The Flinders River is the longest river in Queensland, Australia at approximately 1,004 kilometres. It was named in honour of the explorer Matthew Flinders, the catchment is sparsely populated and mostly undeveloped. The south of the catchment is bordered by the Selwyn Range, at 1,004 kilometres in length it is the eighth longest river in Australia. The catchment covers 109,000 square kilometres, the primary land use in the catchment is grazing and other agriculture, the catchment covers 1. 5% of the continent. A total of 36 tributaries flow into the Flinders, the tributaries are the Cloncurry, Saxby. Another major tributary of the Flinders River is Porcupine Creek, the creek has carved out a dramatic gorge which is located in the Porcupine Gorge National Park. There are two dams on the river - the Flinders River Dam and Corella Dam, the river flows through one permanent waterhole, Flagstone waterhole. Several towns are found within the catchment including, McKinlay and Wills Junction, Richmond, Julia Creek, the river produces a mean annual discharge of 3,857 gigalitres.
The maximum flow recorded is 18,000 gigalitres, the riverbed is composed of silt with clay and sand and gravel and gravel with cobble. A large, flat claypain is located in the area where the Flinders, the mouth of the river lies in the Gulf Plains Important Bird Area. In 2015 the population living within the catchment was 6,600 people of which 12% are indigenous, other species found include the wattle. Infestations of Weeds such as Prickly acacia, Noogoora burr, Rubber vine, the understorey is dominated by a closed cover of riparian grasses including native couch on the sandy loams adjacent the stream channels. The Flinders River was named in honour of the explorer Matthew Flinders by Captain Wickham, Stokes chartered and surveyed the estuary of the Flinders and albert rivers and named many other features in the area including Disaster Inlet, Morning Inlet and Van Deiman River. Robert OHara Burke, William John Wills and Charles Gray reached the delta in 1861 completing the goal of their expedition.
Gray died on the back to Cooper Creek and both Burke and Wills died after reaching the creek to find their depot abandoned. The first pastoralist to stock country along the Flinders was James Gibson who established Prairie Station in 1861, in 1864 more cattle stations were established by Gibson including Millungera and Taldora Stations. Massive flooding occurred along the river in July 1870, one station lost over 4,000 sheep and roads were cut. In 1917 even larger floods were recorded with Hughenden inundated several people drowned, more heavy flooding occurred in 1955,1960,1974,1991 and 2000
Mount Isa is a city in the Gulf Country region of Queensland, Australia. It came into existence because of the vast mineral deposits found in the area, Mount Isa Mines is one of the most productive single mines in world history, based on combined production of lead, silver and zinc. With an estimated population of 21,998 as at June 2016, Mount Isa is the administrative. Locals often refer to Mount Isa as The Isa, due to the lead production in the city, Mount Isa has one of the most intensive air quality monitoring systems in Australia. Concerns have been raised over childhood lead contamination and air pollution within the city, the Mount Isa Mines in particular are a source of significant lead pollution. The land around the present day city of Mount Isa was home to the Kalkadoon aboriginal tribe, the Kalkadoon tribe led a subsistence lifestyle on this land that the white settlers looked at as nothing but poor grazing land, with the odd mineral deposit. As settlers and prospectors pressed further into their lands the Kalkadoon tribe members set out on one of Australias most successful guerrilla wars in a fight for their lands.
Their success continued until at Battle Mountain in 1884, with some historians have called a rush of blood. The weakened state of the made their land more vulnerable to the settlers. Armed patrols chasing the surviving members and poor grazing lands for the settlers made times hard in the area over the following decades. When Miles inspected the rocks in a nearby outcrop, they reminded him of the ore found in the Broken Hill mine that he had once worked at. Upon inspection these rocks were weighty and heavily mineralised, a sample sent away to the assayer in Cloncurry confirmed their value. Miles and four farmers staked out the first claims in the area, taken with friends stories of the Mount Ida gold mines in Western Australia, Miles decided upon Mount Isa as the name for his new claim. Mount Isa Post Office opened on 1 August 1924, a location for the towns hospital was chosen in 1929, with a small building completed the following year. In 1931, a structure was moved to the site from the closed mining town of Kuridala.
The mayor of Mount Isa, after the 2015 Local Government Elections, is Joyce Mccullough, Mount Isas industry is largely dependent on mining. Silver-lead-zinc ore is mined 20 km to the north at Hilton from the George Fisher underground mine, and the adjoining Handlebar Hill open cut, Mount Isa is in the top two of the largest copper mining and smelting operations in the country. Copper and lead are smelted on site, with copper anodes and zinc concentrate being transported 900 km to the city, the lead ingots are transported to a refinery in Britain where the silver is extracted
Hughenden Manor is a red brick Victorian mansion, located near High Wycombe, England. In the 19th century, it was the house of the Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli. Today, it is owned by the National Trust and fully open to the public and it sits on the brow of the hill to the west of the main A4128 road that links Hughenden to High Wycombe. The manor of Hughenden is first recorded in 1086, when part of Queen Ediths lands it was held by William, son of Oger the Bishop of Bayeux. After his forfeiture, the lands were held by the Crown, until King Henry I of England gifted the lands to his chamberlain and treasurer, Geoffrey de Clinton. Clinton, whose home was in Kenilworth, had the lands tenanted by Geoffrey de Sancto Roerio. After passing through that family, with successive Kings having to confirm the gifting of the lands, the manor returned to the Crown in the 14th century. In 1539, the Crown granted the manor and lands to Sir Robert Dormer, and it passed through his family until 1737, when it was sold by Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield to Charles Savage.
After passing through his family following a series of deaths and resultant will bequeaths, by 1816 the manor and lands were owned by John Norris. This was because at the time, Disraeli as leader of the Conservative Party it was essential to represent a county, taking ownership of the manor on the death of his father in 1848, Disraeli and his wife Mary Anne, alternated between Hughenden and several homes in London. The present house was built towards the end of the 18th century and was of a stuccoed, however, in 1862 the Disraelis had the house remodelled by the architect Edward Buckton Lamb. Lamb has been described as one of the most perverse and original of mid-Victorian architects, architecturally, he had a strong interest in the eclectic, this interest is very apparent in his work at Hughenden. Under Lambs hand, classical Georgian features were swept away as he dramatised the house, Lamb worked in a hybrid baronial form of Gothic architecture, with exposed and angular juxtaposing brickwork surmounted by stepped battlements with diagonal pinnacles.
The uppermost windows of the thirteen bayed garden facade were given unusual pediments - appearing almost as machicolations, as the house was not originally constructed until the middle of the 18th century, almost a century after the Civil War, that scenario would have been difficult. The house is of three floors, the reception rooms are all on the ground floor, most with large plate glass windows giving onto the south-facing terrace overlooking a grassy parterre with views over the Hughenden Valley. The west wing was built in 1910, long after Disraelis death, the church contains a memorial to the Earl erected by Queen Victoria, the only instance a reigning monarch has ever erected a memorial to a subject. Disraeli had no children, he left Hughenden to his nephew, however, as Coningsby was only 14 at the time, his trustees rented out the property until he came into his inheritance in 1888. During the Second World War, Hughenden Manor was used as an intelligence base code-named Hillside
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry. The European Union Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water, in the sense of flowing water, the word may be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods can occur in rivers when the flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the flood plains of rivers. Some floods develop slowly, while others such as floods, can develop in just a few minutes. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, the word flood comes from the Old English flod, a word common to Germanic languages. Deluge myths are stories of a great flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution. Floods can happen on flat or low-lying areas when water is supplied by rainfall or snowmelt more rapidly than it can infiltrate or run off. The excess accumulates in place, sometimes to hazardous depths, surface soil can become saturated, which effectively stops infiltration, where the water table is shallow, such as a floodplain, or from intense rain from one or a series of storms.
Infiltration is slow to negligible through frozen ground, concrete, areal flooding begins in flat areas like floodplains and in local depressions not connected to a stream channel, because the velocity of overland flow depends on the surface slope. Endorheic basins may experience flooding during periods when precipitation exceeds evaporation. Floods occur in all types of river and stream channels, from the smallest ephemeral streams in humid zones to normally-dry channels in arid climates to the worlds largest rivers. When overland flow occurs on tilled fields, it can result in a flood where sediments are picked up by run off. Localized flooding may be caused or exacerbated by drainage obstructions such as landslides, debris, slow-rising floods most commonly occur in large rivers with large catchment areas. The increase in flow may be the result of sustained rainfall, rapid snow melt, the cause may be localized convective precipitation or sudden release from an upstream impoundment created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier.
In one instance, a flood killed eight people enjoying the water on a Sunday afternoon at a popular waterfall in a narrow canyon. Without any observed rainfall, the rate increased from about 50 to 1,500 cubic feet per second in just one minute. Two larger floods occurred at the site within a week
Irrigation is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist in the growing of crops, maintenance of landscapes. Additionally, irrigation has a few uses in crop production. In contrast, agriculture that only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems are used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area, Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support crops for rainfed agriculture. Ancient Egyptians practiced Basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots which had surrounded by dykes.
The flood water was held until the sediment had settled before the surplus was returned to the watercourse. The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennium BCE and it largely depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan. In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet season flooding, terrace irrigation is evidenced in pre-Columbian America, early Syria and China. These canals are the earliest record of irrigation in the New World, traces of a canal possibly dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th millennium canal. Large scale agriculture was practiced and a network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation. Ancient Persia as far back as the 6th millennium BCE, where barley was grown in areas where the rainfall was insufficient to support such a crop.
The Qanats, developed in ancient Persia in about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today and they are now found in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. The system comprises a network of wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs. The noria, a wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream, was first brought into use at about this time
In both the FAO and USDA soil taxonomy, a vertisol is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay known as montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years. Alternate shrinking and swelling causes self-mulching, where the soil material consistently mixes itself, causing vertisols to have an extremely deep A horizon and this heaving of the underlying material to the surface often creates a microrelief known as gilgai. Vertisols typically form from highly basic rocks, such as basalt, in climates that are humid or subject to erratic droughts and floods. Depending on the parent material and the climate, they can range from grey or red to the familiar deep black. Vertisols are found between 50°N and 45°S of the equator, major areas where vertisols are dominant are eastern Australia, the Deccan Plateau of India, and parts of southern Sudan, Ethiopia and Chad, and the lower Paraná River in South America. Other areas where vertisols are dominant include southern Texas and adjacent Mexico, central India, northeast Nigeria, New Caledonia, the natural vegetation of vertisols is grassland, savanna, or grassy woodland.
The heavy texture and unstable behaviour of the soil makes it difficult for many species to grow. The shrinking and swelling of vertisols can damage buildings and roads, Vertisols are generally used for grazing of cattle or sheep. It is not unknown for livestock to be injured through falling into cracks in dry periods, many wild and domestic ungulates do not like to move on this soil when inundated. However, the activity allows rapid recovery from compaction. When irrigation is available, crops such as cotton, sorghum, Vertisols are especially suitable for rice because they are almost impermeable when saturated. Rainfed farming is difficult because vertisols can be worked only under a very narrow range of moisture conditions. However, in Australia, vertisols are highly regarded, because they are among the few soils that are not acutely deficient in available phosphorus. Some, known as crusty vertisols, have a thin, hard crust when dry that can persist for two to three years before they have crumbled enough to permit seeding.
In the USA soil taxonomy, vertisols are subdivided into, Vertisols which are subdued aquic conditions for some time in most years, because of the high clay content, the permeability is slowed down and aquic conditions are likely to occur. In general, when precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration, ponding may occur, under wet soil moisture conditions and manganese are mobilized and reduced. The manganese may be responsible for the dark color of the soil profile. Cryerts, They have a soil temperature regime
Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is a dry phase. The term is sometimes used for locally heavy but short-term rains. The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and Asia-Australian monsoons, the inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with incomplete wind reversal has been debated. The south-west monsoon winds are called Nairutya Maarut in India, the English monsoon came from Portuguese monção, ultimately from Arabic mawsim and/or Hindi mausam, perhaps partly via early modern Dutch monsun. Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million years ago. Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The monsoon has varied significantly in strength since this time, largely linked to climate change.
A study of marine plankton suggested that the Indian Monsoon strengthened around 5 million years ago, during ice periods, the sea level fell and the Indonesian Seaway closed. When this happened, cold waters in the Pacific were impeded from flowing into the Indian Ocean and it is believed that the resulting increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean increased the intensity of monsoons. Five episodes during the Quaternary at 2.22 Ma,1.83 Ma,0.68 Ma,0.45 Ma and 0.04 Ma were identified which showed a weakening of Leeuwin Current. The weakening of the LC would have an effect on the sea surface temperature field in the Indian Ocean, thus these five intervals could probably be those of considerable lowering of SST in the Indian Ocean and would have influenced Indian monsoon intensity. The impact of monsoon on the weather is different from place to place. In some places there is just a likelihood of having a more or less rain. In other places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into green grasslands where all sorts of plants.
The Indian Monsoon turns large parts of India from a kind of semi-desert into green lands, see photos only taken 3 months apart in the Western Ghats. In places like this it is crucial for farmers to have the right timing for putting the seeds on the fields, Monsoons are large-scale sea breezes which occur when the temperature on land is significantly warmer or cooler than the temperature of the ocean. These temperature imbalances happen because oceans and land absorb heat in different ways, in contrast, dirt and rocks have lower heat capacities, and they can only transmit heat into the earth by conduction and not by convection. Therefore, bodies of water stay at an even temperature
Townsville railway station
Townsville railway station is located on the North Coast line in Queensland, Australia. It serves the city of Townsville, opposite the platform lies a passing loop. It is the point for the Great Northern line. The present station opened in May 2003, to replace the Old Townsville railway station in Flinders Street, at this time, rail tracks through the city centre were removed. Townsville is served by Traveltrains Spirit of Queensland and Inlander services, media related to Townsville railway station at Wikimedia Commons Townsville station Queenslands Railways on the Internet
Bureau of Meteorology
The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, and brought together the state services that existed before then. The states officially transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908, the Bureau of Meteorology is the main provider of weather forecasts and observations to the Australian public. The Bureau distributes weather images via radiofax and is responsible for issuing flood alerts in Australia, Regional offices are located in each state and territory capital. Each regional office includes a Regional Forecasting Centre and a Flood Warning Centre, the Adelaide office incorporates the National Tidal Centre, while the Darwin office the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre and Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology issues Tropical Cyclone Advices and developed the Standard Emergency Warning Signal used for warnings, the Bureau is responsible for tropical cyclone naming for storms in waters surrounding Australia.
Three lists of names used to be maintained, one for each of the western and eastern Australian regions, however, as of the start of the 2008–09 Tropical Cyclone Year these lists have been rolled into one main national list of tropical cyclone names. The regional offices are supported by the Bureau National Operations Centre which is located at the head office in Melbourne Docklands. The Bureau maintains a network of field offices across the continent, on neighbouring islands, there is a network of some 500 paid co-operative observers and approximately 6,000 voluntary rainfall observers. The Director of Meteorology in the Bureau of Meteorology is Andrew Johnson, the Australian Integrated Forecast System affords the main computing infrastructure in the Regional offices. Numerical Weather Prediction is performed using the Unified Model software, in August 2010 the Bureau of Meteorology decommissioned their previous supercomputer, the NEC SX-6, switching to the Oracle Solar Supercomputer
Shire of Flinders (Queensland)
The Shire of Flinders is a local government area in north-western Queensland, Australia. It covers an area of 41,538.5 square kilometres, the Shire, named for the Flinders River, is predominantly a grazing area with cattle in the north of the shire and mixed grazing to the south in the black soil area. The Hughenden Division was established on 20 July 1882 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, on 20 April 1887, the Borough of Hughenden was constituted separately as a municipality for the emerging town of Hughenden. On 31 March 1903, the Hughenden Division became the Shire of Hughenden, on 5 September of the same year, the Shire of Hughenden was renamed Shire of Flinders. The western part of the Shire was separately incorporated as the Shire of Wyangarie on 23 October 1915, on 1 January 1930, part of the Shire of Flinders was annexed to the Shire of Dalrymple. In 1958, the Town of Hughenden amalgamated with the Shire of Flinders, the Shire of Flinders includes the following settlements, Hughenden Porcupine Prairie Stamford Torrens Creek ‡ – includes then-separate Town. 1897, D.
Simson 1927, E. M. Geary University of Queensland, Queensland Places, Flinders Shire Flinders Shire historical photo project
Muttaburrasaurus was a genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur, which lived in what is now northeastern Australia sometime between 112 and 99.6 million years ago during the early Cretaceous Period. It has been recovered in some analyses as a member of the iguanodontian family Rhabdodontidae, after Kunbarrasaurus, it is Australias most completely known dinosaur from skeletal remains. It was named after Muttaburra, the site in Queensland, the remains were collected by paleontologist Dr Alan Bartholomai and entomologist Edward Dahms. After a lengthy preparation of the fossils, it was named in 1981 by Bartholomai and Ralph Molnar, the holotype, specimen QM F6140, was found in the Mackunda Formation dating to the Albian-Cenomanian. It consists of a skeleton with skull and lower jaws. The underside of the skull and the back of the mandibula, numerous vertebrae, parts of the pelvis, some teeth have been discovered further north, near Hughenden, and south at Lightning Ridge, in northwestern New South Wales.
At Lightning Ridge there have been found opalised teeth and a scapula that may be from a Muttaburrasaurus, a skull, known as the Dunluce Skull, specimen QM F14921, was discovered by John Stewart-Moore and 14-year-old Robert Walker on Dunluce Station, between Hughenden and Richmond in 1987. It originates from somewhat older layers of the Allaru Mudstone and was considered by Molnar to be a separate, yet unnamed species, the same area produced two fragmentary skeletons in 1989. There have been isolated teeth and bones found at Iona Station southeast of Hughenden, Muttaburrasaurus was about 8 metres and weighed around 2.8 metric tons. The femur of the holotype has a length of 1015 millimetres, whether Muttaburrasaurus is capable of quadrupedal movement has been debated, it was originally thought to be an Iguanodontid, thought recent studies indicate a rhabdodont position. Ornithopods this basal were incapable of quadrupedal movement, originally reconstructing Muttaburrasaurus with a thumb spike, Molnar doubted such a structure was present.
The foot was long and broad, with four toes, the skull of Muttaburrasaurus was rather flat, with a triangular cross-section when seen from above, the back of the head is broad but the snout pointed. The snout includes an enlarged, upward-bulging nasal muzzle that might have been used to produce distinctive calls or for display purposes. However, as no fossilised nasal tissue has been found, this remains conjectural and this so-called bulla nasalis was shorter in the older Muttaburrasaurus sp. as is shown by the Dunluce Skull. The top section of the bulla of the holotype has not been preserved, Muttaburrasaurus had very powerful jaws equipped with shearing teeth. An additional basal trait was the lack of a ridge on the teeth sides. In 1981 Molnar speculated that these qualities indicated an omnivorous diet, in 1995 he changed his opinion, suspecting that Muttaburrasauruss dental system is evolutionarily convergent with the ceratopsian system of shearing teeth. They would have been an adaptation for eating tough vegetation such as cycads, Molnar originally assigned Muttaburrasaurus to the Iguanodontidae
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbanes metropolitan area has a population of 2.35 million, the Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite, one of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe,28 kilometres north of the business district. The city was marred by the Australian frontier wars between 1843 and 1855, and development was set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a role in the Allied campaign. Today, Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the built heritage.
It receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably in 1974 and 2011. Several large cultural and sporting events have held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Prior to white settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and they knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning place shaped as a spike. The Moreton Bay area was explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, in 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay. Oxley discovered and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna,20 kilometres upstream from the Brisbane central business district, Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay,28 km south, chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838, German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Hartenstein, Franz, Rode and they were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station