A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías was a Venezuelan politician, President of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. Chávez was leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, which he led until 2012. Born into a working-class family in Sabaneta, Barinas, Chávez became a career military officer, after becoming dissatisfied with the Venezuelan political system based on the Puntofijo Pact, he founded the clandestine Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 in the early 1980s. Chávez led the MBR-200 in an unsuccessful coup d'état against the Democratic Action government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1992, for which he was imprisoned. Pardoned from prison after two years, he founded a political party known as the Fifth Republic Movement and was elected President of Venezuela in 1998, he was re-elected again in 2006 with over 60 % of the votes. After winning his fourth term as president in the October 2012 presidential election, he was to be sworn in on 10 January 2013, but Venezuela's National Assembly postponed the inauguration to allow him time to recover from medical treatment in Cuba.
Suffering a return of the cancer diagnosed in June 2011, Chávez died in Caracas on 5 March 2013 at the age of 58. Following the adoption of a new constitution in 1999, Chávez focused on enacting social reforms as part of the Bolivarian Revolution. Using record-high oil revenues of the 2000s, his government nationalized key industries, created participatory democratic Communal Councils and implemented social programs known as the Bolivarian missions to expand access to food, housing and education. Venezuela received high oil profits in the mid-2000s, resulting in temporary improvements in areas such as poverty, income equality and quality of life occurring between 2003 and 2007, though these gains started to reverse after 2012 and it has been argued that government policies did not address structural inequalities. Chávez's populist policies led to a severe socioeconomic crisis in Venezuela. On 2 June 2010, Chávez declared an "economic war" due to shortages in Venezuela, beginning the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela.
By the end of Chávez's presidency in the early 2010s, economic actions performed by his government during the preceding decade such as deficit spending and price controls proved to be unsustainable, with Venezuela's economy faltering while poverty and shortages increased. Chávez's presidency saw significant increases in the country's murder rate and continued corruption within the police force and government, his use of enabling acts and his government's use of Bolivarian propaganda were controversial. Internationally, Chávez aligned himself with the Marxist–Leninist governments of Fidel and Raúl Castro in Cuba, as well as the socialist governments of Evo Morales, Rafael Correa and Daniel Ortega, his presidency was seen as a part of the socialist "pink tide" sweeping Latin America. Chávez described his policies as anti-imperialist, being a prominent adversary of the United States's foreign policy as well as a vocal critic of U. S.-supported laissez-faire capitalism. He described himself as a Marxist.
He supported Latin American and Caribbean cooperation and was instrumental in setting up the pan-regional Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the Bank of the South and the regional television network TeleSUR. Chavez's ideas and style form the basis of "Chavismo", a political ideology associated with Bolivarianism and socialism of the 21st century, he was born on 28 July 1954 in his paternal grandmother Rosa Inéz Chávez's home, a modest three-room house located in the rural village Sabaneta, Barinas State. The Chávez family were of Afro-Venezuelan and Spanish descent, his parents, Hugo de los Reyes Chávez, described as a proud COPEI member, Elena Frías de Chávez, were schoolteachers who lived in the small village of Los Rastrojos. Hugo was born the second of seven children. Hugo described his childhood as "poor... happy", though his childhood of supposed poverty has been disputed as Chávez changed the story of his background for political reasons.
Attending the Julián Pino Elementary School, Chávez was interested in the 19th-century federalist general Ezequiel Zamora, in whose army his own great-great-grandfather had served. With no high school in their area, Hugo's parents sent Hugo and his older brother Adán to live with their grandmother Rosa, who lived in a lower middle class subsidized home provided by the government, where they attended Daniel O'Leary High School in the mid-1960s. Hugo described his grandmother as being "a pure human being... pure love, pure kindness". She was a devout Roman Catholic and Hugo was an altar boy at a local church, his father, despite having the salary of a teacher, helped pay for college for Chávez and his siblings. Aged 17, Chávez studied at the Venezuelan Academy of Military Sciences in Caracas, following a curriculum known as the Andrés Bello Plan, instituted by a group of progressive, nationalistic military officers; this new curriculum encouraged students to learn not only military routines and tactics but a wide variety of other topics, to do so civilian professors were brought in from other universities to give lectures to the military cadets.
Living in Caracas, he saw more of the endemic poverty faced by working class Venezuelans, said that this experience only made him further committed
Adán Chávez Frías is Venezuelan politician, Governor of Barinas state from 2008 to 2017. He was Ambassador to Cuba and Minister of Education from 2007 to 2008, he is the elder brother of Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013, of the Mayor of Sabaneta, Anibal José Chávez Frías. Adán studied at the University of the Andes where he was involved with pro-guerrilla groups prior to the election of his brother Hugo into the presidency. After Hugo was elected as President, he appointed Adán as Ambassador to Cuba. In August 2006, Adán became Presidential Secretary, replacing Delcy Rodríguez, who disagreed with Hugo Chávez during his international tour; the Charlotte Observer reported that the author of several books on Chávez, Alberto Garrido, argued: "A much more hard-line phase is beginning and Chávez needs a reliable and radical team around him." In January 2007, Hugo appointed Adán as Minister of Education. In 2008, he was elected as Governor of Barinas as the United Socialist Party of Venezuela candidate, replacing his father Hugo de los Reyes Chávez.
Chávez has been critical of the United States government, stating to PSUV members in 2018 that "we have an enemy, the American empire is our fundamental enemy, nobody can get lost in the forest of other considerations". On 9 August 2017, the United States Department of the Treasury placed sanctions on Chávez for his position in the Presidential Commission in the 2017 Constituent Assembly of Venezuela. On 3 November 2017, the Government of Canada sanctioned Chávez as being someone who participated in "significant acts of corruption or who have been involved in serious violations of human rights". On 29 March 2018, Chávez was sanctioned by the Panamanian government for his alleged involvement with "money laundering, financing of terrorism and financing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction". Adán Chávez asume Secretaría de la Presidencia
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along the bottoms of valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, as plateaus or uplands. In a valley, a plain is enclosed on two sides, but in other cases a plain may be delineated by a complete or partial ring of hills, by mountains, or by cliffs. Where a geological region contains more than one plain, they may be connected by a pass. Coastal plains would rise from sea level until they run into elevated features such as mountains or plateaus. Plains are one of the major landforms on earth, where they are present on all continents, would cover more than one-third of the world’s land area. Plains may have been formed from flowing lava, deposited by water, wind, or formed by erosion by these agents from hills and mountains. Plains would be under the grassland, savannah or tundra biomes. In a few instances and rainforests can be plains. Plains in many areas are important for agriculture because where the soils were deposited as sediments they may be deep and fertile, the flatness facilitates mechanization of crop production.
Depositional plains formed by the deposition of materials brought by various agents of transportation such as glaciers, rivers and wind. Their fertility and economic relevance depend on the types of sediments that are laid down; the types of depositional plains include: Abyssal plains, flat or gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin. Planitia, the Latin word for plain, is used in the naming of plains on extraterrestrial objects, such as Hellas Planitia on Mars or Sedna Planitia on Venus. Alluvial plains, which are formed by rivers and which may be one of these overlapping types: Alluvial plains, formed over a long period of time by a river depositing sediment on their flood plains or beds, which become alluvial soil; the difference between a flood plain and an alluvial plain is: a flood plain represents areas experiencing flooding regularly in the present or whereas an alluvial plain includes areas where a flood plain is now and used to be, or areas which only experience flooding a few times a century.
Flood plain, adjacent to a lake, stream, or wetland that experiences occasional or periodic flooding. Scroll plain, a plain through which a river meanders with a low gradient. Glacial plains, formed by the movement of glaciers under the force of gravity: Outwash plain, a glacial out-wash plain formed of sediments deposited by melt-water at the terminus of a glacier. Sandar consist of stratified gravel and sand. Till plains, plain of glacial till that form when a sheet of ice becomes detached from the main body of a glacier and melts in place depositing the sediments it carries. Till plains are composed of unsorted material of all sizes. Lacustrine plains, plains that formed in a lacustrine environment, that is, as the bed of a lake. Lava plains, formed by sheets of flowing lava. Erosional plains have been leveled by various agents of denudation such as running water, rivers and glacier which wear out the rugged surface and smoothens them. Plain resulting from the action of these agents of denudation are called peneplains while plains formed from wind action are called pediplains.
Structural plains are undisturbed horizontal surfaces of the Earth. They are structurally depressed areas of the world that make up some of the most extensive natural lowlands on the Earth's surface. Altiplano Altiplano Cundiboyacense Caroni Plain Chilean Central Valley Gran Chaco Los Llanos Venezuelan Llanos Argentine Pampas Atlantic coastal plain Carrizo Plain Great Plains Gulf Coastal Plain Interior Plains Lake Superior Lowland Laramie Plains Mississippi Alluvial Plain Oxnard Plain Snake River Plain Chianan Plain Depsang Plains Kantō Plain Kedu Plain Kewu Plain Mallig Plains Nōbi Plain North China Plain Osaka Plain Pingtung Plain Sarobetsu plain West Siberian Plain Yilan Plain Bhuikhel Depsang Plains Dooars Eastern coastal plains Indo-Gangetic Plains More plains North Bengal plains Punjab Plains Terai Utkal Plains Western coastal plains Al-Ghab Plain Aleppo plateau Ararat plain Israeli coastal plain Khuzestan Plain Mugan plain Nineveh Plains Shiraki Plain Limagne North German Plain Ochsenfeld Pannonian Basin Parndorf Plain Westphalian Lowland Bărăgan Plain Danubian Plain Dnieper Lowland East European Plain European Plain Great Hungarian Plain Kosovo field Little Hungarian Plain Pannonian Steppe Polesian Lowland Upper Thracian Plain Wallachian Plain Cheshire Plain Hardangervidda Kaffiøyra Muddus plains North
United Socialist Party of Venezuela
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by President Hugo Chávez. At the 2015 parliamentary election, PSUV lost its majority in the National Assembly for the first time since the unicameral legislature's creation in 2000 against the Democratic Unity Roundtable, earning 55 out of the National Assembly's 167 seats; the process of merging most of the unidentified parties involved in the pro-Bolivarian Revolution coalition was initiated by Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez after he won the Venezuelan presidential election of 2006. The process was led by Chávez' own party, the Fifth Republic Movement, was supported by a range of smaller parties such as the People's Electoral Movement, Venezuelan Popular Unity, the Tupamaro Movement, the Socialist League and others which all together added up 45.99% of the votes received by Chávez during the 2006 election.
Other pro-Bolivarian parties like the Communist Party of Venezuela, Fatherland for All and For Social Democracy, that cast 14.60% of the votes from that election, declined to join the new party. On 7 March 2007, Chávez presented a phased plan for founding the new party until November 2007. PODEMOS, PPT and PCV stated they would wait until PSUV had been founded and decide their membership in the new party based on its program. On 18 March 2007, Chávez declared on his programme Aló Presidente that he had "opened the doors for the For Social Democracy, the Fatherland for All, the Communist Party of Venezuela if they want to go away from Chávez´s alliance, they may do so and leave us in peace". In his opinion, those parties were near to be on the opposition and they should choose wisely, between going "in silence, hugging us or throwing stones". PPT, at its 2007 congress on 10 and 11 April, decided not to join but re-affirmed its support for Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution; the party held its founding congress in early 2008, from 12 January to 2 March, with 1681 delegates participating.
Chávez was proclaimed President of the new party on 14 March. As of 2014, the party has been described as "fracturing" and "weakening" due to the loss of Hugo Chávez, the poor state of Venezuela's economy and falling oil prices. Internal issues appeared in the party, with an email address and telephone hotline created to report "internal enemies". In 23 November PSUV elections, it was reported by party dissidents that few individuals participated, with less than 10% of the 7.6 million members casting a vote. Chávez said that "t's a young party" with an average age of 35 among members. Analysts agreed, saying: "The assumption is that the younger people are going to be Chavistas, they are going to be the ones whose families have benefited from Chávez's social programs."With the creation of PSUV, relationships soured with former coalition parties that chose not to join. By the 2008 regional election campaign in October, Chávez declared that "Patria Para Todos and the Communist Party of Venezuela will disappear from the political map because they are liars and manipulators."In April 2010, an Extraordinary Congress of the PSUV resulted in the endorsement of a range of "general principles", including among others socialism and Bolivarianism.
It defined the party as the "political vanguard of the revolutionary process". The party held its 3rd Congress in 2014, which elected Nicolás Maduro as the 2nd party president and honored Hugo Chávez posthumously as the party's eternal president and founder, party policies were updated, it was followed by the 4th Party Congress in 2018. Party builds on cult of personality of the Hugo Chávez, with revolutionary symbols like Chávez eyes sometimes along with the party symbols; the party is headed at the national level by the Eternal President Hugo Chávez, the president, vice-president, a 29-member national board of directors: Adán Chávez Alí Rodríguez Araque Ana Elisa Osorio Antonia Muñoz Aristóbulo Istúriz Carlos Escarrá Darío Vivas Cilia Flores Elías Jaua Érika Farías Freddy Bernal Héctor Navarro Héctor Rodríguez Jacqueline Faría Jorge Rodríguez Luis Reyes Reyes María Cristina Iglesias María León Mario Silva Nicolás Maduro Nohelí Pocaterra Rafael Ramírez Ramón Rodríguez Chacín Rodrigo Cabezas Tarek El Aissami Vanessa Davies Willian Lara Yelitza Santaella The Units of Battle Hugo Chávez is a collection of organizations with multiple members of PSUV involved that has both military and political characteristics.
The UBCh originated as a group to defend the Bolivarian Revolution and support the party through electoral processes in Venezuela, were transformed into their current name in 2013. They form the basic party unit in Venezuelan communities, 4 or more of them form a People's Struggle Circle in the community level; the Unit itself is divided into 10 Unit Patrols serving various functions for party members in various sectors. Other assisting groups include: PSUV National Political Bureau PSUV Regional Departments, led by Regional Vice Presidents PSUV Sectors Organizations, led by Sectoral Vice Presidents United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth Revolutionary Marxist Current United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth Facebook Instagram Twitter
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines that referred to a person of combined European and Indigenous American descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system, in use during the Spanish Empire's control of its American and Asian colonies. Nowadays though in Spanish America, mestizo has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry and with the term Indian being reserved for people who have maintained a separate indigenous ethnic identity, tribal affiliation, etc. Today, the vast majority of Spanish-speaking Latin Americans are regarded as mestizos; the term mestizaje – taking as its root mestizo or mixed – is the Spanish word for miscegenation, the general process of mixing ancestries. To avoid confusion with the original usage of the term mestizo, mixed people started to be referred to collectively as castas.
In some Latin American countries, such as Mexico, the concept of the mestizo became central to the formation of a new independent identity, neither wholly Spanish nor wholly indigenous, the word mestizo acquired its current meaning, it being used by the government to refer to all Mexicans who do not speak indigenous languages, including people of complete European or indigenous descent as well as Asians and Africans. In colonial Venezuela, pardo was more used instead of mestizo. Pardo means being mixed without specifying which mixture. In the Spanish system of racial hierarchy, the sistema de castas, mestizos/pardos, who formed the majority, had fewer rights than the minority elite European-born persons called peninsulares, the minority white colonial-born whites criollo, but more rights than the now-minority indio, negro and zambo populations; the Portuguese cognate, mestiço referred to any mixture of Portuguese and local populations in the Portuguese colonies. In colonial Brazil most of the non-slave population was mestiço de indio, i.e. mixed white and native Brazilian.
There was no descent-based casta system, children of upper class white landlord males and female slaves would enjoy privileges higher than the ones given to the lower classes, such as formal education, though such cases were not so common and they tended to not inherit property given to the children of free women, who tended to be legitimate offspring in cases of concubinage. In Portuguese India the mixed population was known as mestiços and the local Indian Christians as indiacatos. In the Philippines, a colony of Spain, the term mestizo came to refer to a Filipino with any foreign ancestry white, shortened as Tisoy. In Indonesia, the term mestizo refers to ethnicity, a mixture of Europeans and native Indonesians, they are called as Indo people. In Canada, the Métis people is a distinct community composed of the descendants of Europeans involved in the fur trade and North American Indigenous peoples of what is now Western Canada. In Saint Barthélemy, the term mestizo refers to people of East Asian ancestry.
The Spanish word mestizo is from Latin mixticius, meaning mixed. Its usage has been documented as early as 1275, to refer to the offspring of an Egyptian and a Semite; this term was first documented in English in 1582. In the United States and other English-speaking countries and cultures, mestizo, as a loanword from Spanish, is used to mean a non-white of mixed European and American Indian descent generally with connection to a Latin American culture or of Latin American descent, a concept much stricter than that found in Romance languages, it is related to the particular racial identity of historical non-white Amerindian-descended Hispanic and Latino American communities in an American context. In English-speaking Canada, Canadian Métis, as a loanword from French, refers to persons of mixed French and Indigenous ancestry. French-speaking Canadians, when using the word métis, are referring to Canadian Métis ethnicity, all persons of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry, rather than the broader concept of mixed-race people in general, present in all other French-speaking countries, as would speakers of Spanish.
In the United States, Métis Americans and Mestizo Americans are two distinct racial and ethno-racial identities, as reflected in the use of French and Spanish loanwords, respectively. In the Philippines, the word mestizo refers to a Filipino with combined Indigenous and European ancestry, but it will be used for a Filipino with apparent Chinese ancestry, who will be referred to as'chinito'; the latter was listed as a "mestizo de sangley" in birth records of the 19th century, with'sangley' as a reference to the Hokkienese word for business,'seng-li'. In the Portuguese-speaking world, the contemporary sense has been the closest to the historical usage from the Middle Ages, because of important linguistic differences, so that mestiço is separated altoget