, The House of Clifford from Before the Conquest, Phillimore & Co, Chichester, 1987. Clifford, A. Collectanea Cliffordiana, Paris, 1817
Somerset is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west. It is bounded to the north and west by the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel, its coastline facing southeastern Wales, its traditional border with Gloucestershire is the River Avon. Somerset's county town is Taunton. Somerset is a rural county of rolling hills, the Blackdown Hills, Mendip Hills, Quantock Hills and Exmoor National Park, large flat expanses of land including the Somerset Levels. There is evidence of human occupation from Paleolithic times, of subsequent settlement by the Celts and Anglo-Saxons; the county played a significant part in Alfred the Great's rise to power, the English Civil War and the Monmouth Rebellion. The city of Bath is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Somerset's name derives from Old English Sumorsǣte, short for Sumortūnsǣte, meaning "the people living at or dependent on Sumortūn"; the first known use of Somersæte is in the law code of King Ine, the Saxon King of Wessex from 688 to 726, making Somerset along with Hampshire and Dorset one of the oldest extant units of local government in the world.
An alternative suggestion is the name derives from Seo-mere-saetan meaning "settlers by the sea lakes". The Old English name is used in the motto of the county, Sumorsǣte ealle, meaning "all the people of Somerset". Adopted as the motto in 1911, the phrase is taken from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Somerset was a part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, the phrase refers to the wholehearted support the people of Somerset gave to King Alfred in his struggle to save Wessex from Viking invaders. Somerset settlement names are Anglo-Saxon in origin, but numerous place names include Brittonic Celtic elements, such as the rivers Frome and Avon, names of hills. For example, an Anglo-Saxon charter of 682 refers to Creechborough Hill as "the hill the British call Cructan and the Anglo-Saxons call Crychbeorh"; some modern names are Brythonic in origin, such as Tarnock, while others have both Saxon and Brythonic elements, such as Pen Hill. The caves of the Mendip Hills were settled during the Palaeolithic period, contain extensive archaeological sites such as those at Cheddar Gorge.
Bones from Gough's Cave have been dated to 12,000 BC, a complete skeleton, known as Cheddar Man, dates from 7150 BC. Examples of cave art have been found in Aveline's Hole; some caves continued to be occupied until modern times, including Wookey Hole. The Somerset Levels—specifically dry points at Glastonbury and Brent Knoll— have a long history of settlement, are known to have been settled by Mesolithic hunters. Travel in the area was facilitated by the construction of one of the world's oldest known engineered roadways, the Sweet Track, which dates from 3807 BC or 3806 BC; the exact age of the henge monument at Stanton Drew stone circles is unknown, but it is believed to be Neolithic. There are numerous Iron Age hill forts, some of which, like Cadbury Castle and Ham Hill, were reoccupied in the Early Middle Ages. On the authority of the future emperor Vespasian, as part of the ongoing expansion of the Roman presence in Britain, the Second Legion Augusta invaded Somerset from the south-east in AD 47.
The county remained part of the Roman Empire until around AD 409, when the Roman occupation of Britain came to an end. A variety of Roman remains have been found, including Pagans Hill Roman temple in Chew Stoke,Low Ham Roman Villa and the Roman Baths that gave their name to the city of Bath. After the Romans left, Britain was invaded by Anglo-Saxon peoples. By AD 600 they had established control over much of what is now England, but Somerset was still in native British hands; the British held back Saxon advance into the south-west for some time longer, but by the early eighth century King Ine of Wessex had pushed the boundaries of the West Saxon kingdom far enough west to include Somerset. The Saxon royal palace in Cheddar was used several times in the 10th century to host the Witenagemot. After the Norman Conquest, the county was divided into 700 fiefs, large areas were owned by the crown, with fortifications such as Dunster Castle used for control and defence. Somerset contains HM Prison Shepton Mallet, England's oldest prison still in use prior to its closure in 2013, having opened in 1610.
In the English Civil War Somerset was Parliamentarian, with key engagements being the Sieges of Taunton and the Battle of Langport. In 1685 the Monmouth Rebellion was played out in neighbouring Dorset; the rebels landed at Lyme Regis and travelled north, hoping to capture Bristol and Bath, but they were defeated in the Battle of Sedgemoor at Westonzoyland, the last pitched battle fought in England. Arthur Wellesley took Duke of Wellington from the town of Wellington; the Industrial Revolution in the Midlands and Northern England spelled the end for most of Somerset's cottage industries. Farming continued to flourish and the Bath and West of England Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture, Arts and Commerce was founded in 1777 to improve farming methods. Despite this, 20 years John Billingsley conducted a survey of the county's agriculture in 1795 and found that agricultural methods could still be improved. Coal mining was an important industry in north Somerset during the 18th and 19th centuries, by 1800 it was prominent in Radstock.
The Somerset Coalfield reached its peak production by the 1920s, but all the pits have now been closed, the last in 1973. Most of the surface
Viscount of Dunbar
Viscount of Dunbar was a title in the Peerage of Scotland created on 14 November 1620, along with the title Lord Constable, for Sir Henry Constable. The titles have been dormant since the death of the 4th Viscount in 1718. Henry Constable, 1st Viscount of Dunbar John Constable, 2nd Viscount of Dunbar Robert Constable, 3rd Viscount of Dunbar William Constable, 4th Viscount of Dunbar Earl of Dunbar Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages