Loïc Le Meur
Loïc Le Meur is a French entrepreneur and blogger. He served as Executive Vice President EMEA at software company Six Apart after merging French blogging company Ublog with Six Apart in July 2004. In late 2006 Le Meur became a public backer of French presidential candidate Nicolas Sarkozy and joined Sarkozy's campaign team as an advisor on Internet-related topics. In 1996, Loïc Le Meur founded his first company, interactive agency B2L, he founded RapidSite France with his wife a web hosting company for small businesses in France. In 1999, he sold RapidSite to France Télécom. In 2000, he founded application service provider Tekora. In 2003, he got involved with French weblog hosting company Ublog which he purchased from its founder, fellow Breton Stéphane Le Solliec in October 2003, he grew Ublog and merged the company with Six Apart where he became Executive Vice President in 2004. He held his role as EVP EMEA until March 2007 when he handed his job over to long-time business partner Olivier Creiche.
Le Meur remains Honorary Chair of Six Apart Europe. In 2004 Le Meur became part of the team behind the official World Economic Forum blog. Since 2004, he co-founded and organized a conference focused on blogging and the web world with Géraldine Le Meur, his wife until recently. In December 2006, he managed to get Shimon Peres, Nicolas Sarkozy, French politician François Bayrou on stage at LeWeb'03. More than 2,600 people from 60 different countries came in 2010. About 3200 came for the 2014 session'14 In 2007, Le Meur moved to San Francisco to launch a new startup named Seesmic. Seesmic was focused on the creation of an online community of video bloggers. Following the 2008 economic crisis Seesmic's became a social media client company. In January 2010, Seesmic acquired Ping.fm and allowed its users to update more than 50 different social media statuses. In February 2011, Seesmic received funding from Salesforce.com and Softbank, bringing total funding to $16 million. In September 2012, Seesmic was acquired by HootSuite Blogs pour les pros by Loïc Le Meur and Laurence Beauvais, Dunod ISBN 2-10-049395-7, November 2005 La révolution podcast by Loïc Le Meur and Laurence Beauvais, Dunod ISBN 2-10-050059-7, September 2006.
On December 11, 2016, Le Meur shared his concern about Tesla Motors drivers using charging slots as parking space on Twitter. Elon Musk took action and fixed the issue within 6 days. Le Meur's personal blog in English and in French Interview with Loic Le Meur video Interview with Loic Le Meur about his new company Seesmic video
Nexus 5 is an Android smartphone manufactured by LG Electronics for Google. Co-developed with and marketed by Google Inc. as part of its Nexus line of flagship devices and unveiled on October 31, 2013, the Nexus 5 served as the launch device for Android 4.4 "KitKat", which introduced a refreshed interface, performance improvements, increased Google Now integration, better battery life and other features. The Nexus 5 received positive reviews, praising the device's balance of overall performance and cost in comparison to other "flagship" phones, along with the quality of its display and some of the changes introduced by Android 4.4. The display was, criticized for being too dim in comparison to other devices, the camera was criticized for having inconsistent quality. Directly succeeding the Nexus 4, the Nexus 5 was followed by the Nexus 6 in late 2014 and the Nexus 5X, the latter being more of a direct successor to the Nexus 5; the device was unveiled on October 31, 2013. When released, the Nexus 5 was priced at US$349 for the 16 GB version and US$399 for the 32 GB version in the United States.
This was much lower than comparable smartphones, which would cost around $649. As of 11 March 2015, the Nexus 5 is no longer available from Google Play Store; the exterior of the Nexus 5 is made from a polycarbonate shell with similarities to the 2013 Nexus 7, unlike its predecessor that uses a glass-based construction. Three exterior colors are available: black and red, its hardware contains similarities to the LG G2. The Nexus 5 uses a 4.95-inch 445 PPI 1080p IPS display, includes an 8-megapixel rear-facing camera with optical image stabilization, a 1.3-megapixel front-facing camera. The Nexus 5 supports LTE networks where available, unlike the Nexus 4 which unofficially supported LTE on AWS Band 4 only with a hidden software option, but was not formally approved or marketed for any LTE use. There are two variants of the Nexus 5, with varying support for cellular frequency bands. Notable new hardware features include two new composite sensors: a step detector and a step counter; these new sensors allow applications to track steps when the user is walking, running, or climbing stairs.
Both sensors are implemented in hardware for low power consumption. Like its predecessors, the Nexus 5 does not have a microSD card slot, while it features a multi-color LED notification light. There are two grills present on the lower edge of the Nexus 5: one is for the mono speaker and the other is for the microphone; the Nexus 5 was the first Android device to ship with Android 4.4 "KitKat", which had a refreshed interface, improved performance, improved NFC support, a new "HDR+" camera shooting mode, native printing functionality, a screen recording utility, other new and improved functionality. The device shipped with Google Now Launcher, a redesigned home screen which allows users to access Google Now on a dedicated page, allows voice search to be activated on the home screen with a voice command. Unlike the stock home screen, Google Now Launcher is not a component of Android itself; until 26 February 2014, when it was released on Google Play Store for selected Android 4.4 devices, Google Now Launcher was shipped by default on the Nexus 5, was not enabled in Android 4.4 updates for any other Nexus device.
While an update to the Google Search application containing Google Now Launcher was publicly released shortly after the Nexus 5's release, the launcher itself could not at the time be enabled without installing a second shim application. Hangouts, which now supports text messaging, is used as the default text messaging application. In December 2013, the Nexus 5 began receiving the Android 4.4.1 update, which fixed issues with auto focus, white balance, HDR+ and other camera issues, while introducing some other camera issues for low-light scenes. It fixes low speaker volume output in certain applications. Android 4.4.2 update followed in a few days. In early June 2014, the Nexus 5 received Android 4.4.3 update that included dozens of bug fixes, while another mid-June 2014 Android 4.4.4 update included a fix for an OpenSSL man-in-the-middle vulnerability. A developer preview of the Android 5.0 "Lollipop" system image was released for the Nexus 5 after the annual Google I/O conference held on June 26, 2014.
The release version of Android 5.0 "Lollipop" was made available on November 12, 2014, in form of factory operating system images. On December 15, 2014 Android 5.0.1 "Lollipop" update began rolling out to Nexus 5 with build number LRX22C, the update was listed as being “miscellaneous Android updates.” In March 2015, the Nexus 5 began receiving the Android 5.1 "Lollipop" update, which addresses performance issues and other user interface tweaks. In June 2015, Google made the Android 5.1.1 "Lollipop" update available for Nexus 5 aiming to fix the bugs that were not fixed by Android 5.1 update. In May 2015, a developer preview of Android Marshmallow was made available for the Nexus 5. In November 2015, Nexus 5 started receiving Android 6.0 "Marshmallow" update across the world. Following which Nexus 5 became one of the first devices to get a
Virtual reality is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment. It incorporates auditory and visual feedback, but may allow other types of sensory feedback; this immersive environment can be similar to the real world or it can be fantastical. Current VR technology most uses virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments or props, to generate realistic images and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, move around in it, interact with virtual features or items; the effect is created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens. Other forms of VR include augmented reality and mixed reality systems. VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a controller or other devices are known as haptic systems.
This tactile information is known as force feedback in medical, video gaming, military training applications. "Virtual" has had the meaning of "being something in essence or effect, though not or in fact" since the mid-1400s. The term "virtual" has been used in the computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" since 1959. In 1938, French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as "la réalité virtuelle" in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double; the English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double, is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality". The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s; the term "virtual reality" was first used in a science fiction context in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 novel by Damien Broderick. One method by which virtual reality can be realized is simulation-based virtual reality.
Driving simulators, for example, give the driver on board the impression of driving an actual vehicle by predicting vehicular motion caused by driver input and feeding back corresponding visual and audio cues to the driver. With avatar image-based virtual reality, people can join the virtual environment in the form of real video as well as an avatar. One can participate in the 3D distributed virtual environment as form of either a conventional avatar or a real video. A user can select own type of participation based on the system capability. In projector-based virtual reality, modeling of the real environment plays a vital role in various virtual reality applications, such as robot navigation, construction modeling, airplane simulation. Image-based virtual reality system has been gaining popularity in computer graphics and computer vision communities. In generating realistic models, it is essential to register acquired 3D data. Desktop-based virtual reality involves displaying a 3D virtual world on a regular desktop display without use of any specialized positional tracking equipment.
Many modern first-person video games can be used as an example, using various triggers, responsive characters, other such interactive devices to make the user feel as though they are in a virtual world. A common criticism of this form of immersion is that there is no sense of peripheral vision, limiting the user's ability to know what is happening around them. A head-mounted display more immerses the user in a virtual world. A virtual reality headset includes two small high resolution OLED or LCD monitors which provide separate images for each eye for stereoscopic graphics rendering a 3D virtual world, a binaural audio system and rotational real-time head tracking for six degrees of movement, optionally motion controls with haptic feedback for physically interacting within the virtual world in a intuitive way with little to no abstraction. Augmented reality is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software.
The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene enhance how the real surroundings look in some way. AR systems layer virtual information over a camera live feed into a headset or smartglasses or through a mobile device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. Mixed reality is the merging of the real world and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. A cyberspace is a networked virtual reality. Simulated reality is a hypothetical virtual reality as immersive as the actual reality, it is most to be produced using a brain–computer interface and quantum computing. The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence; the development of perspective in Renaissance Europe created convincing depictions of spaces that did not exist, in what has been referred to as the "multiplying of artificial worlds".
Other elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s. Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality; the first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the sen
Alibaba Group Holding Limited is a Chinese multinational conglomerate specializing in e-commerce, retail and technology. Founded 4 April 1999, the company provides consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer, business-to-business sales services via web portals, as well as electronic payment services, shopping search engines and cloud computing services, it owns and operates a diverse array of businesses around the world in numerous sectors, is named as one of the world's most admired companies by Fortune. At closing time on the date of its initial public offering – US$25 billion – the world's highest in history, 19 September 2014, Alibaba's market value was US$231 billion; as of 19 December 2018, Alibaba's market cap stood at US$352.28 billion. It is one of the top 10 biggest companies in the world. In January 2018, Alibaba became the second Asian company to break the US$500 billion valuation mark, after its competitor Tencent; as of 2018, Alibaba has the 9th highest global brand value. Alibaba is the world's largest retailer and e-commerce company, one of the largest Internet and AI companies, one of the biggest venture capital firms, one of the biggest investment corporations in the world.
The company hosts the largest B2B, C2C, B2C marketplaces in the world. Its online sales and profits surpassed all US retailers combined since 2015, it has been expanding into the media industry, with revenues rising by triple percentage points year on year. It sets the record on the 2018 edition of China's Singles' Day, the world's biggest online and offline shopping day; the company's name came from the character Ali Baba from the Middle Eastern folk tale collection One Thousand and One Nights because of its universal appeal. As Jack Ma, one of the founders, explained: One day I was in San Francisco in a coffee shop, I was thinking Alibaba is a good name, and a waitress came, I said, "Do you know about Alibaba?" And she said yes. I said, "What do you know about?", she said, "Open Sesame". And I said, "Yes, this is the name!" I went on to the street and found 30 people and asked them, "Do you know Alibaba?" People from India, people from Germany, people from Tokyo and China... they all knew about Alibaba.
Alibaba – open sesame. Alibaba is a kind, smart business person, he helped the village. So... easy to spell, globally known. Alibaba opens sesame for small- to medium-sized companies. We registered the name "Alimama", in case someone wants to marry us!" On 4 April 1999, Jack Ma and his team of 17 friends and students founded Alibaba.com, a China-based B2B marketplace site, in his Hangzhou apartment. In October 1999, Alibaba received a US$25 million investment from Goldman SoftBank. Alibaba.com was expected to improve the domestic e-commerce market and perfect an e-commerce platform for Chinese enterprises small and medium-sized enterprises, to help export Chinese products to the global market as well as address World Trade Organization challenges. In 2002, Alibaba.com became profitable three years after launch. Ma wanted to improve the global e-commerce system, so from 2003 onward, Alibaba launched Taobao Marketplace, Alimama.com, Lynx. When eBay announced its expansion into China in 2003, Ma viewed the American company as a foreign competitor and rejected eBay's buyout of Alibaba's subsidiary Taobao.
Through applying existing technologies and gaining trust in the Chinese e-commerce market, as well as expanding through dominating the market at a loss before making a return on additional services, Alibaba's subsidiaries outperformed eBay in the Chinese e-commerce market, claiming a growing percentage of consumers from eBay. Alibaba subsidiary Taobao would force eBay out of the Chinese market, with eBay closing its unprofitable China Web unit, though the two companies would break six years later. In 2005, Yahoo! Invested in Alibaba, buying a 40% stake in the company for US$1 billion; this would as a result net in US$10 billion in Alibaba's IPO alone to Yahoo!. According to Li Chuan, a senior executive at Alibaba, the company was planning in 2013 to open traditional brick and mortar retail outlets in partnership with Chinese real estate company Wanda Group. Additionally, Alibaba purchased a 25% stake in Hong Kong-listed Chinese department store chain Intime Retail in early 2014. In early 2017, Alibaba and Intime's founder Shen Guojun agreed to pay as much as HK$19.8 billion to take the store chain private.
Alibaba's stake—28% from 2014's US$692 million investment—would rise to about 74% after the deal. In April 2014, Coatue Management, Andreessen Horowitz led a US$250 million Series D financing round, completed by on-demand transportation company Lyft, bringing its total amount raised to $332.5 million. On 5 June 2014, Alibaba bought a 50% stake of Guangzhou Evergrande F. C. from Evergrande Real Estate Group Ltd. in a deal, worth 1.2 billion yuan. On 5 September 2014, the group—in a regulatory filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission—set a US$60- to $66- per-share price range for its scheduled initial public offering, the final price of which would be determined after an international roadshow to gauge the investor interest in Alibaba shares to shareholders. On 18 September 2014, Alibaba's IPO priced at US$68, raising US$21.8 billion for the company and investors. Alibaba was the biggest US IPO in history, bigger than Google and Twitter combined. On 19 September 2014, Alibaba's shares began trading on the NYSE at an opening price of $92.70 at 11:55 am EST.
On 22 September 2014, Alibaba's underwriters announced t
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
Master of Science
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is granted for studies in sciences and medicine and is for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects. While it depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree includes writing a thesis. Algeria follows the Bologna Process. In Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration; the admission to a Master's program requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program. Australian universities have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students.
They run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline. In Canada, Master of Science degrees may be course-based research-based or a mixture. Master's programs take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree; some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program. In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four.
Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of study. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to obtain a master's degree. While some students complete their master's program, others use it as a bridge to doctoral research programs. After one year of study and research in the master's program, many students become eligible to apply to a Doctor of Philosophy program directly, without obtaining the Master of Science degree in the first place; the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree, but other than, similar to the rest of South America. Like all EU member states, the Republic of Cyprus follow the Bologna Process. Universities in Cyprus have used either "Magíster Scientiae or Artium" or Master of Art/Science for a master degree with 90 to 120 ECTS and duration of studies between 1,5 to 2 years. Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master's degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-year program; the new system takes only 2 years but requires a completed 3-year bachelor program. It is required to write a thesis and to pass final exams, it is the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years. The Master of Science is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M. Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree. Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process.
The Master of Science academic degree follows the Bachelor of Science studies which last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process; the Master of Science academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits; the completion of a scientific thesis is required. In Slavic countries in European southeast, the education system was based on the German university system. Prior to the implementation of
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a