Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years
Abbeville is a commune in the Somme department and in Hauts-de-France region in northern France. It is the chef-lieu of one of the arrondissements of Somme. Located on the River Somme, it was the capital of Ponthieu, its inhabitants are called the Abbevillois. Abbeville is located on 20 km from its modern mouth in the English Channel; the majority of the town is located on the east bank of the Somme, as well as on an island. It is located at the head of the Abbeville Canal, is 45 km northwest of Amiens and 200 kilometres from Paris, it is 10 kilometres as the crow flies from the Bay of Somme and the English Channel. In the medieval period, it was the lowest crossing point on the Somme and it was nearby that Edward III's army crossed shortly before the Battle of Crécy in 1346. Just halfway between Rouen and Lille, it is the historical capital of the County of Ponthieu and maritime Picardy. Émonville Park takes its name from one of its owners Arthur Foulc d'Émonville, an amateur botanist, who bought a part of the Priory of Saints Peter and Paul in order to accommodate a garden and to construct a mansion, which now houses the study and heritage section of the Robert Mallet municipal library.
The remains of the priory include the entrance arch, current main entrance of the garden located on Place Clemenceau, as well as some buildings which make up the Saint-Pierre School, including the remarkable Chapel of Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul. This place is considered by some to be the origin of Abbeville, because it was the location of the first château of the Counts of Ponthieu, called castrum, it is assumed that this place could have been the location of the farm of Abbatisvilla, dependent upon the Abbey of Saint-Riquier. The suburbs of La Bouvaque and Thuison are located to the north of the city; the municipal park of La Bouvaque, bordered by the Boulevard de la République, consists of the La Bouvaque pond and Collart meadows, former settling ponds of the Béghin-Say sugar factory. It was in Thuison that the Carthusian monastery of Saint-Honoré was founded in 1301 by William of Mâcon, Bishop of Amiens; this was a property of the Order of the Temple, sold to the latter by Gérard de Villars, the last master of the province of France.
The sale was confirmed by Hugues de Pairaud visitor of France. The suburb of Saint Gilles Rouvroy is to the west, the origin of the name comes from Rouvray indicates the presence of an oak wood or a remarkable oak. Mautort, beside Rouvroy, is a former stronghold located between Abbeville, it is at the origin of the noble name of de Mautort, surviving in the name of the Tillette de Mautort family or, for example, of Georges-Victor Demautort. The name tort is attested in Old French with the sense of Mau; the Church of Saint-Silvin de Mautort, emblematic of the quarter, was a simple chapel of sailors founded in the 11th century and underwent many changes during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Menchecourt, in the north-west, is known for its football club. Abbeville is served by trains on the line between Boulogne-sur-Mer and Amiens and between Calais and Paris. Abbeville was the southern terminus of the Réseau des Bains de Mer, the line to Dompierre-sur-Authie opened on 19 June 1892 and closed on 10 March 1947.
Abbeville is located just near the A16 autoroute, is about 1 hour 50 minutes by car from Paris. Abbeville has an oceanic climate due to its proximity to the ocean; the summers and winters are temperate and rainy, days of snow are common. There are 26 days of storm per year with a maximum in the months of July and August, the rains are frequent and distributed in the year with precipitation totalling 781.3 millimetres and 128 days with precipitation. The sunshine is average because of its position in the north and the oceanic influence helps to prevent temperatures from being too high with only three days of intense heat and from being too cold with 6 days of heavy frost; the highest temperature was 37.8 °C on 1 July 1952 and the record low is −17.4 °C, which occurred during a cold spell on 17 January 1985. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants have a census take place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.
The population of the commune is old. The rate of persons over 60 years of age is higher than the departmental rate. Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the commune is greater than the male population; the rate is over two points higher than the national rate. In 2007, the distribution of the population of the commune by age group is as follows: 45.6% of males 54.4% of females Abbeville is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie d'Abbeville - Picardie maritime. It manages the aerodrome and industrial areas of the arrondissement of Abbeville. Abbeville manufactured textiles, in particular and tablecloths when the Van Robais family created la Manufacture Royale des Rames
William the Conqueror
William I known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later; the rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of Duke of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva, his illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process, not complete until about 1060.
His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders. By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointment of his supporters as bishops and abbots in the Norman church, his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, by 1062 William secured control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other potential claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson, named the next king by Edward on the latter's deathbed in January 1066. William argued that Edward had promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support William's claim. William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066, in London.
He made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, by 1075 William's hold on England was secure, allowing him to spend the majority of the rest of his reign on the continent. William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, threatened invasions of England by the Danes. In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey listing all the landholdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, was buried in Caen, his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but instead continued to administer each part separately. William's lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England.
Norsemen first began raiding in. Permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo; the lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have been used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century, which would have worsened relations between England and Normandy. In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002. Danish raids on England continued, Æthelred sought help from Richard, taking refuge in Normandy in 1013 when King Swein I of Denmark drove Æthelred and his family from England. Swein's death in 1014 allowed Æthelred to return home, but Swein's son Cnut contested Æthelred's return. Æthelred died unexpectedly in 1016, Cnut became king of England. Æthelred and Emma's two sons and Alfred, went into exile in Normandy while their mother, became Cnut's second wife.
After Cnut's death in 1035, the English throne fell to Harold Harefoot, his son by his first wife, while Harthacnut, his son by Emma, became king in Denmark. England remained unstable. Alfred returned to England in 1036 to visit his mother and to challenge Harold as king. One story implicates Earl Godwin of Wessex in Alfred's subsequent death. Emma went into exile in Flanders until Harthacnut became king following Harold's death in 1040, his half-brother Edward followed Harthacnut to England. William was born in 1027 or 1028 at Falaise, Duchy of Normandy, most towards the end of 1028, he was the only son of Duke Robert I, son of Duke Richard II. His mother, was the daughter of Fulbert of Falaise, she was a member of the ducal household, but did not marry Robert. Instead, she married Herluin de Conteville, with whom she had two sons – Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain – and a daughter whose name is unknown. One of Herleva's brothers, became a supporter and protector of William during his minority.
Robert had a daughter, Adelaide, by another mistress. Robert became Duke of Normandy on 6 August 1027, succeeding his elder brother Richard III, who had only succeeded to the title the previous year. Robert and his brother had been at odds over the succession, Richard's death
Counts and dukes of Aumale
The County of Aumale elevated to a duchy, was a medieval fief in Normandy. It was disputed between France during parts of the Hundred Years' War; the fief of Aumale was granted by the archbishop of Rouen to Odo, brother-in-law of William the Conqueror, who erected it into a countship. After several extinctions the title was re-created in 1547 for Francis styled Count of Aumale by courtesy. On his accession as Duke of Guise, he ceded it to his brother Duke of Aumale, it was used as a title by Henri d'Orléans, the youngest son of Louis-Philippe, King of the French and Duke of Orléans. As of 2019, the titleholder is a grandson of the late Henri, Count of Paris, Orléans heir, his wife, Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza of Brazil. Prince Foulques, Duke of Aumale, son of Prince Jacques, Duke of Orléans and the duchess, née Gersende de Sabran-Pontèves, added it to his title of Comte d'Eu. Norman Counts: Guerinfroi, lord before 996–? Guerinfroi Aymard?–1048 Bertha of Aumale 1048–1052 Hugh II, Count of Ponthieu 1048–1052 Enguerrand I of Aumale Adelaide of Normandy 1053–1087 with Lambert of Boulogne 1053–1054 Anglo-Norman Counts: Odo of Troyes 1069–1115 Stephen of Aumale before 1070–1127 William le Gros 1127–1179 Hawise of Aumale 1179–1194 with her husbands as Counts jure uxoris: William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex 1180–1189 William de Forz 1189–1194 Baldwin of Bethune 1195–1196 confiscated.
However, the English kings continued to recognise the title, as Earl of Albemarle French Counts: Renaud I, Count of Dammartin 1224–1227 Mathilde de Dammartin 1227–1260 Countess of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Queen of Portugal by her two marriages, Countess of Mortain, Countess of Boulogne and Countess of Dammartin-en-Goële with Philip Hurepel 1227–1234 Alphonso of Portugal 1238–1253 Simon of Dammartin 1234–1239 Joan of Dammartin 1239–1278 with Ferdinand I 1239–1252 Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale 1252–1260 John I 1260–1302 John II 1302–1343 Blanche of Ponthieu 1343–1387 with John III 1343–1356 John IV 1356–1389 John V 1389–1452 John VI, de facto 1415–1424 Mary, de facto 1424–1452, de jure to 1476, with Antoine, Count of Vaudémont 1452–1458 John VI 1458–1473 René 1473–1508 Claude I 1508–1547 Francis 1547–1550 Claude II 1550–1573 Charles 1573–1595 Anne 1618–1638 Henry of Savoy, Duke of Nemours 1618–1632 Louis of Savoy 1638–1641 Charles Amadeus of Savoy 1641–1652 to royal domain Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours Louis Charles de Bourbon sold to the crown, but payment not made, so returned to the heir Louis Jean Marie of Bourbon Henri d'Orléans, Duke of Aumale Through the end of the Hundred Years' War, the kings of England at various times ruled Aumale, through their claims to be dukes of Normandy and kings of France.
The title of Count or Duke of Aumale was granted several times during this period. In 1196, Philip II of France captured the castle of Aumale, granted the title of "Count of Aumale" to Renaud de Dammartin. However, despite Philip's conquest of Aumale, the kings of England continued to claim the Duchy of Normandy, to recognize the old line of Counts or Earls of Aumale; these were: see above for Counts before 1196 Hawise of Aumale, 2nd Countess of Aumale, bef. 1196: Baldwin of Bethune, Count of Aumale jure uxoris William de Forz, 3rd Earl of Albemarle, son of the 2nd Countess by her second husband William de Forz William de Forz, 4th Earl of Albemarle, son of the 3rd Earl Thomas de Forz, 5th Earl of Albemarle, son of the 4th Earl Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, daughter of the 4th EarlAveline married Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, in 1269, but she died without issue in 1274. A claim upon the inheritance by John de Eston was settled in 1278 with the surrender of the earldom to the Crown.
Also: Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Essex, Earl of Buckingham Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, fifth son of Edward III, was created Duke of Aumale by writ of summons on 3 September 1385, but was made Duke of Gloucester soon after, seems never to have used the former title. It was certainly forfeit upon his murder while awaiting trial for treason. Note: This creation is not listed in several sources such as "The Complete Peerage", which indicates the creation shown below as the 1st. Also: Duke of York, Earl of Cambridge, Earl of Rutland, Earl of Cork Edward of Norwich, 1st Earl of Rutland, first son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, was created Duke of Aumale shortly after Woodstock's murder, but was deprived of the title by Henry IV Bolingbroke in 1399. Also: Duke of Clarence Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV Bolingbroke, was created Earl of Aumale along with his dukedom of Clarence, carried both titles until his death without issue. Also: Earl of Warwick Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, military commander under Henry V in France, was created Count of Aumale for life only.
In further creations in the English peerage after the Hundred Years' War, Aumale was spelled in the
Arques-la-Bataille is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France. Arques is situated near the confluence of the rivers Eaulne, Varenne and Béthune, with the forest of Arques to the north-east, it lies 4 miles southeast of Dieppe at the junction of the D23, D56 roads. The centre houses a castle dominating the town, built in the 11th century by William of Talou. After changing hands, it came into the possession of the English, who were expelled in 1449 after an occupation of thirty years. In 1589, its cannon decided the battle of Arques in favor of Henry IV. Since 1869, the castle has been state property; the first line of fortification was the work of Francis I. The church of Arques, a building of the 16th century, preserves a stone rood screen, stained glass and other relics of the Renaissance period. Just outside the town is the World War I Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery, designed by J R Truelove, the final resting place of 377 men of the South African Native Labour Corps.
Willa Cather's 1907 short story "Eleanor's House" is set in Arques-la-Bataille. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Chinese Labour Corps INSEE Official website of Arques-la-Bataille photo gallery of Arques The CWGC cemetery Arques on the Quid information website Detailed history of the castle with photos and illustrations
Roman Catholic Diocese of Amiens
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Amiens is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese comprises the department of Somme; the diocese of Amiens was a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Reims during the old regime. Louis Duchesne denies any value to the legend of two Saints Firmin, honoured on the first and twenty-fifth of September, as the first and third Bishops of Amiens; the legend is of incoherent. Regardless of whether a St. Firmin, native of Pampeluna, was martyred during the Diocletianic Persecution, it is certain that the first bishop known to history is St. Eulogius, who defended the divinity of Christ in the councils held during the middle of the 4th century; the cathedral is an admirable Gothic monument, was made the subject of careful study by John Ruskin in his Bible of Amiens. The nave of this cathedral is considered a type of the ideal Gothic; the Cathedral of Notre Dame d'Amiens was served by a Chapter composed of eight dignities and forty-six Canons.
The dignities were: the Dean, the Provost, the Chancellor, the Archdeacon of Amiens, the Archdeacon of Ponthieu, the Cantor, the Master of the Schola, the Penitentiary. The Dean was elected by the Chapter; the city of Amiens had a Collegiate Church of Saint-Firmin, whose Chapter was composed of a Dean and six prebendaries. All were installed by the bishop. Saint-Nicolas-au-Cloître d'Amiens had a Chapter, composed of a Dean and eight prebendaries, all elected by the Chapter and installed by the bishop; the church of St. Acheul, near Amiens, its cathedral, was, in the 19th century, the home of a major Jesuit novitiate; the beautiful churches of St. Ricquier and Corbie perpetuate the memory of the great Benedictine abbeys and homes of learning founded in these places in 570 and 662. In 859 the Normans invaded the valley of the Somme, sacked the abbey of Saint-Riquier, they pillaged Amiens and held it for more than a year, until the city was ransomed by Charles the Bald. There is a medieval list of the Bishops of Amiens, but it first appears in the work of Robert of Torigni in the second half of the 12th century, its names before the 8th century are uncertain.
First bishop, martyr second bishop, confessorc. 346: Eulogius 5th century: Leodardus circa 450: Audoenus c. 511: Edibius c. 549: Beatus c. 614: Berachundus c. 650: Bertofredus 7th century: Deodatus 7th century: Dado c. 692–c. 697: Ursinianus before 728 – 746: Christianus c. 748–768: Raimbertus c. 777?: Vitultus c. 769–798/799: Georgius c. 799–831: Jesse circa 831: Ragenar 849–872: Hilmerad c. 875: Geroldus c. 892–928: Otgarius c. 929–947: Deroldus from c. 949: Ragembaldus c. 975–980: Almannus c. 980–992: Gotesmannus c. 993–c. 1030: Fulco Jean-Chrysostome de Villaret Jean-François de Mandolx Marc Marie, Marquis de Bombelles Jean-Pierre de Gallien de Chabons Jean-Marie Mioland Louis-Antoine de Salinis Jacques-Antoine-Claude-Marie Boudinet Louis-Désiré-César Bataille Aimé-Victor-François Guilbert Pierre Henri Lamazou Jean-Baptiste-Marie-Simon Jacquenet René-François Renou Jean-Marie-Léon Dizien Pierre-Florent-André du Bois de la Villerabel Charles-Albert-Joseph Lecomte Lucien-Louis-Claude Martin Albert-Paul Droulers René-Louis-Marie Stourm Géry-Jacques-Charles Leuliet François Jacques Bussini Jacques Moïse Eugène Noyer Jean-Luc Marie Maurice Louis Bouilleret Olivier Leborgne Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in France Gams, Pius Bonifatius.
Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V