Latin American Parliament
The Latin American Parliament is a regional, permanent organization composed by the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. It is a consultative assembly similar to the early European Parliament; the institution is being considered to become the legislative organ of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. The Latin American Parliament was created in 1964, its current mandate is derived from the Treaty of Institutionalization, ratified on 16 November 1987. Situated in Panama City, the Parlatino has 23 member parliaments, each of which sends to it 12 nominated plenipotentiaries; the plenipotentiaries must represent the views of their parent parliament, take into consideration the principles of the Parliament which include the defence of democracy and the further intergeneration of Latin America. The purposes of the Parlatino are: To promote, human rights, economic and social development; the main institutions of the Parlatino are: The unicameral Plenary Assembly. In 2009 there were thirteen permanent committees: fisheries.
As of 2013, the following countries are members of the Latin American Parliament: Latin American Integration Association Union of South American Nations Latin American and Caribbean Congress in Solidarity with Puerto Rico’s Independence Latin America Memorial South American Parliament Central American Parliament Andean Parliament Mercosur Parliament acn, Havana Hosts Meeting of Latin American Parliament, Radio Cadena Agramonte Evans, Paul. The Parliamentary Assembly: practice and procedure, Council of Europe, p. 350, ISBN 978-92-871-6485-8 Pearson, National Assembly Election Results - 95 Legislators for PSUV, Venezuelanalysis.com Latin American Parliament official site in Portuguese and Spanish
Julio César Maglione is a member of the International Olympic Committee from Uruguay. He has been an IOC member since 1996. Between 1989 and 1990, he served as President of the Uruguayan Football AssociationMaglione is the current President of the Uruguayan Olympic Committee, has held the position since 1987. In July 2009, he was elected President of the International Swimming Federation; as of July 2013, he is about to be reelected for that post. In September 2012 he was reelected President of the COU for the period 2012–2016
Julio María Sanguinetti
Julio María Sanguinetti Coirolo is a Uruguayan politician and journalist, who served as President of Uruguay for the Partido Colorado. A lawyer and journalist by profession, he was born into a middle-class family of Italian origin from Genoa, he studied Social Sciences at the University of Montevideo. He received his law degree in 1961, combined his legal practice with work as a journalist, he had been writing for the press, first in the weekly Canelones and since 1955, as a columnist for Acción, a newspaper established by the then-President, Luis Batlle, for which he covered events such as the Cuban Revolution and carried on until the 1970s. Both media outlets were connected to the Colorado Political Party, the historical liberal grouping where progressive and conservative sensitivities shared ground and which had as its rival the experienced National Party or Blancos, creating a 2-party system that dominated Uruguayan politics during its history, although on most occasions the governing force was the PC.
In 1963, when he was 29 years old, Sanguinetti became a member of the national parliament representing part of Montevideo for the Partido Colorado. In 1964 he was a member of the Uruguayan delegation that participated in the establishment of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in Geneva. In 1966 he served as a member of the drafting group and informer on Constitutional Reform and from 1967 he was a member of the advisory group of Colorado President Jorge Pacheco on affairs related to the Organization of American States. On, in 1969, Pacheco appointed him as Minister for Industry and Commerce, a position which he occupied until 1971, when he was appointed Head of the Uruguayan Trade Mission to the USSR, he became Deputy Editor of Acción. In March 1972, the new President from the PC Party, Juan María Bordaberry, brought him to the government once again as Minister for Education and Culture; that same year, Sanguinetti was a founding member of the National Commission for the Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Nation.
The breach of the constitutional order by the Armed Forces in June 1973 deprived him of his positions in the Government and in the House of Representatives, where he had renewed his seat once again in 1971, as well as his position as Deputy Editor of Acción Newspaper -, closed down - and President of the National Council of Visual Arts, to which he had been appointed in 1967. In 1976 he was prohibited from undertaking any political activity. During the following years, Sanguinetti worked as a journalist, working from a viewpoint, critical of the de facto Government, in El Día Newspaper, Visión Newspaper, in the weekly publication Correo de los Viernes, as well as in the promotion of cultural and sports activities as the President of the Regional UNESCO Centre for the promotion of books in South America and Vice-President of the popular Peñarol Football Club. Following the rejection of the constitutional project on 30 November 1980 and having had his political rights restored on 29 June 1981, Sanguinetti headed the PC delegation in the political party negotiations with the army in order to allow a peaceful and ordered transition to democracy.
The negotiations ended with the signing of the Naval Club Agreement on 3 August 1984. In 1983 he was elected Secretary General of the Executive Committee of PC and in August 1984 he obtained the majority nomination for the presidential elections which were to be held that year, putting an end to 12 years of dictatorship. Sanguinetti received significant support for his candidacy from the ruling military. On 25 November 1984, general elections were held. Sanguinetti won 31.2 % of the votes, defeating Alberto Zumarán. The ceremony was attended by 72 foreign representatives as an expression of support from the international community towards that new era in Uruguayan politics. Considered at the time a progressive politician in political questions and more conservative in economic questions, Sanguinetti managed to rehabilitate the image of a party that included a great variety of ideological diversity, the more conservative sectors of which had supported the coup d'état in 1973, he lifted the ban on political parties and leaders that had opposed the dictatorship and signed an amnesty for political prisoners.
With respect to foreign relations, Sanguinetti re-launched relations with Spain and re-established contacts with communist countries. In the nearer geographic arena, on 26 May 1987, as a colophon to several preparatory meetings, he signed the Montevideo Agreement with his colleague, Raúl Alfonsí
Vice President of Uruguay
The Vice President of Uruguay is the person with the second highest position in the executive branch of the Uruguayan government, after the President of Uruguay. The Vice President replaces the elected President in case of his absence; as long as the President is in his functions, the Vice President is the president of the Chamber of Senators and of the General Assembly. The position of Vice-President of the Republic was established in the Constitution of 1934; the President of the Senate assumed the Presidency in case of vacancy of the President. The Constitution of 1952 established a 9-member executive council, the National Council of Government, abolishing the figure of the Vice President; the Constitution of 1967 eliminates the National Council of Government and resumes the presidential system, maintaining the figure of the Vice President. List of current Vice Presidents History of Uruguay Politics of Uruguay www.presidencia.gub.uy
The South American Football Confederation is the continental governing body of football in South America and it is one of FIFA's six continental confederations. The oldest continental confederation in the world, its headquarters are located in Luque, near Asunción. CONMEBOL is responsible for the organization and governance of South American football's major international tournaments. With 10 member football associations, it has the fewest members of all the confederations in FIFA. CONMEBOL national teams have won nine FIFA World Cups, CONMEBOL clubs have won 22 Intercontinental Cups and four FIFA Club World Cups. Argentina and Uruguay have won two Olympic gold medals each, Brazil has won one Olympic gold medal, it is considered one of the strongest confederations in the world. The World Cup qualifiers of CONMEBOL have been described as the "toughest qualifiers in the world", for their simple round-robin system, entry of some of the top national teams in the world, leveling of the weaker national teams, climate conditions, geographic conditions, strong home stands and passionate supporters.
The Confederation is planning to create the first women's qualification to the FIFA Women's World Cup to replace the Copa América Femenina. Juan Ángel Napout was the president of CONMEBOL until 3 December 2015 when he was arrested in a raid in Switzerland as part of the U. S. Justice Department's bribery case involving FIFA. Wilmar Valdez was interim president until 26 January 2016 when Alejandro Domínguez was elected president; the Vice presidents are Ramón Jesurum, Laureano González, Arturo Salah. In 1916, the first edition of the "Campeonato Sudamericano de Fútbol", now known as the "Copa América", was contested in Argentina to commemorate the centenary of the Argentine Declaration of Independence; the four participating associations of that tournament gathered together in Buenos Aires in order to create a governing body to facilitate the organization of the tournament. Thus, CONMEBOL was founded on 9 July 1916 under the initiative of Uruguayan Héctor Rivadavia Gómez, but approved by the football associations of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
The first Constitutional Congress on 15 December of that same year, which took place in Montevideo, ratified the decision. Over the years, the other football associations in South America joined, with the last being Venezuela in 1952. Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana, while geographically in South America, are not part of CONMEBOL. Consisting of a French territory, a former British territory, a former Dutch territory, they are part of the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football due to historical and sporting reasons. With ten member nations, CONMEBOL is the smallest and the only continental land-based FIFA confederation; the main competition for men's national teams is the Copa América, started in 1916. CONMEBOL runs national competitions at Under-20, Under-17 and Under-15 levels. For women's national teams, CONMEBOL operates the Copa América Femenina for senior national sides, as well as Under-20 and Under-17 championships. In futsal, there is the Copa América de Futsal and Campeonato Sudamericano de Futsal Sub-20.
The Campeonato Sudamericano Femenino de Futsal is the women's equivalent to the man's tournament. CONMEBOL runs the two main club competitions in South America: the Copa Libertadores was first held in 1960 and the Copa Sudamericana was launched by CONMEBOL in 2002 as an indirect successor to the Supercopa Libertadores. A third competition, the Copa CONMEBOL, started in 1992 and was abolished in 1999. In women's football CONMEBOL conducts the Copa Libertadores Femenina for club teams; the competition was first held in 2009. The Recopa Sudamericana pits the past year's winners of the Copa Libertadores against the winners of the Copa Sudamericana, came into being in 1989; the Intercontinental Cup was jointly organised with UEFA between the Copa Libertadores and the UEFA Champions League winners. Legend1st – Champion 2nd – Runner-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R16 – Round of 16 R2 – Second round GS – Group stage 1S – First Knockout Stage Q – Qualified for upcoming tournament • – Did not qualify – Did not enter / Withdrew / Banned – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place GS – Group stage Q – Qualified for upcoming tournament •• – Qualified but withdrew • – Did not qualify × – Did not enter / Withdrew from the Copa América or withdrew from the Confederations Cup / Banned – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R2 – Round 2 R1 — Round 1 Q — Qualified for upcoming tournament – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R1 – Round 1 q – Qualified for upcoming tournament •• – Qualified but withdrew • – Did not qualify – Hosts On 27 May 2015, several CONMEBOL leaders we
Politics of Uruguay
The politics of Uruguay abide by a presidential representative democratic republic, under which the President of Uruguay is both the head of state and the head of government, as well as a multiform party system. The president exercises executive power and legislative power and is vested in the two chambers of the General Assembly of Uruguay; the Judiciary branch is independent from that of the legislature. The Colorado and National parties have been locked in a power struggle, with the predominance of the Colorado party throughout most of Uruguay's history; the elections of 2004, brought the Encuentro Progresista-Frente Amplio-Nueva Mayoría, a coalition of socialists, former Tupamaros, social democrats, Christian Democrats among others to power with majorities in both houses of parliament. A majority vote elected President Tabaré Vázquez. In 2009, the Broad Front once again won the elections with a plurality of the votes. A presidential runoff was triggered because their candidate, José Mujica, only received 47.96 percent of the vote.
The Broad Front's candidate beat Luis Alberto Lacalle of the Nacional Party in second round of voting. In addition to the presidency, the Broad Front won a simple majority in the Uruguayan Senate and Congress; until 1919, from 1934 to 1952, Uruguay's political system, based on the 1830 Constitution, was presidential with a strong executive power, similar to that of the United States. It was characterized by the rivalry between the two traditional parties, the Colorado Party and the Blanco Party, conservative; the whites represented the interests of rural property, the Church and the military hierarchy, while colorados were supported by urban movable property and reformist intellectuals. In the 19th century, the country had similar characteristics to other Latin American countries: caudillism, civil wars and permanent instability, foreign capitalism's control of important sectors of the economy, high percentage of illiterate people, land oligarchy, etc, yet Montevideo became a refuge for Argentine exiles fleeing the dictatorship of Juan Manuel de Rosas and maintained a reputation as a welcoming place for ideas of "advanced" political and social protest.
In 1842, the newspaper Le Messager devoted a special issue to the memory of Charles Fourier. During the Great War, Garibaldi's red shirts fought in Montevideo against Rosas' attacking forces. In 1875, workers founded an Internationale. At the beginning of the 20th century, Uruguay became the most politically and advanced state on the continent; the liberal José Batlle y Ordóñez was the main architect of this transformation. A system of proportional representation is adopted to allow for the representation of minorities, it calls for the abolition of the death penalty, the fight against administrative corruption and the introduction of secularism and women's right to vote. On the economic level, he states that "industry must not be allowed to destroy human beings, but that on the contrary the State must regulate it in order to make the lives of the masses happier. "It thus undertakes an economic policy of a dirigiste nature and nationalizes many sectors of the economy. The "batllism" takes the form of social measures: institutionalization of free and compulsory primary education, support for trade unions and recognition of the right to strike, maternity leave, an eight-hour day, etc.
All this legislation, well advanced at the time, made Uruguay a progressive social democracy. Uruguay adopted its first constitution in 1830, following the conclusion of a three-year war in which Argentina and Uruguay fought as a regional federation: the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. Sponsored by the United Kingdom, the 1828 Treaty of Montevideo built the foundations for a Uruguayan state and constitution. A constitution proposed under the military dictatorship government was rejected by a referendum in 1980. Uruguay's Constitution of 1967 created a strong presidency, subject to legislative and judicial balance. Many of these provisions were suspended in 1973 but reestablished in 1985; the president, both the head of state and the head of government, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term, with the vice president elected on the same ticket. The President must act together with the Council of Ministers, which comprises cabinet ministers, appointed by the president. Thirteen ministers head various executive departments.
The ministers can be removed by the General Assembly by a majority vote. The General Assembly has two chambers; the Chamber of Representatives has 99 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation with at least two members per department. The Chamber of Senators has 31 members; the Supreme Court is the highest court. The Uruguayan constitution allows citizens to challenge laws approved by Parliament by use of a referendum or to propose changes to the Constitution by the use of a plebiscite; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Uruguay as "full democracy" in 2016. Uruguay or Uruguayan organizations participate in the following international organizations: The Food and Agriculture Organization Group of 77 Inter-American Development Bank International Atomic Energy Agency International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Wo
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ