CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad operating in the eastern United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The railroad operates 21,000 route miles of track; the company operates as a subsidiary of CSX Corporation, a Fortune 500 company headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida. CSX Corporation was formed on November 1, 1980, by combining the railroads of the former Chessie System with Seaboard Coast Line Industries; the name came about during merger talks between Chessie System and SCL called "Chessie" and "Seaboard". The company chairmen said it was important for the new name to include neither of those names because it was a partnership. Employees were asked for suggestions. At the same time a temporary shorthand name was needed for discussions with the Interstate Commerce Commission. "CSC" was belonged to a trucking company in Virginia. "CSM" was taken. The lawyers decided to use "CSX", the name stuck. In the public announcement, it was said. C can stand for Chessie, S for Seaboard, X, which has no meaning."
However, an August 9, 2016, article on the Railway Age website stated that "... the'X' was for'Consolidated' ". The T had to be added to CSX when used as a reporting mark because reporting marks that end in X means that the car is owned by a leasing company or private car owner; the company introduced its current slogan, "How Tomorrow Moves", in 2008. The originator of SCL was the former Seaboard Air Line Railroad, which merged with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in 1967 to form the Seaboard Coast Line. In years, it merged with the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, as well as several smaller subsidiaries such as the Clinchfield Railroad, Atlanta & West Point Railroad, Monon Railroad and the Georgia Railroad. From the late 1960s onward these railroads were known collectively as the Family Lines. In 1982, they were merged into the Seaboard System Railroad; the origin of the Chessie System was the former Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, which had merged with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the Western Maryland Railway.
Despite the merger in 1980, CSX Transportation never had its own identity as a common carrier railroad until 1986. In that year, Seaboard System changed its name to CSX Transportation. On April 30, 1987, the B&O merged into the C&O. With the Western Maryland having merged into the C&O, this left the C&O as the sole operating railroad under the Chessie System banner. On August 31, 1987, C&O/Chessie System merged into CSX Transportation, bringing all of the major CSX railroads under one banner. On June 23, 1997, CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchase and operate the assets of the 11,000-mile Conrail, created in 1976 by bringing together several ailing Northeastern railway systems into a government-owned corporation. On June 6, 1998, the STB approved the CSX–NS application and set August 22, 1998, as the effective date of its decision. CSX acquired 42 percent of Conrail's assets, NS received the remaining 58 percent.
As a result of the transaction, CSX's rail operations grew to include some 3,800 miles of the Conrail system. CSX began operating its trains on its portion of the Conrail network on June 1, 1999. CSX now serves much of the Eastern United States, with a few routes into nearby Canadian cities. In 2014, Canadian Pacific Railway approached CSX with an offer to merge the two companies, but CSX declined, in 2015 Canadian Pacific made an attempt to purchase and merge with Norfolk Southern, but NS declined to do so as well. In 2017, CSX announced. CSX added five new directors including Harrison and Mantle Ridge founder Paul Hilal. Mantle Ridge owns 4.9 percent of CSX. On December 14, 2017, CSX announced. Two days after the announcement, Harrison died, one day after being hospitalized for complications of an ongoing illness. CSX saw a 10% drop in its stock price, but turned around to hit a new 52-week high less than a month later. CSX operates the Juice Train which consists of Tropicana cars that carry fresh orange juice between Bradenton and the Greenville section of Jersey City, New Jersey.
The train runs from Bradenton to Fort Pierce, via the Florida East Coast Railway. In the 21st century, the Juice Train has been studied as a model of efficient rail transportation that can compete with trucks and other modes in the perishable-goods trade. All Tropicana trains are now added to Intermodal Trains such as Q188 and Q124. Coke Express trains run between Pittsburgh and Chicago, other places in the Rust Belt, carrying coke to industries steel mills. CSX runs daily trash trains Q702 and Q703 from The Bronx to Philadelphia and Petersburg, where they interchange with NS; these trains consist of 89-foot flatcars loaded with four containers of trash. Another pair of trains, Q710 and Q711, originate in Kearny, New Jersey, terminate in Russell, Kentucky. Another style of unit train is a local trash train, D765, that runs between the Maryland towns of Derwood and Dickerson; the train runs daily except on Sundays. Trash is carried from Montgomery County's Shady Grove Transfer Station to a was
Southside (Richmond, Virginia)
The Southside of Richmond is an area of the Metropolitan Statistical Area surrounding Richmond, Virginia. It includes all portions of the City of Richmond which lie south of the James River, includes all of the former city of Manchester. Depending on context, the term "Southside of Richmond" can include some northern areas of adjacent Chesterfield County, Virginia in the Richmond-Petersburg region. With a minor exceptions near Bon Air, VA, the Chippenham Parkway forms the border between Chesterfield County and the City of Richmond portions of Southside, with some news agencies using the term "South Richmond" to refer to the locations in Southside located in the city proper. Since there is no one municipal organization that represents this specific region, the boundaries are loosely defined as being south of the James River and west of Interstate 95 with a southern border extending to Chester and extending west along Virginia State Route 288 beltway; some portions of the Southside of Richmond closest to the downtown area north of the river are considered part of Downtown Richmond.
Several ZIP codes on the Southside are have a preferred place name of "Richmond Virginia" though in some cases that land falls under the separate municipal authority of Chesterfield County. For example, the 23235 ZIP code straddles the city-county boundary. In 2011, the U. S. Postal Service approved Chesterfield County's request to refer to ZIP codes 23224, 23225, 23234, 23235, 23236 and 23237 as "North Chesterfield, VA," when they are in Chesterfield county though the Post Office's preferred place name for the entire ZIP code remains as "Richmond Virginia." The rationale for this change was that some Chesterfield County residents were confused, paying taxes to the City of Richmond given their street address included a Richmond ZIP code. Chesterfield residents in the 23235 ZIP code continue to have the option of using "Bon Air" as their preferred place name, although they can use "North Chesterfield 23235" or "Richmond, Virginia 23235." A primary feature defining the Southside of Richmond is the James River and the limited means to cross it to get to other parts of metro Richmond.
The oldest bridge across the James River in Richmond was Mayo Bridge. Before that, commerce was limited to individual enterprises passing their goods in boats and ferries over the James River as well as to fixed port areas with tobacco inspection warehouses established north of the river at Shockoe's and south of the river at Warwick; when the English arrived, there were two main groups of natives occupying Central Virginia, separated by the Fall Line of the James: the Manakins controlled the southern Virginia Piedmont west of the fall line from Richmond to the Blue Ridge Mountains. The earliest European settlement in the Central Virginia area was in 1611 at Henricus, where the Falling Creek empties into the James River. In 1619, early Virginia Company settlers struggling to establish viable moneymaking industries established the Falling Creek Ironworks. Between 1622 and 1646, a series of generational Anglo-Powhatan Wars resulted in the death of Opchanacanough and the established boundaries on the Powhatan Confederacy.
After Bacon's Rebellionin 1676, Cockacoeske signed the Treaty of 1677, several central Virginia tribes accepted their de facto position as subjects of the British Crown, gave up their remaining claims to their ancestral land, in return for protection from the remaining hostile tribes and a guarantee of a limited amount of reserved land. The Powhatan Confederacy ended. By 1699, the Manakins/Monacans had abandoned their settlements, English settled land claims in the entire Richmond area. In part to serve as a buffer, the English allotted a large portion of land for French Huguenot refugees to settle in the old Manakin village on the south side of the James River. After completing prominent construction jobs at the state capitol in Williamsburg, Henry Cary built Ampthill plantation in 1730 near Warwick. From 1750 to 1781, his son Archibald operated Falling Creek Ironworks at Warwick. Owing to port traffic, Warwick Road thus became a major thoroughfare through Southside for the next two centuries as it enabled passage around the falls at the James.
On the part of the James River west of the Fall Line, the descendents of the 1700 Huguenot refugee settlement in Manakintown began to intermingle with the English and settle across Powhatan and western Chesterfield county. They established family coal mining enterprises such as Black Heath. One of these Huguenot descendants, Abraham Salle, built Salisbury Plantation and, in 1777, sold it to the Randoph Family who lived across the river at Tuckahoe and used Salisbury as a hunting grounds. Patrick Henry rented Salisbury and lived there with his family during his second term as governor in 1786. After the port of Warwick was destroyed by Benedict Arnold in the Revolutionary War, Warwick Road continued in use, but the port of Manchester took over Warwick's role as a major port. Further, water navigation to estates above the falls of the James River was enabled by the 1790 opening of the James River and Kanawha Canal that stretched from Richmond, Virginia to Westham, Virginia on the north side of the river and paralleling the James for 7 miles.
In 1804, Virginia built the precursor to the Midlothian Turnpike from the port of Manchester headed westward to the mouth of the Falling Creek to access the coal mines at Midlothian. This enabled industrial sites such as the Black Heath coal mines and Bellona Arsenal to ship goods dow
Virginia Department of Transportation
The Virginia Department of Transportation is the agency of the state government responsible for transportation in the state of Virginia in the United States. VDOT is headquartered at the Virginia Department of Highways Building in downtown Richmond. VDOT is responsible for building and operating the roads and tunnels in the commonwealth, it is overseen by the Commonwealth Transportation Board, which has the power to fund airports, seaports and public transportation. VDOT's revised annual budget for fiscal year 2019 is $5.4 billion. VDOT has a workforce of about 7,500 full-time employees. VDOT operates and maintains: Roads: VDOT's largest responsibility is the maintenance of roads. Filling potholes, storm drain cleaning, water drainage, guard rail replacement, bridge work, tree removal, trash removal, as well as the maintenance of signs and traffic lights. More than 21,000 bridges and structures Snow removal: VDOT is responsible for removing snow along the major roads of Virginia. Forty-one safety rest areas and ten welcome centers along major highways More than 100 commuter parking lots Four underwater crossings in the Hampton Roads area: The mid-town Elizabeth River tunnel The downtown Elizabeth River tunnel The Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel on Interstate 64 The Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel on Interstate 664 Two mountain tunnels on Interstate 77 in southwest Virginia:East River Mountain Tunnel Big Walker Mountain Tunnel Two toll roads:Fairfax County's Dulles Toll Road The Powhite Parkway Extension near Richmond One toll bridge: The George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge Three ferry services:Jamestown Ferry Sunny Bank Merry Point Highway maintenance and operations represent 41% of the total budget, followed by 32% for highway systems construction.
Smaller portions of the budget are directed to address the needs and requirements of debt service, support to other agencies and earmarks and special financing. Virginia is divided into nine districts: Bristol District Counties: Bland, Dickenson, Lee, Scott, Tazewell, Washington and Wythe Cities: Bristol, Norton Salem District Counties: Bedford, Carroll, Floyd, Giles, Montgomery, Patrick and Roanoke Cities: Bedford, Martinsville, Radford and Salem Lynchburg District Counties: Amherst, Buckingham, Charlotte, Halifax, Nelson and Prince Edward Cities: Danville and Lynchburg Richmond District Counties: Amelia, Charles City, Dinwiddie, Hanover, Lunenburg, New Kent, Nottoway and Prince George Cities: Colonial Heights, Hopewell and Richmond Hampton Roads DistrictCounties: Accomack, Isle of Wight, James City, Southampton, Sussex and Greensville Cities: Chesapeake, Franklin, Newport News, Poquoson, Suffolk, Virginia Beach, Williamsburg Fredericksburg District Counties: Caroline, Gloucester and Queen, King George, King William, Mathews, Northumberland, Spotsylvania and Westmoreland Cities: Fredericksburg Culpeper District Counties: Albemarle, Fauquier, Greene, Madison and Rappahannock Cities: Charlottesville Staunton District Counties: Alleghany, Bath, Frederick, Page, Rockingham and Warren Cities: Buena Vista, Harrisonburg, Staunton and Winchester Northern Virginia District Counties: Arlington, Fairfax and Prince William Cities: Alexandria, Falls Church and Manassas Park Many US states, as well as several US local governments and Canadian provinces, provide 511 systems.
VDOT provides the Virginia 511 service, which may be accessed by the 511 telephone number, the www.511va.org website, Twitter. In May 2012, VDOT introduced the Virginia 511 smartphone apps for Android devices; the Virginia 511 system provides traffic cameras, real-time road and traffic conditions, trip planning, weather information, alternatives to traveling by car. In July 2009, VDOT closed 19 of its rest areas around the state, leaving some stretches of highway, such as the traveled and congested I-95 northbound between Washington, D. C. and Richmond, a distance of 106 miles, without a rest stop. Drivers complained. VDOT countered that the I-95 corridor is developed, many businesses have restrooms, that closing the rest stops would save VDOT 9 million dollars toward its 2.6 billion dollar budget deficit. In January 2010, governor Bob McDonnell announced that he would reopen all of the closed rest areas as part of his campaign promises; the state is using an "adopt a rest stop" program, pulling 3 million dollars from the reserve maintenance fund, employing non-violent inmates to help reopen the rest stops.
They all reopened on April 17, 2010. Spontaneous roadside memorials in the form of white crosses, Stars of David, bouquets of flowers, photos of the dead, have been placed along roads at the scenes of fatal accidents; as of July 1, 2003, Virginia law has banned these memorials. Transportation officials have deemed them a threat to the safety of motorists. Virginia law §33.2-216 prohibits any person from installing a memorial on any highway controlled by the VDOT without a permit. VDOT will install a roadside memorial sign for a period of two years; the sign may not deviate from the standard roadside memorial sign specifications. The cost must by paid by the person requesting the sign. Not everyone agreed with the n
Huguenots are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants. The term has its origin in early 16th century France, it was used in reference to those of the Reformed Church of France from the time of the Protestant Reformation. Huguenots were French Protestants. By contrast, the Protestant populations of eastern France, in Alsace and Montbéliard were ethnic German Lutherans. In his Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Hans Hillerbrand said that, on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, the Huguenot community included as much as 10% of the French population. By 1600 it had declined to 7–8%, was reduced further after the return of severe persecution in 1685 under Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau; the Huguenots were believed to be concentrated among the population in the southern and western parts of the Kingdom of France. As Huguenots gained influence and more displayed their faith, Catholic hostility grew. A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion, fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598.
The Huguenots were led by Jeanne d'Albret, her son, the future Henry IV, the princes of Condé. The wars ended with the Edict of Nantes, which granted the Huguenots substantial religious and military autonomy. Huguenot rebellions in the 1620s resulted in the abolition of their political and military privileges, they retained the religious provisions of the Edict of Nantes until the rule of Louis XIV, who increased persecution of Protestantism until he issued the Edict of Fontainebleau. This ended legal recognition of Protestantism in France and the Huguenots were forced either to convert to Catholicism or flee as refugees. Louis XIV claimed that the French Huguenot population was reduced from about 800,000-900,000 adherents to just 1,000-1,500, he exaggerated the decline, but the dragonnades were devastating for the French Protestant community. The remaining Huguenots faced continued persecution under Louis XV. By the time of his death in 1774, Calvinism had been nearly eliminated from France. Persecution of Protestants ended with the Edict of Versailles, signed by Louis XVI in 1787.
Two years with the Revolutionary Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Protestants gained equal rights as citizens. The bulk of Huguenot émigrés relocated to Protestant states such as the Dutch Republic and Wales, Protestant-controlled Ireland, the Channel Islands, Denmark, Switzerland, the Electorate of Brandenburg and Electorate of the Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire, the Duchy of Prussia; some fled as refugees to the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa, the Dutch East Indies, the Caribbean colonies, several of the Dutch and English colonies in North America. A few families went to Catholic Quebec. After centuries, most Huguenots have assimilated into the various societies and cultures where they settled. Remnant communities of Camisards in the Cévennes, most Reformed members of the United Protestant Church of France, French members of the German Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, the Huguenot diaspora in England and Australia, all still retain their beliefs and Huguenot designation.
A term used in derision, Huguenot has unclear origins. Various hypotheses have been promoted; the term may have been a combined reference to the Swiss politician Besançon Hugues and the religiously conflicted nature of Swiss republicanism in his time. It used a derogatory pun on the name Hugues by way of the Dutch word Huisgenoten, referring to the connotations of a somewhat related word in German Eidgenosse. Geneva was the centre of the Calvinist movement. In Geneva, though Catholic, was a leader of the "Confederate Party", so called because it favoured independence from the Duke of Savoy, it sought an alliance between the city-state of the Swiss Confederation. The label Huguenot was purportedly first applied in France to those conspirators who were involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to wrest power in France from the influential and zealously Catholic House of Guise; this action would have fostered relations with the Swiss. O. I. A. Roche promoted this idea among historians, he wrote in his book, The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots, that "Huguenot" is: "a combination of a Dutch and a German word.
In the Dutch-speaking North of France, Bible students who gathered in each other's houses to study secretly were called Huis Genooten while on the Swiss and German borders they were termed Eid Genossen, or'oath fellows,' that is, persons bound to each other by an oath. Gallicised into'Huguenot' used deprecatingly, the word became, during two and a half centuries of terror and triumph, a badge of enduring honour and courage." Some disagree with such triple non-French linguistic origins. Janet Gray argues that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated there in French; the "Hugues hypothesis" argues that the name was derived by association with Hugues Capet, king of France, who reigned long before the Reformation. He was regarded by the Gallicians as a noble man who lives. Janet Gray and other supporters of the hypothesis suggest that the name huguenote would be equivalent to little Hugos, or those who want Hugo. In t
A toll bridge is a bridge where a monetary charge is required to pass over. The private or public owner builder and maintainer of the bridge uses the toll to recoup their investment, in much the same way as a toll road; the practice of collecting tolls on bridges harks back to the days of ferry crossings where people paid a fee to be ferried across stretches of water. As boats became impractical to carry large loads, ferry operators looked for new sources of revenue. Having built a bridge, they hoped to recoup their investment by charging tolls for people, animals and goods to cross it; the original London Bridge across the river Thames opened as a toll bridge, but an accumulation of funds by the charitable trust that operated the bridge saw that the charges were dropped. Using interest on its capital assets, the trust now owns and runs all seven central London bridges at no cost to taxpayers or users. In the United States, private ownership of toll bridges peaked in the mid-19th century, by the turn of the 20th century most toll bridges were taken over by state highway departments.
In some instances, a quasi-governmental authority was formed, toll revenue bonds were issued to raise funds for construction and/or operation of the facility. Peters and Kramer observed that "...little research has been done to quantify the impact of toll collection on society as a whole..." and therefore they published a comprehensive analysis of the Total Societal Cost associated with toll collection as a means of taxation. TSC is the sum of administrative, compliance and pollution costs. In 2000 they estimated it to be $56,914,732, they found that a user of a toll road is subject to a form of triple taxation, that in the final analysis toll collection is a inefficient means of funding the development of highway infrastructure. Nakamura and Kockelman show that tolls are by nature regressive, shifting the burden of taxation disproportionately to the poor and middle classes. Electronic toll collection, branded under names such as EZ-Pass, SunPass, IPass, FasTrak, GoodToGo, 407ETR, became prevalent to metropolitan areas in the 21st century.
Amy Finkelstien, a public finance economist at MIT, reports that as the fraction of drivers using electronic toll collection increased toll rates increased as well, because people were less aware of how much they're paying in tolls. Electronic tolling proposals that represented the shadow price of electronic toll collection may have misled decision makers. Consumers have additionally endured an increased administrative burden associated with paying toll bills and navigating toll collection company on-line billing systems. Additionally, visitors to a region may incur e-toll tag fees imposed by their rental car company; the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 identified and attempted to address a similar problem associated with the government collection of information. Approvals were to be secured by government agencies before promulgating a paper form, survey or electronic submission that will impose an information collection burden on the general public. However, the act did not anticipate and thus address the consumer burden associated with funding infrastructure via electronic toll collection instead of through more traditional forms of taxation.
In some instances, tolls have been removed after retirement of the toll revenue bonds issued to raise funds for construction and/or operation of the facility. Examples include the Robert E. Lee Memorial Bridge in Richmond, Virginia which carries U. S. Route 1 across the James River, the 4.5-mile long James River Bridge 80 miles downstream which carries U. S. Highway 17 across the river of the same name near its mouth at Hampton Roads. In other cases major facilities such as the Chesapeake Bay Bridge near Annapolis and the George Washington Bridge over Hudson River between New York City and New Jersey, the continued collection of tolls provides a dedicated source of funds for ongoing maintenance and improvements. Sometimes citizens revolt against toll plazas, as was the case in Florida. Tolls were in place on four bridges crossing the St. Johns River, including I-95; these tolls paid for the respective bridges as well as many other highway projects. As Jacksonville continued to grow, the tolls created bottlenecks on the roadway.
In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate all the toll booths and replace the revenue with a ½ cent sales tax increase. In 1989, the toll booths were removed. In Scotland, the Scottish Parliament purchased the Skye Bridge from its owners in late 2004, ending the requirement to pay an unpopular expensive toll to cross to Skye from the mainland. In 2004, the German government cancelled a contract with the "Toll Collect" syndicate after much negative publicity; the term "Toll Collect" became a popular byword among Germans used to describe everything wrong with their national economy. It has become common for a toll bridge to only charge a fee in one direction; this helps reduce the traffic congestion in the other direction, does not reduce revenue when those travelling the one direction are forced to come back over the same or a different toll bridge. A practice known as shunpiking evolved which entails finding another route for the specific purpose of avoiding payment of tolls. In some situations where the tolls were increased or felt to be unreasonably high, informal shunpiking by individuals escalated into a form of boycott by regular users, with the goal of applying the financial stress of lost toll revenue to the authority determining the levy.
One such example of shunpiking as a fo
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway
The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway was a Class I railroad formed in 1869 in Virginia from several smaller Virginia railroads begun in the 19th century. Led by industrialist Collis P. Huntington, it reached from Virginia's capital city of Richmond to the Ohio River by 1873, where the railroad town of Huntington, West Virginia was named for him. Tapping the coal reserves of West Virginia, the C&O's Peninsula Extension to new coal piers on the harbor of Hampton Roads resulted in the creation of the new City of Newport News. Coal revenues led the forging of a rail link to the Midwest reaching Columbus and Toledo in Ohio and Chicago, Illinois. By the early 1960s the C&O was headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. In 1972, under the leadership of Cyrus Eaton, it became part of the Chessie System, along with the Baltimore and Ohio and Western Maryland Railway; the Chessie System was combined with the Seaboard Coast Line and Louisville and Nashville, both the primary components of the Family Lines System, to become a key portion of CSX Transportation in the 1980s.
C&O's passenger services ended in 1971 with the formation of Amtrak. Today Amtrak's tri-weekly Cardinal passenger train follows the historic and scenic route of the C&O through the New River Gorge in one of the more rugged sections of the Mountain State; the rails of the former C&O continue to transport intermodal and freight traffic, as well as West Virginia bituminous coal east to Hampton Roads and west to the Great Lakes as part of CSXT, a Fortune 500 company, one of seven Class I railroads operating in North America at the beginning of the 21st century. At the end of 1970 C&O operated 5067 miles of road on 10219 miles of track, not including WM or B&O and its subsidiaries; the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway traced its origin to the Louisa Railroad of Louisa County, begun in 1836, the James River & Kanawha Canal Company in Virginia, begun in 1785. The first train ran on December 20, 1837. A feeder line to connect with the predecessor of the Richmond and Potomac Railroad at what is now Doswell, by 1850 the Louisa Railroad had won the right in Virginia courts to build southeast to Richmond in competition with the RF&P.
It expanded west, reaching Charlottesville. In keeping with its new and larger vision, it was renamed the Virginia Central Railroad. However, plans to cross the Blue Ridge Mountains, the first mountain barrier to the west, at Swift Run Gap proved both financially and technically unfeasible; the Commonwealth of Virginia, always keen to help with internal improvements not only owned a portion of Virginia Central stock through the state Board of Public Works, but incorporated and financed the Blue Ridge Railroad to accomplish the hard and expensive task of crossing the Blue Ridge Mountains. Under the leadership of the great early civil engineer Claudius Crozet, the Blue Ridge RR built over the mountains using four tunnels: Greenwood Tunnel, Brookville Tunnel, Little Rock Tunnel, the 4,263-foot Blue Ridge Tunnel at the top of the pass one of the longest tunnels in the world. At the same time, Virginia Central was building westward from the west foot of the Blue Ridge, crossing the Shenandoah Valley and Great North Mountain reaching the foot of the Alleghany Mountains in 1856 at a point known as Jackson's River Station to be called Clifton Forge.
To finish its line across the mountainous territory of the Alleghany Plateau, the Commonwealth again chartered a state-subsidized railroad called the Covington and Ohio Railroad, authorized by the General Assembly in 1853. This company completed important grading work on the Alleghany grade and did considerable work on numerous tunnels over the mountains and in the west, it did a good deal of roadway work around Charleston on the Kanawha River. The American Civil War intervened, work was stopped on the westward expansion. During the Civil War the Virginia Central Railroad was one of the Confederacy's most important lines, carrying food from the Shenandoah region to Richmond, ferrying troops and supplies back and forth as the campaigns surrounded its tracks frequently, it had an important connection with the Orange and Alexandria Railroad at Virginia. On more than one occasion, the Virginia Central was used in actual tactical operations, transporting troops directly to the battlefield. But, it was a prime target for Federal armies, by the end of the war had only about five miles of track still in operation, $40 in gold in its treasury.
Following the war, Virginia Central officials, led by company president Williams Carter Wickham, realized that they would have to get capital to rebuild from outside the economically devastated South, attempted to attract British interests, without success. They succeeded in interesting Collis P. Huntington of New York. Huntington had been one of the "Big Four" involved in building the Central Pacific portion of the Transcontinental Railroad, just reaching completion. Huntington had a vision of a true transcontinental railroad that would go from sea to sea under one operating management, decided that the Virginia Central might be the eastern link to this system. Huntington supplied the Virginians with the money needed to complete the line to the Ohio River, through what was now the new state of West Virginia; the old Covington & Ohio's properties were conveyed to them in keeping with its new mission of linking the Tidewater coast of Vi
Henrico County, Virginia
Henrico County the County of Henrico, is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 306,935. In 2015, the population was estimated to be 320,717, making it the fifth-most populous county in Virginia and the sixth-most populous county-equivalent in Virginia. Henrico County is included in the Greater Richmond Region. There is no incorporated community within Henrico County, there is no incorporated county seat either. Laurel, an unincorporated CDP, serves this function. Named after the Citie of Henricus, Henrico was organized as one of the eight original Shires of Virginia in 1634, it is one of the United States' oldest counties. The City of Richmond was part of Henrico County until 1842, when it became a independent city; the present-day Henrico County curves around the City of Richmond, surrounding it to the west, the north, the east. The county is bounded by the Chickahominy River to the north and the James River and Richmond to the south.
Richmond Raceway is in the central portion of Henrico County near Mechanicsville, just north of the Richmond city limits. The raceway seats 60,000 people and holds two NASCAR doubleheader race weekends per year. Additionally, Richmond International Airport is located in the eastern portion of Henrico County in Sandston. Top private employers in the county include Capital One, Bon Secours Richmond Health System, Anthem. In 1611, Thomas Dale founded the Citie of Henricus on a peninsula in the James River, now called Farrar's Island. Henricus was named for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, but it was destroyed during the Indian massacre of 1622, during which Native American warriors attacked the English settlers to drive them from the area. In 1634, Henrico Shire was one of the eight original Shires of Virginia established in the Virginia Colony. Since 10 counties and three independent cities have been formed from the original territory of Henrico Shire. Since becoming independent in 1842, the City of Richmond has annexed portions of Henrico five times.
Chesterfield County annexed the site of Henricus in 1922. Richmond attempted to merge with Henrico in 1961, but 61% of the votes in a referendum in Henrico county voted against the merger. In 1965, Richmond attempted to annex 145 square miles of Henrico County. However, after a lengthy court battle, the city was given permission to annex only 17 square miles. Since the city would have had to reimburse Henrico a hefty $55 million, Richmond opted against annexing the 17 square miles. In 1981, the Virginia General Assembly placed a moratorium on all annexations throughout the state. Henrico's borders have not changed since Richmond's 1942 annexation; the original county seat was at Varina, at the Varina Farms plantation across the James River from Henricus. Colonist John Rolfe built this plantation. Henrico's government was located at Varina from around 1640 until 1752. In 1752, Henrico relocated its seat to a more central location inside the city of Richmond, between Church Hill and what is now Tobacco Row.
The county seat remained at 22nd and Main St in Richmond after the city's government became independent of the county in 1842. It was not until 1974 when the county moved out of the Old Henrico County Courthouse to a complex in the western portion of the county at the intersection of Parham Road and Hungary Springs Road in Laurel. In addition to the 1974 complex, in 1988 the county opened its Eastern Government Center to be more convenient to county residents in the eastern portion of the county, it is located on Nine Mile Road. During the Civil War, in 1862 Henrico County was the site of numerous battles during the Peninsula Campaign, including: Seven Pines, Savage's Station, Oak Grove, Garnett's and Golding's Farms, White Oak Swamp and Malvern Hill. Additional significant battles took place in 1864 during the Overland Campaign prior to and during the Siege of Petersburg, which led to the fall of Richmond. Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart was mortally wounded in Henrico County at the Battle of Yellow Tavern on May 12, 1864.
Henrico County is one of only two counties in Virginia that maintains its own roads, with the other being Arlington County. This special status was due to the existence of county highway departments prior to the creation in 1927 of the state agency, now VDOT; the control of the roads system is considered a powerful advantage for community urban planners, who can require developers to contribute to funding needed for road needs serving the planners' and developers' projects. Henrico County is the site of Richmond International Airport, it hosts an Amtrak rail passenger station. It purchases public bus route services from Greater Richmond Transit Company, an FTA-funded public service company, owned by the City of Richmond and neighboring Chesterfield County. After Reconstruction, Henrico County used Convict lease to build roads in 1878; some old roads continue to be in use today, such as Horsepen Rd. Three Chopt Rd. and Quiocassin Rd. I-64 I-95 I-195 I-295 US 1 US 33 US 60 US 250 US 301 US 360 SR 2 SR 5 SR 6 SR 33 SR 73 SR 76 SR 147 SR 150 SR 156 SR 157 SR 161 SR 197 SR 271 SR 356 SR 895 According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 245 square miles, of which 234 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Charles City County Chesterfield County Goochland County Hanover County New Kent County Richmond Powhatan