California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Titanic (1997 film)
Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance and disaster film directed, written, co-produced and co-edited by James Cameron. A fictionalized account of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, it stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet as members of different social classes who fall in love aboard the ship during its ill-fated maiden voyage. Cameron's inspiration for the film came from his fascination with shipwrecks. Production began in 1995; the modern scenes on the research vessel were shot on board the Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, which Cameron had used as a base when filming the wreck. Scale models, computer-generated imagery, a reconstruction of the Titanic built at Baja Studios were used to re-create the sinking; the film was funded by Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox. It was the most expensive film made at the time, with a production budget of $200 million. Upon its release on December 19, 1997, Titanic achieved commercial success. Nominated for 14 Academy Awards, it tied All About Eve for the most Oscar nominations, won 11, including the awards for Best Picture and Best Director, tying Ben-Hur for the most Oscars won by a single film.
With an initial worldwide gross of over $1.84 billion, Titanic was the first film to reach the billion-dollar mark. It remained the highest-grossing film of all time until Cameron's Avatar surpassed it in 2010. A 3D version of Titanic, released on April 4, 2012, to commemorate the centennial of the sinking, earned it an additional $343.6 million worldwide, pushing the film's worldwide total to $2.18 billion and making it the second film to gross more than $2 billion worldwide. In 2017, the film was re-released for its 20th anniversary and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 1996, treasure hunter Brock Lovett and his team aboard the research vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh search the wreck of RMS Titanic for a necklace with a rare diamond, the Heart of the Ocean, they recover a safe containing a drawing of a young woman wearing only the necklace dated April 14, 1912, the day the ship struck the iceberg. Rose Dawson Calvert, the woman in the drawing, is brought aboard Keldysh and tells Lovett of her experiences aboard Titanic.
In 1912 Southampton, 17-year-old first-class passenger Rose DeWitt Bukater, her fiancé Cal Hockley, her mother Ruth board the luxurious Titanic. Ruth emphasizes that Rose's marriage will resolve their family's financial problems and retain their high-class persona. Distraught over the engagement, Rose considers suicide by jumping from the stern. Discovered with Jack, Rose tells a concerned Cal that she was peering over the edge and Jack saved her from falling; when Cal becomes indifferent, she suggests to him. He invites Jack to dine with them in first class the following night. Jack and Rose develop a tentative friendship, despite Ruth being wary of him. Following dinner, Rose secretly joins Jack at a party in third class. Aware of Cal and Ruth's disapproval, Rose rebuffs Jack's advances, but realizes she prefers him over Cal. After rendezvousing on the bow at sunset, Rose takes Jack to her state room, they evade Cal's bodyguard, Mr. Lovejoy, have sex in an automobile inside the cargo hold. On the forward deck, they witness a collision with an iceberg and overhear the officers and designer discussing its seriousness.
Cal discovers Jack's sketch of Rose and an insulting note from her in his safe along with the necklace. When Jack and Rose attempt to inform Cal of the collision, Lovejoy slips the necklace into Jack's pocket and he and Cal accuse him of theft. Jack is arrested, taken to the master-at-arms' office, handcuffed to a pipe. Cal puts the necklace in his own coat pocket. With the ship sinking, Rose flees Cal and her mother, who has boarded a lifeboat, frees Jack. On the boat deck and Jack encourage her to board a lifeboat. After Rose boards one, Cal tells Jack; as her boat lowers, Rose decides that she jumps back on board. Cal takes his bodyguard's pistol and chases Rose and Jack into the flooding first-class dining saloon. After using up his ammunition, Cal realizes he gave his coat and the necklace to Rose, he boards a collapsible lifeboat by carrying a lost child. After braving several obstacles and Rose return to the boat deck; the lifeboats have departed and passengers are falling to their deaths as the stern rises out of the water.
The ship breaks in half. Jack and Rose ride it into the ocean and he helps her onto a wooden panel buoyant enough for only one person, he assures her. Jack dies of hypothermia but Rose is saved. With Rose hiding from Cal en route, the RMS Carpathia takes the survivors to New York City where Rose gives her name as Rose Dawson. Rose says she read that Cal committed suicide after losing all his money in the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Back in the present, Lovett decides to abandon his search after hearing Rose's story. Alone on the stern of Keldysh, Rose takes out the Heart of the Ocean – in her possession all along – and drops it into the sea over the wreck site. While she is asleep or has died in her bed, photos on her dresser depict a life of freedom and adventure in
Compton/Woodley Airport is a county-owned public-use airport located two miles southwest of downtown Compton, in southern Los Angeles County, California. The FAA's National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2007–2011 categorized it as a relief airport, it is used for general aviation as an alternative to Los Angeles International Airport, situated about 8 miles to the west. Colonel C. S. Smith landed in an open field near the town of Compton in June 1924. Colonel Smith felt the field, owned by the local school board, would make an ideal airport location and negotiated for the airport's founding. Between 1924 and 1936 the airport and its land passed through several hands until Earl Woodley took over the lease in 1936, he purchased additional adjacent land to allow for a crosswind runway. During the war years of 1941 to 1946, civilian flying was restricted and the airport was used by the military as a truck depot. After the war, Mr Woodley resumed operations and became owner of the land; when Mr Woodley died in 1962, the airport was threatened with closure when it was purchased by an investment company.
Pilot groups, the mayor of Compton, the entire Compton City Council encouraged the Board of Supervisors to condemn the land and allow the county to purchase it. In June 1966 the entire airport property of 77 acres was purchased for $2,948,883. Compton/Woodley Airport covers 77 acres and has two asphalt runways, each 3,322 x 60 ft. In 2012 the airport had 66,000 general aviation aircraft operations, averaging about 180 per day. 175 aircraft are based at this airport: 151 single-engine aircraft, 14 multi-engine aircraft, 1 jet aircraft, 8 helicopters, 1 glider. The Compton Airport is mentioned in the opening bars of Dr. Dre's "Big Ego's" on his multi-platinum album 2001. Compton Airport is featured in Airline episode 46 when Robin Petgrave, the founder of the flight school Tomorrow's Aeronautical Museum, was delayed which resulted in his giving a cast member's son a plane ride at Compton Airport with his flight school. City of Compton web site Los Angeles County Department of Public Works - Compton/Woodley Airport Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for CPM AirNav airport information for KCPM ASN accident history for CPM FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for KCPM
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Ballona Creek is an 8.8-mile-long waterway in southwestern Los Angeles County, whose watershed drains the Los Angeles basin, from the Santa Monica Mountains on the north, the Harbor Freeway on the east, the Baldwin Hills on the south. It heads in the historical Rancho Las Cienegas and flows through Culver City and the Del Rey district before emptying into Santa Monica Bay between Marina del Rey and the Playa del Rey district. During the Pre-Columbian era, Tongva people existed as hunters and gatherers in small villages throughout the Ballona Creek watershed and other parts of the Los Angeles basin. Native American culture and land management practice was disrupted by the arrival of Spanish explorers. In 1769, the Tongva met their first Europeans. Continuing west after crossing the Los Angeles River, diarist Fray Juan Crespi noted that the party "came across a grove of large alders...from which flows a stream of water... The water flowed afterwards in a deep channel towards the southwest". Researchers identified the place as the headwaters of Ballona Creek.
The explorers made camp nearby on August 3. Around 1820, a mestizo rancher named Augustine Machado began grazing his cattle on the Ballona wetlands and claimed a fourteen-thousand acre Mexican land grant that stretched from modern-day Culver City to Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California. Ballona Creek and Lagoon are named for the Ballona or Paseo de las Carretas land grant, dated November 27, 1839; the Machado and Talamantes families, co-grantees of the rancho, heralded from Baiona in northern Spain. After the land grant claims were lost, the area experienced rapid growth, with open land being transformed into agricultural use; the Ballona Creek watershed totals about 130 square miles. Its land use consists of 64% residential, 8% commercial, 4% industrial, 17% open space; the major tributaries to the Ballona Creek and Estuary include Centinela Creek, Sepulveda Canyon Channel and Benedict Canyon Channel. At the time of Spanish settlement, the Los Angeles River turned to the west just south of present-day Bunker Hill, joining Ballona Creek just to the west of its current channel.
However, during a major flood in 1825, the Los Angeles River's course changed to its present channel, Ballona Creek became a distinct waterway. Much of the above-ground section of the creek was lined with concrete as part of the flood-control project undertaken by the United States Army Corps of Engineers following the Los Angeles Flood of 1938. Ballona Creek Watershed climate can be characterized as Mediterranean with average annual rainfall of 15 inches per year over most of the developed portions of the watershed; the flow rate in the Creek varies from a trickle flow of about 14 cubic feet per second during dry weather to 71,400 cubic feet per second during a 50-year storm event. Ballona Wetlands and Del Rey Lagoon are connected to the Ballona Estuary through tide gates. From northern source to southern mouth: Begins at South Cochran Avenue South Burnside Avenue Hauser Boulevard Thurman Avenue South Fairfax Avenue Interstate 10 La Cienega Boulevard Washington Boulevard National Boulevard north Expo Line National Boulevard south Higuera Street Duquesne Avenue Overland Avenue Westwood Boulevard Sepulveda Boulevard Sawtelle Boulevard Interstate 405 - San Diego Freeway Sepulveda Channel enters Inglewood Boulevard South Centinela Avenue State Route 90 Centinela Creek enters Lincoln Boulevard/State Route 1 Culver Boulevard Pacific Avenue The historic wetland complex at the mouth of Ballona Creek occupied about 2000 acres.
Although much of it was drained and developed, a portion remains protected. The State of California owns 600 acres of the former wetlands. Much of these preserved lands are designated as the Ballona Wetlands Ecological Reserve and despite historic degradation, conditions are improving. Wetland flora includes pickleweed, marsh heather, saltgrass and glasswort, a variety of upland and exotic species including brome, iceplant and ryegrass. Bird species of special interest observed in the reserve include nesting pairs of Belding's Savannah sparrow and foraging use by California least terns; the urbanization of the watershed, associated with it the pollution of urban runoff and stormwater, has degraded the water quality in Ballona Creek and its Estuary. Ballona Creek is listed by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board impaired for fecal coliform, heavy metals, pesticides. Dry weather urban runoff and storm water, both conveyed by storm drains, are the primary sources of pollutions in the Creek.
Many national, historical and cultural landmarks, tourist attractions, educational institutions and industries exist in Ballona Creek Watershed. With year-round Mediterranean climate, the area attracts immigrants and visitors from all over the world making Ballona Creek Watershed a vibrant melting pot of culture. A bike path that extends seven miles from National Boulevard in Culver City to the end of Ballona Creek Estuary provides oppo
End of Days (film)
End of Days is a 1999 American supernatural action horror film directed by Peter Hyams and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gabriel Byrne, Robin Tunney, Kevin Pollak, Rod Steiger, CCH Pounder, Udo Kier. The film follows former New York Police Department detective Jericho Cane after he saves a banker from an assassin, finds himself embroiled in a religious conflict, must protect an innocent young woman, chosen by evil forces to conceive the Antichrist with Satan; the film was released by Universal Pictures on November 24, 1999. It has grossed $66.9 million in North America and $145.1 million elsewhere, for a worldwide total of $212 million. The film received negative reviews. In 1979 a priest at the Vatican sees a comet arching over the moon, heralding the birth of one chosen to be the mother of Satan's child; the priest is sent on a mission by the Pope to find and protect the girl from Satan, although a few Vatican knights insist that she must die. In New York a newborn girl, Christine York, is identified by Satanists as the person chosen to bear Satan's child on New Year's Eve, 1999.
The Satanists perform occult rites on the newborn. In late 1999, Satan possesses an investment banker in a restaurant. Suicidal and alcoholic former police detective Jericho Cane, depressed since his wife and daughter's contract killings, works for a private security company and blames God for his plight. Jericho and co-worker Bobby Chicago are assigned to protect the possessed banker. A priest, Thomas Aquinas, unsuccessfully tries to kill the banker. Jericho captures Aquinas, who tells Jericho: "The thousand years has ended, the dark angel is loosed from his prison" and says that a girl is central. Jericho shoots Aquinas, arrested by the New York Police Department. Marge Francis, an NYPD detective and Jericho's former colleague, tells him that Aquinas has no tongue. Jericho and Bobby investigate on their own, learning that Aquinas was trained at the Vatican and was sent to New York before disappearing. Jericho questions a priest who knew Aquinas. Kovak asks Jericho, they go to Aquinas' apartment, where they find his tongue in a jar and messages and symbols written in apparent blood on the walls.
Marge arrives. Satan infiltrates Aquinas' hospital, crucifies him on the ceiling. Although he survives, he is shot by a Satanic police officer. Jericho and Chicago see Latin words and "Christ in New York" scratched into Aquinas' skin, begin searching for Christine York. Jericho and Chicago find Christine in her apartment, saving her from murderous Vatican knights, Mabel refuses to bring her to Satan. Satan blows up Chicago's van, killing him. Satan kills Mabel for failing him. Marge and another officer, both Satanists, tell Jericho to surrender Christine. Jericho kills them. Father Kovak tells Jericho and Christine that Satan must impregnate her between 11 pm and midnight on New Year's Eve to usher in the "end of days". Christine accepts Kovak's protection. Satan infiltrates Jericho's apartment, showing him a vision of his family's murder. Jericho throws Satan through his apartment window, Chicago appears. At the church, the cardinal and his knights try to kill Christine and Satan kills the Vatican clergy.
Chicago tells Christine that he is in league with Satan. Kovak rescues Jericho, Satan kidnaps Christine. Jericho again kills Marge. Chicago stops Jericho. Jericho escapes with Christine into a subway tunnel, he fires a grenade at Satan. Jericho and Christine escape to another church, where he renews his faith in God and prays for strength. Satan possesses him. Jericho attempts to rape Christine, who tries to escape before Jericho deliberately impales himself on a sword protruding from a statue. At the stroke of midnight God frees Jericho's dying body, sends Satan back to hell and the world celebrates the new millennium. Jericho and Christine see his daughter waiting for him in the afterlife, he dies in peace, Christine waits with his body for the authorities. An alternate ending was filmed in which Jericho returns to life after being impaled on the statue's sword and leaves the church with Christine, but test audiences preferred the original version; the ending was used in the film's novelization. Directors Sam Raimi and Guillermo del Toro were offered End of Days, but turned it down due to other projects.
Marcus Nispel was going to direct the film, but he left because of budget and script problems and was replaced by Peter Hyams. The role of Jericho Cane was written for Tom Cruise, but he chose to work on Magnolia and Arnold Schwarzenegger was cast. Liv Tyler was the first choice for the role of Christine York, but she declined over contractual issues. Kate Winslet was set to play the character, but she dropped out and Robin Tunney replaced her. According to Hyams, Jim Cameron was the kind of godfather of me doing that film, because of his relationship with Schwarzenegger, he told me I was doing it!... End Of Days was going to be Marcus Nispel, but it wasn't working somehow, but they had Arnold and a start date, Jim came to me and told me I had to do it; this was the first picture. I think. So this was Arnold c
Grand Central Airport (California)
Grand Central Airport, California known as Grand Central Air Terminal, was an important facility for the growing Los Angeles suburb of Glendale in the 1920s. It was a key element in the development of United States aviation; the terminal, located at 1310 Air Way, was built in 1928 and still exists, owned since 1997 by The Walt Disney Company as a part of its Grand Central Creative Campus. Three hangars remain standing; the location of the single concrete 3,800-foot runway has been preserved, but is now a public street as the runway was dug up and converted into Grand Central Avenue. The concept for the airport began with Leslie Coombs Brand, a major figure in the settlement and economic growth of the Glendale area, he had purchased land on the lower slopes of Mount Verdugo overlooking the city, in 1904 built an imposing residence that became known as Brand Castle. Just across the dry Los Angeles River he could see the Griffith Park Aerodrome's grass field, built in 1912. Just three years he decided to build his own grass airstrip below his mansion.
He built his first hangar in 1916 and put together a fleet of planes, held fly-in parties. The only requirement was that guests had to bring passengers. From this modest beginning, plans were soon hatched by local entrepreneurs to establish an airport with commercial possibilities a little further down below his field. In 1923 the 112-acre Glendale Municipal Airport opened with a 100 ft -wide paved runway 3,800 ft long, came to be renamed "Grand Central Air Terminal" when it was purchased by other venture capitalists, who expanded it to 175 acres. On February 22, 1929, a terminal with a control tower had been built, was opened to much fanfare. Designed by Henry L. Gogerty, the intention was to construct an air terminal along the lines of a classic railroad terminal, it combined a style consisting of Spanish Colonial Revival with Zig-zag Moderne influences. GCAT became a major airport of entry to Los Angeles and provided the first paved runway west of the Rocky Mountains. Within a year, the entire enterprise was sold to a group calling itself the Curtiss-Wright Flying Service, managed by Major C. C.
Moseley, a co-founder of the future Western Airlines. It became the city's largest employer, it was at Grand Central that Major Moseley established the first of his private flying schools, Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute. Many famous aviation pioneers made their home and their mark at GCAT, as pilots, mechanics, teachers and airplane/power-plant builders serving in some combination, including: Charles Lindbergh, who piloted the nation's first scheduled coast to coast flight from Grand Central's runway as organizer of Transcontinental Air Transport which, after merging with Western Air Express, came to be Transcontinental and Western Air TWA. Amelia Earhart bought her first plane there. Wiley Post used the airport. Laura Ingalls became the first woman to fly solo across the country when she landed at Glendale in 1930. Albert Forsythe and Charles Anderson were the first African American pilots who made the transcontinental flight, completed at Glendale in 1933, their achievement paved the way for the black Tuskegee Airmen who fought in World War II.
Thomas Benton Slate built an all-metal dirigible and hangar in 1925. It was 212 ft. long, fireproof. He named it "City of Glendale", it left the ground in 1929, popped some rivets, crashed. Howard Hughes built his record-setting H-1 Racer in a small building at 911 Air Way in 1935, thus beginning the Hughes Aircraft Company; the building burned to the ground in the late 1990s. Jack Northrop started his'Avion Aviation' company on the field in 1927, where he built multi-cellular metal structures. William Boeing bought the business from Northrop, moved it to Burbank's United Airport. W. B. Kinner built the Kinner Airster, he was the inventor of the compound folding wing. Major C. C. Moseley established overhaul facilities there, operated a flight academy whose pilot and mechanic graduates traveled to Europe as the all-volunteer Eagle Squadron who flew against Hitler at the Battle of Britain before America entered the war. Actor Robert Cummings was an active flight instructor who used this airport. In addition, airlines originating at GCA included TWA, Varney and Pickwick Airlines.
The airport was the setting of several films, including Howard Hughes' Hell's Angels, Shirley Temple's Bright Eyes, Lady Killer starring James Cagney, Sky Giant with Joan Fontaine, Hats Off with John Payne, the musical Hollywood Hotel with Dick Powell, the adventure film Secret Service of the Air starring Ronald Reagan. Episodes of the 1941 movie serial, Sky Raiders, show the terminal and other GCAT structures; the terminal was a favorite shooting location. The airport was known for stunt flying, supplying planes for use in the movie industry by people like Paul Mantz. Just about every airplane design flying during the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s could be seen at GCAT for use in movies, or there to be serviced; when Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941, Grand Central Airport was closed to private aviation. The government moved in camouflaged the place, converted it into an important defense base for Los Angeles. In 1942 the runway, which ended at Sonora Avenue, was extended North to Western