Cyril M. Kornbluth
Cyril M. Kornbluth was an American science fiction author and a member of the Futurians, he used a variety of pen-names, including Cecil Corwin, S. D. Gottesman, Edward J. Bellin, Kenneth Falconer, Walter C. Davies, Simon Eisner, Jordan Park, Arthur Cooke, Paul Dennis Lavond, Scott Mariner; the "M" in Kornbluth's name may have been in tribute to Mary Byers. Kornbluth grew up in the uptown Manhattan neighborhood of Inwood, in New York City, he was of the son of a "second-generation Jew" who ran his own tailor shop. According to his widow, Kornbluth was a "precocious child", learning to read by the age of three and writing his own stories by the time he was seven, he graduated from high school at thirteen, received a CCNY scholarship at fourteen, was "thrown out for leading a student strike" without graduating. As a teenager, he became a member of the Futurians, an influential group of science fiction fans and writers. While a member of the Futurians, he met and became friends with Frederik Pohl, Donald A. Wollheim, Robert A. W. Lowndes, his future wife Mary Byers.
He participated in the Fantasy Amateur Press Association. Kornbluth served in the US Army during World War II, he received a Bronze Star for his service in the Battle of the Bulge, where he served as a member of a heavy machine gun crew. Upon his discharge, he returned to finish his education at the University of Chicago under the G. I. Bill. While living in Chicago he worked at Trans-Radio Press, a news wire service. In 1951 he started writing full-time, returning to the East Coast where he collaborated on novels with his old Futurian friends Frederik Pohl and Judith Merril. Kornbluth began writing at 15, his first solo story, "The Rocket of 1955", was published in Richard Wilson's fanzine Escape. His other short fiction includes "The Little Black Bag", "The Marching Morons", "The Altar at Midnight", "MS. Found in a Chinese Fortune Cookie", "Gomez" and "The Advent on Channel 12". "The Little Black Bag" was first adapted for television live on the television show Tales of Tomorrow on May 30, 1952.
It was adapted for television by the BBC in 1969 for its Out of the Unknown series. In 1970, the same story was adapted by Rod Serling for an episode of his Night Gallery series; this dramatization starred Burgess Meredith as the alcoholic Dr. William Fall, who had long lost his doctor's license and become a homeless alcoholic, he finds a bag containing advanced medical technology from the future, after an unsuccessful attempt to pawn it, he uses benevolently. "The Marching Morons" is a look at a far future in which the world's population consists of five billion idiots and a few million geniuses – the precarious minority of the "elite" working to keep things running behind the scenes. In his introduction to The Best of C. M. Kornbluth, Pohl states that "The Marching Morons" is a direct sequel to "The Little Black Bag": it is easy to miss this, as "Bag" is set in the contemporary present while "Morons" takes place several centuries from now, there is no character who appears in both stories; the titular black bag in the first story is an artifact from the time period of "The Marching Morons": a medical kit filled with self-driven instruments enabling a far-future moron to "play doctor".
A future Earth similar to "The Marching Morons" – a civilisation of morons protected by a small minority of hidden geniuses – is used again in the final stages of Kornbluth & Pohl's Search the Sky."MS. Found in a Chinese Fortune Cookie" is written by Kornbluth using notes by "Cecil Corwin", declared insane and incarcerated, who smuggles out in fortune cookies the ultimate secret of life; this fate is said to be Kornbluth's response to the unauthorized publication of "Mask of Demeter" in Wollheim's anthology Prize Science Fiction in 1953. Biographer Mark Rich describes the 1958 story "Two Dooms" as one of several stories which are "concern with the ethics of theoretical science" and which "explore moral quandaries of the atomic age": "Two Dooms" follows atomic physicist Edward Royland on his accidental journey into an alternative universe where the Nazis and Japanese rule a divided United States. In his own world, Royland debated whether to delay progress at the Los Alamos nuclear research site or to help the atomic bomb achieve its terrifying result.
Encountering both a slave village and a concentration camp in the alternative America, he comes to grips with the idea of life under bondage. Many of Kornbluth's novels were written as collaborations: either with Judith Merril, or with Frederik Pohl; these include The Space Merchants. The Space Merchants contributed to the maturing and to the wider academic respectability of the science fiction genre, not only in America but in Europe. Kornbluth wrote several novels under his own name, including The Syndic and Not This August. Kornbluth died at age 34 in New York. Scheduled to meet with Bob Mills in New York City to interview for the position of editor of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, Kornbluth had to shovel snow from his driveway, which delayed him. Running to meet his train, he suffered a fatal heart attack on the platform of the station. A number of short stories remained unfinished at Kornbluth's death.
Mary Robinette Kowal
Mary Robinette Kowal is an American author and puppeteer. Mary Harrison was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, studied at East Carolina University, she graduated with a degree in Art Education with a minor in theater, began work as a professional puppeteer in 1989. She has performed for the Center for Puppetry Arts, Jim Henson Productions, her own production company, Other Hand Productions, she worked in Iceland on the children's television show LazyTown for two seasons. She was accepted as a participant in a Sesame Puppetry Workshop. Kowal served as art director for Shimmer Magazine and in 2010 was named art director for Weird Tales, she served as secretary of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America for two years, was elected to the position of SFWA vice-president in 2010. In 2008, her second year of eligibility, she won the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer. Kowal's work as an author includes "For op. 12," which made the preliminary ballot for the 2007 Nebula Awards. Her fiction has appeared in Talebones Magazine, Strange Horizons, Apex Digest, among other venues.
Her debut novel Shades of Milk and Honey was nominated for the 2010 Nebula Award for Best Novel. Two of her short fiction works have been nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Short Story: "Evil Robot Monkey" in 2009 and "For Want of a Nail," which won the award in 2011, her novelette, The Lady Astronaut of Mars was ineligible for the 2013 Hugo Awards because it had only been released as part of an audiobook, but was published in text format and went on to win the 2014 Hugo Award for Best Novelette. In 2009, she donated her archive to the department of Rare Books and Special Collections at Northern Illinois University. After appearing several times as a guest star in the podcast, Writing Excuses, she became a full-time cast member at the start of their sixth season in 2011. Kowal is a voice actor, having recorded audiobook versions of books written by authors such as John Scalzi, Seanan McGuire, Cory Doctorow and Kage Baker. Shades of Milk and Honey, Tor Books, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7653-2556-3 Glamour in Glass, Tor Books, 2012, ISBN 978-0-7653-2557-0 Without a Summer, Tor Books, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7653-3415-2 Valour and Vanity, Tor Books, 2014, ISBN 9780765334169 Of Noble Family, Tor Books, 2015, ISBN 978-0-7653-7836-1 The Calculating Stars, Tor Books, 2018, ISBN 978-0-7653-7838-5 The Fated Sky, Tor Books, 2018, ISBN 978-0-7653-9894-9 The Relentless Moon, Tor Books, announced for 2020 The Derivative Base, Tor Books, announced for 2022 Ghost Talkers, Tor Books, 2016, ISBN 978-0-7653-7825-5 The Spare Man, Tor Books, announced for 2021 Kiss Me Twice, Asimov's Science Fiction, 2011 Forest of Memory, Tor.com / maryrobinettekowal.com, 2014 "The Lady Astronaut of Mars", Tor.com / maryrobinettekowal.com, 2013 "A Fire in the Heavens", Shadows Beneath anthology, 2014 Scenting the Dark and Other Stories, Subterranean Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-59606-267-2 Word Puppets, Prime Books, 2015, ISBN 978-1-60701-456-0 "Just Right", The First Line, 2004 "Rampion", The First Line, 2004 "The Shocking Affair of the Dutch Steamship Friesland", The First Line, 2004 "Portrait of Ari", Strange Horizons, 2006 "Bound Man", Twenty Epics, 2006 "Cerbo in Vitra ujo", Apex Digest, 2006 "Locked In", Apex Digest, 2006 "This Little Pig", Cicada, 2007 "For Solo Cello, op. 12", Cosmos, 2007 "Horizontal Rain", Apex Online, 2007 "Death Comes But Twice", Talebones, 2007 "Some Other Day", All Possible Worlds, 2007 "Tomorrow and Tomorrow", Gratia Placenti, 2007 "Suspension and Disbelief", Doctor Who: Short Trips: Destination Prague, 2007 "Clockwork Chickadee", Clarkesworld Magazine, 2008 "Scenting the Dark", Apex Online, 2008 "Waiting for Rain", Subterranean Magazine, 2008 "Chrysalis", Aoife’s Kiss, 2008 "Evil Robot Monkey", The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction, Vol. 2, 2008 "At the Edge of Dying", Clockwork Phoenix 2: More Tales of Beauty and Strangeness, 2009 "Body Language", InterGalactic Medicine Show, 2009 "The Consciousness Problem", Asimov's Science Fiction, 2009 "First Flight", Tor.com, 2009 "Ginger Stuyvesant and the Case of the Haunted Nursery", Talebones, 2009 "Jaiden’s Weaver", Diamonds in the Sky: An Astronomical Anthology, 2009 "Prayer at Dark River", Innsmouth Free Press, 2009 "Ring Road", Dark Faith Anthology, 2010 "The Bride Replete", Apex Online, 2010 "Beyond the Garden Close", Apex Online, 2010 "Typewriter Triptych", Sharable.net, 2010 "For Want of a Nail", Asimov's Science Fiction, 2010 "Salt of the Earth", Redstone Science Fiction, 2010 "American Changeling", Daily Science Fiction, 2010 "Changement d’itinéraire", Légendes, 2010 "Birthright", 2020 Visions, 2010 "Water to Wine", METAtropolis: Cascadiopolis, 2010 "We Interrupt This Broadcast", The Mad Scientist's Guide to World Domination, 2013 Official website Mary Robinette Kowal's Weekly Fantasy Column at AMCtv.com Mary Robinette Kowal at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
James Benjamin Blish was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. He is best known for his Cities in Flight novels, his series of Star Trek novelizations written with his wife, J. A. Lawrence, he is credited with creating the term gas giant to refer to large planetary bodies. Blish was a member of the Futurians, his first published stories appeared in Super Science Stories and Amazing Stories. Blish wrote literary criticism of science fiction using the pen-name William Atheling Jr, his other pen names included: Donald Laverty, John MacDougal, Arthur Lloyd Merlyn. Blish was born on 23 May 1921 at New Jersey. While in high school, Blish self-published a fanzine using a hectograph, called The Planeteer; the fanzine ran for six issues. Blish attended meetings of the Futurian Science Fiction Society in New York City during this period. Futurian members Damon Knight and C. M. Kornbluth became close friends, Blish's relationship with other members were bitter. A personal target was fellow member Judith Merril.
Merril would dismiss Blish's self-description of being a "paper fascist". She wrote in Better to Have Loved, "Of course was not fascist, antisemitic, or any of those terrible things, but every time he used the phrase, I saw red." Blish studied microbiology at Rutgers University, graduating in 1942. He was drafted into Army service, he served as a medical laboratory technician; the United States Army discharged him for refusing orders to clean a grease trap in 1944. Following discharge, Blish entered Columbia University as a masters student of zoology, he did not complete the program, opting to write fiction full-time. In 1947, he married a fellow Futurian, they divorced in 1963. Blish married artist J. A. Lawrence in 1968, moving to England that same year. From 1962 to 1968, Blish worked as a writer and critic. Much of his work for the institute went uncredited. Blish died on 30 July 1975 from complications related to lung cancer, he was buried in Oxford. The Bodleian Library at Oxford is the custodian of Blish's papers.
The library has a complete catalog of Blish's published works. Throughout the 1940s, Blish published most of his stories in the few pulp magazines still in circulation, his first story was sold to fellow Futurian Frederik Pohl for Super Science Stories, called "Emergency Refueling". Other stories were with little circulation. Blish's "Chaos, Co-Ordinated", co-written with Robert A. W. Lowndes, was sold to Astounding Science Fiction, appearing in the October 1946 issue, earning Blish national circulation for the first time. Blish was what Andrew Litpack called a "practical writer", he would revisit and expand on written stories. An example is "Sunken Universe" published in Super Science Stories in 1942; the story reappeared in Galaxy Science Fiction as "Surface Tension", in an altered form in 1952. The premise emphasised Blish's understanding of microbiology, featured microscopic humans engineered to live on a hostile planet's shallow pools of water; the story proved to be among Blish's more popular, was anthologized in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume One, 1929–1964, edited by Robert Silverberg.
The world of microscopic humans continued in "The Thing in the Attic" in 1954, "Watershed" the following year. The fourth entry, "A Time to Survive", was published by The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction in 1957; the stories were collected, edited together, released as the fixup The Seedling Stars from Gnome Press. John Clute said of all of Blish's "deeply felt work" explored "confronting the Faustian man"; the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction asserts that it was not until the 1950s, the Okie sequence of stories beginning their run, "did it become clear would become a writer of unusual depth". The stories were loosely based on the Okie migration following the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, were influenced by Oswald Spengler's two part Der Untergang des Abendlandes; the stories detail the life of the Okies, humans who migrate throughout space looking for work in vast city-ships, powered by spindizzies, a type of anti-gravity engine. The premise and plot reflected Blish's feelings on the state of western civilization, his personal politics.
The first two stories, "Okie", "Bindlestiff", were published in 1950, by Astounding. "Sargasso of Lost Cities" appeared in Two Complete Science-Adventure Books in April 1953. "Earthman, Come Home" followed a few months published by Astounding. In 1955, Blish collected the four stories together into an omnibus titled Earthman, Come Home, published by Putman. More stories followed: In 1956, They Shall Have Stars, which edited together "Bridge" and "At Death’s End", in 1958, Blish released The Triumph of Time. Four years he published a new Okies novel, A Life for the Stars; the Okies sequence was published as Cities In Flight. Clute notes, "the brilliance of Cities in Flight does not lie in the assemblage of its parts, but in the momentum of the ideas embodied in it." Blish continued to rework older stories, did so for one of his best known works, A Case of Conscience. The novel originated as a novella published in an issue of If, in 1953; the story follows a Jesuit priest, Ramon Ruiz-Sanchez, who visits the planet Lithia as a technical member of an expedition.
While on the planet they discover a race of bipedal reptilians that have perfected mor
Robert J. Sawyer
Robert James Sawyer is a Canadian science fiction writer. He has had 23 novels published, his short fiction has appeared in Analog Science Fiction and Fact, Amazing Stories, On Spec and many anthologies. Sawyer has won the Nebula Award, the Hugo Award, the John W. Campbell Memorial Award. Sawyer was born in Ottawa, is now a resident of Mississauga. Sawyer's work explores the intersection between science and religion, with rationalism winning out over mysticism. Sawyer explores the notion of copied or uploaded human consciousness, mind uploading, most in his novel Mindscan, but in Flashforward, Golden Fleece, The Terminal Experiment, "Identity Theft", "Biding Time", "Shed Skin", his interest in consciousness studies is apparent in Wake, which deals with the spontaneous emergence of consciousness in the infrastructure of the World Wide Web. His interest in quantum physics, quantum computing, inform the short stories "You See But You Do Not Observe" and "Iterations," and the novels Factoring Humanity and Hominids.
SETI, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, plays a role in the plots of Golden Fleece, Factoring Humanity, Rollback, the novelette "Ineluctable," and the short stories "You See But You Do Not Observe" and "Flashes." Sawyer gives cosmology a thorough workout in his far-future Starplex. Real-life science institutions are used as settings by Sawyer, including TRIUMF in End of an Era, CERN in Flashforward, the Royal Ontario Museum in Calculating God, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Hominids and its sequels, the Arecibo Observatory in Rollback. Sawyer contributed a story called "The Hand You're Dealt" to the Libertarian SF anthology Free Space, another called "The Right's Tough" to the Libertarian SF anthology Visions of Liberty). Sawyer's prose has been described by Orson Scott Card as near Isaac Asimovian in its clarity. Sawyer has won both Canada's top SF award and its top mystery-fiction award for his 1993 short story "Just Like Old Times." Illegal Alien is a courtroom drama with an extraterrestrial defendant.
Of Sawyer's shorter SF works, the novella "Identity Theft" and the short stories "Biding Time," "Flashes," "Iterations," "Shed Skin," "The Stanley Cup Caper," "You See But You Do Not Observe," "The Hand You're Dealt," and the aforementioned "Just Like Old Times" are all crime or mystery fiction. In addition to his own writing, Sawyer edits the Robert J. Sawyer Books science-fiction imprint for Red Deer Press, part of Canadian publisher Fitzhenry & Whiteside. Sawyer continues to use a customized version of WordStar for DOS to write his novels. In May 2009, ABC ordered 13 episodes of hour-long dramatic TV series FlashForward for the 2009–2010 season, based on Sawyer's titled novel, after successful production in February and March 2009 of a pilot episode scripted by David S. Goyer and Brannon Braga, directed by Goyer, starring Joseph Fiennes and Sonya Walger. After some adjustments, the first season was set to consist of 22 episodes. Sawyer is story consultant on each episode of the series and wrote the 19th episode, titled "Course Correction".
Sawyer wrote the original series bible for Charlie Jade, an hour-long science-fiction TV series that first aired in 2005–2006, he did conceptual work in 2003 for reviving Robotech. He has written and narrated documentaries about science fiction for CBC Radio's Ideas series, he hosted the 17-part weekly half-hour documentary series Supernatural Investigator for Canada's Vision TV, which premiered January 27, 2009, he provided analysis of the British science fiction series Doctor Who for the CBC's online documentary The Planet of the Doctor comments on science fiction movies for TVOntario's Saturday Night at the Movies, co-edited an essay collection in honor of the fortieth anniversary of Star Trek with David Gerrold, titled Boarding the Enterprise. Sawyer has taught science-fiction writing at the University of Toronto, Ryerson University, Humber College, the Banff Centre. In 2000, he served as Writer-in-Residence at the Richmond Hill, Public Library. In 2003, he was Writer-in-Residence at the Toronto Public Library's Merril Collection of Science Fiction and Fantasy.
In 2006, he was Writer-in-Residence at the Odyssey Writing Workshop. In 2006, he was the Edna Staebler Writer-in-Residence at the Kitchener Public Library in the Region of Waterloo, following on the Region of Waterloo's choice of Sawyer's Hominids as the "One Book, One Community" title that all 490,000 residents were encouraged to read in 2005. In 2007 he was the Berton House Writer-in-Residence at Berton House in Dawson City. In 2009, he was the first-ever Writer-in-Residence at the Canadian Light Source, Canada's national synchrotron facility in Saskatoon. Sawyer is a frequent keynote speaker about technology topics, has served as a
Laurence van Cott Niven is an American science fiction writer. His best-known work is Ringworld, which received Hugo, Locus and Nebula awards; the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America named him the 2015 recipient of the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award. His work is hard science fiction, using big science concepts and theoretical physics, it often includes elements of detective fiction and adventure stories. His fantasy includes the series The Magic Goes Away, rational fantasy dealing with magic as a non-renewable resource. Niven was born in Los Angeles, he is a great-grandson of Edward L. Doheny, an oil tycoon who drilled the first successful well in the Los Angeles City Oil Field in 1892 and was subsequently implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal, he attended the California Institute of Technology and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in mathematics from Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas in 1962. He completed a year of graduate work in mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles.
On September 6, 1969, he married Marilyn Joyce "Fuzzy Pink" Wisowaty, a science fiction and Regency literature fan. He is an agnostic. Niven is the author of numerous science fiction short stories and novels, beginning with his 1964 story "The Coldest Place". In this story, the coldest place concerned is the dark side of Mercury, which at the time the story was written was thought to be tidally locked with the Sun. Algis Budrys said in 1968 that Niven becoming a top writer despite the New Wave was evidence that "trends are for second-raters". In addition to the Nebula award in 1970 and the Hugo and Locus awards in 1971 for Ringworld, Niven won the Hugo Award for Best Short Story for "Neutron Star" in 1967, he won the same award in 1972, for "Inconstant Moon", in 1975 for "The Hole Man". In 1976, he won the Hugo Award for Best Novelette for "The Borderland of Sol". Niven has written scripts for three science fiction television series: the original Land of the Lost series. Niven has written for the DC Comics character Green Lantern including in his stories hard science fiction concepts such as universal entropy and the redshift effect.
He has included limited psi gifts in some characters in his stories. Several of his stories predicted the black market in transplant organs. Many of Niven's stories—sometimes called the Tales of Known Space—take place in his Known Space universe, in which humanity shares the several habitable star systems nearest to the Sun with over a dozen alien species, including the aggressive feline Kzinti and the intelligent but cowardly Pierson's Puppeteers, which are central characters; the Ringworld series is part of the Tales of Known Space, Niven has shared the setting with other writers since a 1988 anthology, The Man-Kzin Wars. There have been several volumes of short novellas. Niven has written a logical fantasy series The Magic Goes Away, which utilizes an exhaustible resource called mana to power a rule-based "technological" magic; the Draco Tavern series of short stories take place in a more light-hearted science fiction universe, are told from the point of view of the proprietor of an omni-species bar.
The whimsical Svetz series consists of a collection of short stories, The Flight of the Horse, a novel, Rainbow Mars, which involve a nominal time machine sent back to retrieve long-extinct animals, but which travels, in fact, into alternative realities and brings back mythical creatures such as a Roc and a Unicorn. Much of his writing since the 1970s has been in collaboration with Jerry Pournelle and Steven Barnes, but Brenda Cooper and Edward M. Lerner. One of Niven's best known humorous works is "Man of Steel, Woman of Kleenex", in which he uses real-world physics to underline the difficulties of Superman and a human woman mating. Niven appeared in the 1980 science documentary film Target... Earth? Niven's most famous contribution to the SF genre comes from his novel Ringworld, in which he envisions a Ringworld: a band of material a million miles wide, of the same diameter as Earth's orbit, rotating around a star; the idea's genesis came from Niven's attempts to imagine a more efficient version of a Dyson sphere, which could produce the effect of surface gravity through rotation.
Given that spinning a Dyson Sphere would result in the atmosphere pooling around the equator, the Ringworld removes all the extraneous parts of the structure, leaving a spinning band landscaped on the sun-facing side, with the atmosphere and inhabitants kept in place through centrifugal force and 1,000 mi high perimeter walls. After publication of Ringworld, Dan Alderson and Ctein, two fannish friends of Niven, analyzed the structure and told Niven that the Ringworld was dynamically unstable such that if the center of rotation drifts away from the central sun, gravitational forces will not're-center' it, thus allowing the ring to contact the sun and be destroyed. Niven used this as a core plot element in the sequel novel, The Ringworld Engineers
A novel is a long work of narrative fiction written in prose form, and, published as a book. The entire genre has been seen as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji has been described as the world's first novel. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty. Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel, suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse.
However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era makes use of a literary prose style; the development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives.
A fictional narrativeFictionality is most cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary proseWhile prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France those by Chrétien de Troyes, in Middle English. In the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan, Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel.
Content: intimate experienceBoth in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. LengthThe novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, not possible; the requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life." Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, Elizabethan England, the European novel is said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605.
Early works of extended fictional prose, or novels, include works in Latin like the Satyricon by Petronius, The Golden Ass by Apuleius, works in Ancient Greek such as Daphnis and Chloe by Longus, works in Sanskrit such as the 4th or 5th century Vasavadatta by Subandhu, 6th– or 7th-century Daśakumāracarita and Avantisundarīkathā by Daṇḍin, in the 7th-century Kadambari by Banabhatta, Murasaki Shikibu's 11th-century Japanese work The Tale of Genji, the 12th-century Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, who wrote in Arabic, the 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, another Arabic novelist, Blanquerna, written in Catalan by Ramon Llull, the 14th-century Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Gua
Not This August
Not This August known as Christmas Eve, is a Hugo Award shortlisted science fiction novel by C. M. Kornbluth, it was published in 1955 by Doubleday. It was serialized in Maclean's magazine in May and June 1955. A revised edition with a new foreword and afterword by Frederik Pohl was published in 1981 by Tor Books, ISBN 0-523-48518-2; the title comes from author Ernest Hemingway's "Notes on the Next War". By 1965, the United States and Canada have been at war with the Soviet Union and the Chinese People's Republic for three years. Both sides' atomic weapons are ineffective as anti-aircraft missiles shoot down any bombers or guided missiles, so ground forces have done most of the fighting; the Communist nations—whose armies outnumber the North Americans—conquered Western Europe, invaded South America, are moving toward Texas. All American males are required to either perform agricultural work to feed the armed forces or be drafted into military, construction, or factory service. Food and gasoline are rationed, only two CONELRAD stations broadcast on radio, New York City is under martial law.
Billy Justin, a 37-year-old commercial artist and Korean War veteran, is working as a dairy farmer in Chiunga Center, New York when the radio announces that Soviet and Chinese forces have overrun the Canadian-American line at El Paso, Texas. The last American naval forces were destroyed three months earlier but the news had been kept secret; the Communist armies destroy in Los Alamos, New Mexico the incomplete Yankee Doodle, a satellite capable of dropping hydrogen bombs from orbit that are impossible to shoot down. The President surrenders to the Communists, who over the next several months divide the United States at the Mississippi River, together form the North American People's Democratic Republic. Other than a military garrison, a formal disarmament, searches for fissionable material, the establishment of production quotas for food, the surrender of the United States leaves Chiunga Center untouched; the Soviets execute the Communist fifth column members who had secretly aided the invasion to prevent them from organizing against the new government, but are otherwise peaceful and amenable to the black market.
A paraplegic comes to Justin's farm asking for work. He and Justin join a conspiracy to finish the real satellite, a manned space station buried in Chiunga County that the United States had been building for 15 years, it requires parts and engineering knowledge to launch. MVD troops arrive, shoot the corrupt Soviet soldiers, are much more cruel, they capture, to Justin's knowledge and the general. Justin deduces that the contacts he needs to make are in Pennsylvania. With a traveling preacher, Justin walks the hundreds of miles from Chiunga Center to Washington, benefiting from the Democratic Republic's policy of respecting the Americans' freedom of religion. At Washington Justin receives instructions from the nationwide resistance movement for an attack planned for Christmas Eve on Chiunga Center to liberate the satellite. Despite the Soviets' arrest and torture of a local farmer, they are ignorant of what "Christmas Eve", a mild oath they have heard sworn by various citizens, means until the battle begins.
Coordinated by Hollerith, bridges around the area are blown up and nearby arsenals are sabotaged. The townspeople, many of whom are veterans, battle the Soviets. Hollerith's forces triumph, the Americans transmit an ultimatum to the Soviets and Chinese: The satellite is armed and will destroy Moscow and Peiping in 24 hours if occupation soldiers do not leave American soil and free all prisoners of war. Hollerith offers Justin important positions in the new government and society, but he refuses them and kneels in prayer with Sparhawk, fearing the fulfillment of mutual assured destruction. Galaxy reviewer Floyd C. Gale praised the novel as "believable throughout and frightening." The Boston Herald gave a positive review and the Chicago Tribune called it "The most shockingly realistic science fiction book since Orwell's'1984'...." Tuck, Donald H.. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Chicago: Advent. P. 260. ISBN 0-911682-20-1. Not This August at Faded Page