French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
The Lenape called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania along the Delaware River watershed, New York City, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Today, Lenape people belong to the Delaware Delaware Tribe of Indians in Oklahoma; the Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and were matrilocal. During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies, their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. The divisions and troubles of the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them farther west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin and Ontario.
The name Lenni Lenape Leni Lenape and Lenni Lenapi, comes from their autonym, which may mean "genuine, real, original," and Lenape, meaning "Indian" or "man". Alternately, lënu may be translated as "man."The Lenape, when first encountered by Europeans, were a loose association of related peoples who spoke similar languages and shared familial bonds in an area known as Lenapehoking, the Lenape traditional territory, which spanned what is now eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York, eastern Delaware. The tribe's common name Delaware is not of Native American origin. English colonists named the Delaware River for the first governor of the Province of Virginia, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, whose title was derived from French; the English began to call the Lenape the Delaware Indians because of where they lived. Swedes settled in the area, early Swedish sources listed the Lenape as the Renappi. Traditional Lenape lands, the Lenapehoking, was a large territory that encompassed the Delaware Valley of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey from the north bank Lehigh River along the west bank Delaware south into Delaware and the Delaware Bay.
Their lands extended west from western Long Island and New York Bay, across the Lower Hudson Valley in New York into the lower Catskills and a sliver of the upper edge of the North Branch Susquehanna River. On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock; the Unami and Munsee languages belong to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Unami and Munsee speakers people are related, they consider themselves as distinct, as they used different words and lived on opposite sides of the Kitatinny Mountains of modern New Jersey. Today, only elders speak the language although some young Lenape youth and adults learn the ancient language; the German and English-speaking Moravian missionary John Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong is quite different though came out of one parent language."William Penn, who first met the Lenape in 1682, stated that the Unami used the following words: "mother" was anna, "brother" was isseemus, "friend" was netap.
Penn instructed his fellow Englishmen: "If one asks them for anything they have not, they will answer, mattá ne hattá, which to translate is,'not I have,' instead of'I have not.'"According to the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, the Unami word for "food" is May-hoe-me-chink. The Unami word for "hill" is Ah-choo. Sometimes the languages shared words, such as "corn,", Xash-queem, or "wolf,", too-may. In contemporary Unami orthography, "food" is michëwakàn, "hill" is ahchu, "corn" is xàskwim, "wolf" is tëme. At the time of first European contact, a Lenape person would have identified with his or her immediate family and clan, and/or village unit. Next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect. Among many Algonquian peoples along the East Coast, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom other Algonquian-speaking peoples originated. Lenape has three phratries, each of which had twelve clans; these are: Wolf, Took-seat Turtle, Poke-koo-un'go Turkey, Pul-la'-ook Lenape kinship system has matrilineal clans, that is, children belong to their mother's clan, from which they gain social status and identity.
The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the male children than was their father, of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved. Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families were matrilocal. By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his America
The Anglo–Cherokee War, was known from the Anglo-European perspective as the Cherokee War, the Cherokee Uprising, or the Cherokee Rebellion. The war was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Indian tribes during the French and Indian War; the British and the Cherokee had been allies at the start of the war, but each party had suspected the other of betrayals. Tensions between British-American settlers and the Cherokee increased during the 1750s, culminating in open hostilities in 1758. After siding with the Province of Carolina in the Tuscarora War of 1711–1715, the Cherokee had turned on their British allies at the outbreak of the Yamasee War of 1715–1717, until switching sides, once again, midway through the war; this action ensured the defeat of the Yamasee. The Cherokee remained allies of the British until the French and Indian War. At the 1754 outbreak of the war, the Cherokee were allies of the British, taking part in campaigns against Fort Duquesne and the Shawnee of the Ohio Country.
In 1755, a band of Cherokee 130-strong under Ostenaco of Tamali took up residence in a fortified town at the mouth of the Ohio River at the behest of the Iroquois. For several years, French agents from Fort Toulouse had been visiting the Overhill Cherokee on the Hiwassee and Tellico Rivers, had made inroads into those places; the strongest pro-French Cherokee leaders were Mankiller of Talikwa, Old Caesar of Chatuga, Raven of Ayuhwasi. The "First Beloved Man" of the nation, was pro-French, as was his nephew, who succeeded him at his death in 1760; the former site of the Coosa Chiefdom was reoccupied in 1759 by a Muscogee contingent under Big Mortar in support of the pro-French Cherokee residing in Great Tellico and Chatuga. This was a step toward his planned alliance of Muscogee, Shawnee and Catawba. Although such an alliance did not come into being until the days of Dragging Canoe, Big Mortar still rose to leading chief of the Muscogee after the French and Indian War; the Anglo–Cherokee War broke out in 1758 when Virginia militia attacked Moytoy of Citico in retaliation for the alleged theft of some horses by the Cherokee.
Moytoy's reaction was to lead retaliatory raids on the Yadkin and Catawba Rivers in North Carolina which began a domino effect that ended with the murders of 23 Cherokee hostages at Fort Prince George near Keowee and the massacre of the garrison of Fort Loudoun near Chota. These events ushered in a war which didn't end until 1761; the Cherokee were led by Aganstata of Chota, Attakullakulla of Tanasi, Ostenaco of Tomotley, Wauhatchie of the Lower Towns, Round O of the Middle Towns. During the second year of the French and Indian War, the British had sought Cherokee assistance against the French and their Indian allies; the English had reports, which proved accurate, that indicated the French were planning to build forts in Cherokee territory. Once the Cherokee agreed to be their allies, the British hastened to build forts of their own in the Cherokee lands, completing Fort Prince George near Keowee in South Carolina. Once the forts were built, the Cherokee raised close to 700 warriors to fight in western Virginia Colony under Ostenaco.
Oconostota and Attakullakulla led another large group to attack Fort Toulouse. In 1758, the Cherokee participated in the taking of Fort Duquesne However, they felt their efforts were unappreciated. While traveling through Virginia, on their way home, several Cherokee were murdered by Virginians; the Cherokee had been promised supplies, but misunderstood. After taking some horses they believed were rightly theirs, several Virginians killed and scalped between 30 and 40 of them; the Virginians claimed the scalps as those of Shawnees and collected bounties for them. While some Cherokee leaders still called for peace, others led retaliatory raids on outlying pioneer settlements; the Cherokee declared open war against the British in 1759. A number of Muskogee under Big Mortar moved up to Coosawatie; these people had long been French allies in support of the Cherokee pro-French faction centered in Great Tellico. The governor of South Carolina, William Henry Lyttelton, embargoed all gunpowder shipments to the Cherokee and raised an army of 1,100 men which marched to confront the Lower Towns of the Cherokee.
Desperate for ammunition for their fall and winter hunts, the nation sent a delegation of moderate chiefs to negotiate. The twenty-nine chiefs were taken prisoner as hostages and sent to Fort Prince George, escorted by the provincial army. Lyttleton thought. Governor Lyttleton returned to Charleston, but the Cherokee were still angry, continued to attack frontier settlements into 1760. In February 1760, they attacked Fort Prince George in an attempt to rescue their hostages; the fort's commander was killed. His replacement fended off the attack; the Cherokee attacked Fort Ninety Six, but it withstood the siege. The
Fort Dobbs (North Carolina)
Fort Dobbs was an 18th-century fort in the Yadkin–Pee Dee River Basin region of the Province of North Carolina, near what is now Statesville in Iredell County. Used for frontier defense during and after the French and Indian War, the fort was built to protect the British settlers of the western portion of what was Rowan County, served as a vital outpost for soldiers and colonial officials. Fort Dobbs' primary structure was a blockhouse with log walls, surrounded by a palisade and moat, it was intended to provide protection against Cherokee, Shawnee and French raids into North Carolina. The fort's name honored Arthur Dobbs, the colonial Governor of North Carolina from 1754 to 1765, who played a role in designing the fort and authorized its construction; when in use, it was the only fort on the frontier between South Virginia. Between 1756 and 1760, the blockhouse was garrisoned by a variable number of soldiers, many of whom were sent to fight in Pennsylvania and the Ohio River Valley during the French and Indian War.
On February 27, 1760, the fort was the site of an engagement between Cherokee warriors and provincial soldiers that ended in a victory for the provincials. After this battle and other attacks by Cherokee warriors on British forts and settlements in the Anglo-Cherokee War, the southern British colonies launched a devastating counterattack against the Cherokee in 1760. Fort Dobbs was abandoned after 1766, disappeared from the landscape. Archaeological work in the 20th century and historical research in 2005 and 2006 led to the discovery of the fort's exact location and probable appearance; the site on which the fort sat is now operated by North Carolina's Division of State Historic Sites and Properties as Fort Dobbs State Historic Site, supporters of the site have developed plans for the fort's reconstruction. In 1747 100 men of suitable age to serve in the colonial militia lived in North Carolina west of present-day Hillsborough. Within three years, most of North Carolina's population increase, driven by the immigration of Scots-Irish and German settlers traveling from Pennsylvania on the Great Wagon Road, was occurring in seven western counties created after 1740.
By 1754, six western counties—Orange, Johnston, Cumberland and Rowan—held around 22,000 residents out of the colony's total population of 65,000. In 1755, Governor Arthur Dobbs ordered the construction of a fortified log structure for the protection of settlers in Rowan County from various Native American threats, including assaults from Cherokee, Catawba and Delaware raiding parties. Dobbs stated in a letter on August 24, 1755, to the Board of Trade that the fort was needed "to assist the back settlers and be a retreat to them as it was beyond the well settled Country, only straggling settlements behind them, if I had placed beyond the Settlements without a fortification they might be exposed, be no retreat for the Settlers, the Indians might pass them and murder the Inhabitants, retire before they durst go to give them notice"; the new frontier settlements required regular protection, as the settlers in the area attributed many crimes and forms of harassment to denizens of nearby Catawba and Cherokee towns.
Furthermore, Governor Dobbs was concerned for his own investments, as he owned more than 200,000 acres of land on the Rocky River 15 miles south of the Fourth Creek Meeting House. The North Carolina Legislature set aside a sum of £10,000 for the construction of the fort in 1755, as well as for the raising of several companies of provincial soldiers to defend the frontier. Provincial soldiers, known by the shortened name "provincials", were soldiers raised and paid by the individual British colonies, although they were at various times armed and supplied by the regular British Army; the total cost of the fort was only £1,000. By comparison, Fort Stanwix in New York, begun in 1758 in a then-modern star fort style, cost £60,000 to erect, while the construction of Fort Prince George in South Carolina cost that province's House of Commons £3,000. Dobbs had a role in designing the fort, as he had designed at least one other fort in North Carolina, as well as a number of structures in Ireland. Hugh Waddell, a Scotch-Irish soldier who had close ties to Governor Dobbs and, the commander of a company of provincial soldiers in 1755, built the fort's blockhouse and palisade using labor provided by his soldiers, named it after the governor.
The land on which the fort was to be located was a part of a 560-acre tract owned first by one James Oliphant by a Fergus Sloan. Part of the same tract was used for the Fourth Creek Congregation Meeting House in 1755, the principal structure around which the modern city of Statesville was founded. After construction was completed, Fort Dobbs was the only military installation on the colonial frontier between Virginia and South Carolina. By June 1756, Waddell had completed construction on the fort. Francis Brown and future governor Richard Caswell, commissioners appointed by Dobbs to inspect frontier defenses, wrote the following report to the North Carolina General Assembly on December 21, 1756: had viewed the State of Fort Dobbs and found it to be a good and Substantial Building of the Dimentions following The Oblong Square fifty three feet by forty, the opposite Angles Twenty four feet and Twenty-Two In height Twenty four and a half feet as by the Plan annexed Appears, The Thickness of the Walls which are made of Oak Logs regul
Robert Dinwiddie was a British colonial administrator who served as lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia from 1751 to 1758, first under Governor Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, from July 1756 to January 1758, as deputy for John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun. Since the governors at that time were absentee, he was the de facto head of the colony for much of the time. Dinwiddie is credited for starting the military career of George Washington. Dinwiddie was born at Glasgow before 2 October 1692, the son of Robert Dinwiddie of Germiston and Elizabeth Cumming, his younger brother Lawrence Dinwiddie was Lord Provost of Glasgow. He matriculated at the University in 1707 before starting work as a merchant. Joining the British colonial service in 1727, Dinwiddie was appointed collector of the customs for Bermuda. Following an appointment as surveyor general of customs in southern American ports, Dinwiddie became Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, featured as such in William Makepeace Thackeray's nineteenth-century historical novel The Virginians: A Tale of the Last Century.
Dinwiddie's actions as lieutenant governor are cited by one historian as precipitating the French and Indian War held to have begun in 1754. He wanted to limit French expansion in Ohio Country, an area claimed by the Virginia Colony and in which the Ohio Company, of which he was a stockholder, had made preliminary surveys and some small settlements; this version of history is disputed when one notices that Father Le Loutre's War in Acadia began in 1749 and did not end until the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755. In fact, Thomas Jefferys, the Royal Geographer of the day, produced a pamphlet out of his Parliamentary testimony that explained the misconduct of the French in what amounted to a Treaty of Utrecht boundary dispute. In 1753, Dinwiddie learned the French had built Fort Presque Isle near Lake Erie and Fort Le Boeuf, which he saw as threatening Virginia's interests in the Ohio Valley. In fact, he considered Winchester, Virginia, to be "exposed to the enemy". Dinwiddie sent an eight-man expedition under George Washington to warn the French to withdraw.
Washington only 21 years old, made the journey in midwinter of 1753–54. Washington arrived at Fort Le Boeuf on 11 December 1753. Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, commandant at Fort Le Boeuf, a tough veteran of the west, received Washington politely, but rejected his ultimatum. Jacques Saint-Pierre gave Washington three days hospitality at the fort, gave Washington a letter for him to deliver to Dinwiddie; the letter conveyed to Dinwiddie that he would send Dinwiddie's on to Marquis de Duquesne in Quebec and would meantime maintain his post while he awaited the latter's orders. In January 1754 before learning of the French refusal to decamp, Dinwiddie sent a small force of Virginia militia to build a fort at the forks of the Ohio River, where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers merge to form the Ohio; the French drove off the Virginians and built a larger fort on the site, calling it Fort Duquesne, in honour of the Marquis de Duquesne, the then-governor of New France. Dinwiddie named Joshua Fry to the position of Commander-in-Chief of colonial forces.
Fry was given command of the Virginia Regiment and was ordered to take Fort Duquesne held by the French. During the advance into the Ohio Country, Fry fell off his horse and died from his injuries on 31 May 1754 at Fort Cumberland, upon which the command of the regiment fell to Washington. In early spring 1754, Dinwiddie sent Washington to build a road to the Monongahela. After having attacked the French at the Battle of Jumonville Glen, Washington retreated and built a small stockade, Fort Necessity, at a spot called "Great Meadows", by the Youghiogheny River, eleven miles southeast of present-day Uniontown. Here he was forced to surrender. Dinwiddie was subsequently active in rallying other colonies in defense against France and prevailed upon the British to send General Edward Braddock to Virginia with two regiments of regular troops, in part with a letter to Lord Halifax on 25 October 1754 containing these words: The Invas'n and wicked designs of the Fr. on the River Ohio has given me a Continual Uneasiness, w'ch was increased by the supine and unaccountable Obstinacy of the Assemblies of the different Colonies on this Cont't, y't tho' they were convinced of the Progress they had made, the threat'g Speeches they gave out, they c'd not be roused from their lethargic Indolence, to grant suitable Supplies for conducting an Expedit'n so necessary for their own Safety.
Braddock met his end at the Battle of Monongahela on 9 July 1755. Over the next four years, until the defeat of the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec, Vaudreuil's capitulation before Amherst at Montreal, the fate of the 13 colonies was uncertain and Dinwiddie's administration was marked by frequent disagreements with the Assembly over the financing of the war. In fact, the friction between the government and the Burgesses would develop into the American Revolution. In January 1758 he left Virginia, to be replaced by Francis Fauquier, lived in England until his death at Clifton, Bristol. Dinwiddie County, which lies 30 miles south of Richmond, is named in honor of Robert Dinwiddie. Dinwiddie Hall, since 1972 a dormitory at the College of William & Mary, is named in honor of Robert Dinwiddie. Dinwiddie retained his links with his alma mater throughout his life: in 1754 he was conferred an honorary degree by the University of Glasgow.
Rowan County, North Carolina
Rowan County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 138,428, its county seat is Salisbury. Located to the northeast of Charlotte, Rowan County is included in its metropolitan area; the first Europeans to enter what is now Rowan County were the Spanish expedition of Juan Pardo in 1567. They established a fort and a mission in the native village of Guatari, believed to be located near the Yadkin River and inhabited by the Wateree. At the time, the area was ruled by a female chief; the Spaniards called the village Salamanca in honor of the city of Salamanca in western Spain, established a mission, headed by a secular priest named Sebastián Montero. The Spaniards abandoned the area; the surviving Spanish left after Native Americans killed all but one soldier at the six forts Pardo established in the interior. The Spanish did not return to the interior of this territory. English colonial settlement of North Carolina came starting in the coastal areas, with some migrants coming from Virginia.
Explorers and fur traders were the first to reach the Piedmont, followed by settlers. The county was formed in 1753 from the northern part of Anson County, it was named for Matthew Rowan, acting governor of North Carolina from 1753 to 1754. It was intended to incorporate all of the lands of the Granville District that had heretofore been included in Anson County; as was typical at the time, Rowan County was a vast territory with an indefinite western boundary. Reductions in its extent began in 1770, when the eastern part of it was combined with the western part of Orange County to become Guilford County. In 1771 the northeastern part of what remained of Rowan County became Surry County. In 1777 the western part of Rowan County became Burke County. After the American Revolutionary War, in 1788 the western part of the now much smaller Rowan County was organized as Iredell County. In 1822 the eastern part became Davidson County. In 1836 the part of Rowan County north of the South Yadkin River became Davie County.
The area was developed for mixed farming in the antebellum period. Cotton continued as a commodity crop for some time. Following Reconstruction, there was continuing change in the county, with industrialization following the construction of railways and textile mills here and elsewhere in the Piedmont. Urban populations increased. A total of six lynchings of African Americans were recorded here in this period, which extended into the early 20th century; this was the second-highest total in the state, a number of extrajudicial murders that two other counties had. At the turn of the 20th century, the state had passed a new constitution and laws erecting barriers to voter registration that disenfranchised most blacks, ending their political progress for decades, after African Americans had been elected to Congress from this state and there had been a Republican-Populist fusionist slate. Both governors Charles Aycock and Robert Glenn, elected in 1900 and 1904 ran campaigns to appeal to whites; the racial terrorism of lynchings enforced white suppression of African Americans.
In 1902 brothers James and Harrison Gillespie, aged 11 and 13, were lynched by a white mob for killing a young white woman working in a field. In August 1906, six African-American men were arrested as suspects in the murder of a farm family; that evening, a white mob stormed the county jail in Salisbury, freeing all the white prisoners, interrogating the black ones, taking out Jack Dillingham, Nease Gillespie, his son John. The mob hanged the three men from a tree in a field and tortured them, shot them numerous times, it was not until after passage of civil rights legislation that most African American recovered the ability to vote. The county has worked to attract new industries since much of the textile industry moved offshore in the late 20th and early 21st centuries; the "250 Fest", celebrating the 250th anniversary of Rowan County, was held in 2003. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 524 square miles, of which 511 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water.
The county's eastern border is formed by the Yadkin River. North of Ellis Crossroads, the South Yadkin River meets the Yadkin; the South Yadkin forms the county's northern border, with Davie County. The southern border is an east-west line. Cabarrus County - south Davidson County - east Davie County - north Iredell County - west Stanly County - southeast Interstate 85 passes through the county from southwest to northeast. In the early 2000s, I-85 underwent an extensive widening in the central and northern part of the county, from exit 68, US 29 Connector north to the Davidson county line. A new bridge over the Yadkin River is planned. U. S. Route 70 enters the northwestern part of west of Cleveland, it runs southeast into Salisbury, where it follows Jake Alexander Boulevard to the southeast and joins US 29 North as Main Street. US 70 continues northeast as Main Street and Salisbury Avenue in Spencer before crossing into Davidson County. U. S. Route 29 forms Main Street in Kannapolis, China Grove, Landis in the southern part of the county.
It joins US 70 as Main Street through Salisbury, as Salisbury Avenue in Spencer. U. S. Route 52 is the main artery for the southeastern part of the county, serving the towns of Gold Hill and Granite Quarry. Just before reaching downtown Salisbury, US-52 joins Interstate 85, which it follows into Dav
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as